Synthetic Emotions Bicycle (SEB)
Building a Human-Bicycle Emotional Bond
Through Abstract Expression of Affect
TamaraV. Pi...
Introduction
• Humans develop emotional bonds,
even with objects (including robots).
• The need for social robots has give...
Research Question
Can objects with emotions
represented as abstract shapes help
improve the emotional bond between
them an...
Related work
• Emotional Model:
• Dimensional Theories -
Mehrabian’s: Pleasure,
Arousal and Dominance
• Homeostasis:
equil...
Related work
• Affect Expression
• Realistic • Iconic • Abstract
Leonardo
Personal Robots Group
MIT
Anthropomorphic
Einste...
Related work
• Affectional bond
• Bond: the attraction that
one individual has for
another individual. (John
Bowlby)
• Bon...
Similar Projects
Cars Bicycles
Detect the affective state of the driver:
speech recognition, stress detectors, facial
expr...
SEB, the bike
Eungi Kim - Designer
or the steel horse...
• Mountain bike
• Race bike
• Omafiets (Grandma bike)
• Student bi...
SEB, the bike
How SEB feels Needs
SEB, the bike
Variables Sensors
Damage (avoid fall) Accelerometer
Temperature Temperature sensor
Shelter Photoresistor (LD...
SEB, the bike
Need
Min.
Value
Max.
Value
Optimal
Value
Physical Integrity 0 10 7
Flow 0 4 2.5
Speed 0 40 15
Relationship 0...
SEB, the bike
• Based on the previous
research by (de Rooij,
Broekens et al. 2013)
FactorFactorFactor
FeatureFeature P A D...
Tests and Results
Static evaluation
• Two experts assessed 20 images
generated by the system.They defined
the values of Ple...
Tests and Results
Dynamic evaluation
• Users: n=6 (3 females, 3 males)
• Ages: 20 - 31
• Different nationalities
• Users h...
Tests and Results
Dynamic evaluation
Personality traits
with its correspondent error bar with 95% CI, 1 means that
partici...
Symbolic meaning Users’ experience
Test and Results
• Users found SEB interesting, enjoyable, pleasant and fascinating
Use...
Test and Results
• Time of testing too small
• Complexity of the
emotional space.What
triggered what?
Affective word/
phra...
Conclusions
• More users and a longer amount of
interaction with the bicycle could have
provided a deeper understanding of...
Future Work
• Are there benefits of feeling
emotionally connected to your
bicycle or any other given
object?
✤ better care
...
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Synthetic Emotions Bicycle (SEB)

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Building a Human-Bicycle Emotional Bond Through Abstract Expression of Affect
Graduation Presentation
Media Technology MSc Programme
Leiden University

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Synthetic Emotions Bicycle (SEB)

  1. 1. Synthetic Emotions Bicycle (SEB) Building a Human-Bicycle Emotional Bond Through Abstract Expression of Affect TamaraV. Pinos Cisneros Graduation Project Media Technology MSc Programme Thesis advisors: Maarten H. Lamers, Joost Broekens
  2. 2. Introduction • Humans develop emotional bonds, even with objects (including robots). • The need for social robots has given the impetus to create robots that can express emotions. “I don’t know what I would do without my <object>...” Kismet - MIT
  3. 3. Research Question Can objects with emotions represented as abstract shapes help improve the emotional bond between them and their owners?
  4. 4. Related work • Emotional Model: • Dimensional Theories - Mehrabian’s: Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance • Homeostasis: equilibrium of physiological elements. “Needs and Drives” P-P -A D -D A Homeostatic Overwhelmed Under-stimulated
  5. 5. Related work • Affect Expression • Realistic • Iconic • Abstract Leonardo Personal Robots Group MIT Anthropomorphic Einstein Hanson Robotics de Roij et al. 2013 Betella et al. 2013
  6. 6. Related work • Affectional bond • Bond: the attraction that one individual has for another individual. (John Bowlby) • Bonds develop when an individual realizes that in order to reduce a drive or need, another object (a material object or a living being) is necessary. Utility Appearance Symbolic meaning Users’ experience • Key components to create emotional bonds from a product design approach: Interesting and Fun! usable bicycle appealing appearance expression of its emotions (Norman, D.A. 2007, Emotional Design: Why we love (or hate) everyday things.)
  7. 7. Similar Projects Cars Bicycles Detect the affective state of the driver: speech recognition, stress detectors, facial expression recognition Sensors on the bicycle, tweets its feelings AIDA
  8. 8. SEB, the bike Eungi Kim - Designer or the steel horse... • Mountain bike • Race bike • Omafiets (Grandma bike) • Student bike • Family bike • Kids bike Personalities A metaphor of a Horse • Means of transportation • Require the care of its owner • Similar shapes • Have attributed personalities
  9. 9. SEB, the bike How SEB feels Needs
  10. 10. SEB, the bike Variables Sensors Damage (avoid fall) Accelerometer Temperature Temperature sensor Shelter Photoresistor (LDR) and Temperature/ Humidity sensor Road conditions Accelerometer Maintenance Self assessment button Balance Accelerometer Ascend/Descend Accelerometer Speed Speedometer Light/Darkness LDR Contact Stroke sensor Locked Speedometer and Optical Transistor Needs Affect on Homeostasis Affect on no Homeostasis Physical Integrity Serenity, Joy Annoyance, Fear,Anger Flow Joy Fear Speed Happy Fear (too fast) Annoyance (too slow) Relationship Serenity, Joy,Trust Fear, Sad
  11. 11. SEB, the bike Need Min. Value Max. Value Optimal Value Physical Integrity 0 10 7 Flow 0 4 2.5 Speed 0 40 15 Relationship 0 10 5.5 Variable Action Effect No action Maintenance Press the button + 2 -0.00001 Contact- Attention Touch the stroke sensor + 0.25 -0.0001 Locked Lock the bike + 2 -0.001 Light/ Darkness light of the environment (outside/inside) + 0.0001 -0.001 For example: Need of Relationship Ppi + Pf + Ps + Pr = P Api + Af + As + Ar = A Dpi + Df + Ds + Dr = D Abstract Expression
  12. 12. SEB, the bike • Based on the previous research by (de Rooij, Broekens et al. 2013) FactorFactorFactor FeatureFeature P A D ContourContour + + + - - - * Asymmetry - - - -Asymmetry Rot. + + + SizeSize + + + * rounded contour(pleasure) and angular contour (displeasure) Abstract Expression
  13. 13. Tests and Results Static evaluation • Two experts assessed 20 images generated by the system.They defined the values of Pleasure,Arousal and Dominance in a scale of 1 - 5 Dimension Expert1 - System Expert2 - System Expert1 - Expert2 P 0.75** 0.80** 0.72** A 0.76** 0.12 0.47* D 0.12 0.26 0.71** ‘**’ denote a significance of p<0.005 and ‘*’ denote a significance of p<0.05 Correlations
  14. 14. Tests and Results Dynamic evaluation • Users: n=6 (3 females, 3 males) • Ages: 20 - 31 • Different nationalities • Users had the bike for 24h while performing their normal activities • Actual time of riding between 20mins - 1h • Users filled a Pre-questionnaire, a Post-questionnaire and a form for events, comments after the test were also noted How did the users viewed SEB, its emotions and the personality traits attributed to him? How connected did they feel with SEB?
  15. 15. Tests and Results Dynamic evaluation Personality traits with its correspondent error bar with 95% CI, 1 means that participants did not link the bike with the theme at all. 5 means that participants completely link the bike with the theme. Users’ impression of the bicycle Box-plots of personalities identified by the users with a 95% Confidence interval for mean. Utility Appearance
  16. 16. Symbolic meaning Users’ experience Test and Results • Users found SEB interesting, enjoyable, pleasant and fascinating Users’ responses to Q8:“It sometimes felt as if SEB was really communicating with me” vs. Q14:“I have a bond with SEB” User’s responses to Q4:“I find SEB enjoyable”, Q5:“I find SEB fascinating”, Q6*:”I find SEB annoying”, Q7*:“I find SEB boring”.The scores for the statements with ‘*’ have been inverted to change keep all results in the same direction. Error bars with 95% CI.
  17. 17. Test and Results • Time of testing too small • Complexity of the emotional space.What triggered what? Affective word/ phrase Amount of testers Petting 4 Take care 2 Worried about it's feelings 2 Make SEB happy 3 Tamagochi 1 I liked it 5 SEB 3 “SEB was not happy and I don’t know why...” During 5-10mins conversation after the test.
  18. 18. Conclusions • More users and a longer amount of interaction with the bicycle could have provided a deeper understanding of the system • These results show that it is feasible to enhance an emotional bond with an object by interacting with it • The use of abstract expressions of affect can be a viable way to communicate the emotions of an object • Although a representations model based on Pleasure and Arousal can represent simple emotions an improved version including Dominance could contribute further in the analysis of abstract expression of affect. Utility Appearance Users’ experience Symbolic meaning
  19. 19. Future Work • Are there benefits of feeling emotionally connected to your bicycle or any other given object? ✤ better care ✤ incentive to exercise more (exergaming) ✤ incentive to increase the amount of users in other countries • Would this method be more efficient than other types of expression of affect? ✤ use of animated visual motifs ✤ use of emoticons

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