Chapter 3 Minerals Section 1 Minerals
What is a mineral? <ul><li>Mineral   naturally occurring, inorganic solid with  </li></ul><ul><li>a definite structure & ...
Crystalline Solids <ul><li>Minerals   are  ALL   solids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL  solids have an exact volume & shape </...
The Structure of Minerals   <ul><li>Crystals   solid in which the atoms are arranged </li></ul><ul><li>  in repeating pat...
How Minerals Form <ul><li>Magma   cooling of hot melted rock material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as magma cools, its atoms los...
Crystals from Solution <ul><li>Crystals can form from minerals dissolved in liquids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When liquid evap...
Mineral Compositions and Groups <ul><li>Some 90 elements occur naturally in Earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>98% of the...
Silicates <ul><li>Silicates   minerals that contain silicon & oxygen  </li></ul><ul><li>& usually one or more other eleme...
The End Hope you enjoyed!
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Minerals

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Minerals

  1. 1. Chapter 3 Minerals Section 1 Minerals
  2. 2. What is a mineral? <ul><li>Mineral  naturally occurring, inorganic solid with </li></ul><ul><li>a definite structure & composition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More than 4000 different minerals are found on Earth  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all share five characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ALL </li></ul><ul><li>minerals are formed by natural processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>minerals are inorganic  = are not made by life processes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Crystalline Solids <ul><li>Minerals  are ALL solids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ALL solids have an exact volume & shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gases & liquids are NOT minerals  do NOT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have an exact shape </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Every mineral is an element or compound </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a mineral holds a distinctive chemical composition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atoms in a mineral  set in a pattern that is repeated </li></ul><ul><li>over & over again – this is a crystal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>graphite arrangement  soft & slippery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OPAL  is a “mineraloid” because its atoms are NOT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>set in an exact structure </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. The Structure of Minerals <ul><li>Crystals  solid in which the atoms are arranged </li></ul><ul><li> in repeating patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>not all mineral crystals have smooth surfaces </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>& sharp edges like quartz crystals </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. How Minerals Form <ul><li>Magma  cooling of hot melted rock material </li></ul><ul><ul><li>as magma cools, its atoms lose energy, move closer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>together & start to combine into compounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>molecules with different compounds that are forming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>start arranging themselves into repeating patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>type & amount of elements present in the magma  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determines what mineral will form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different minerals can form from a single magma body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when molten rock cools fast  crystals that form can be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>very small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>crystalline structure of the minerals formed may not </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be noticeable </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Crystals from Solution <ul><li>Crystals can form from minerals dissolved in liquids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When liquid evaporates  atoms in the minerals stay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>behind & form crystals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If solution becomes saturated or filled with other </li></ul><ul><li>substances, crystals of some minerals begin </li></ul><ul><li>precipitating out of solution </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mineral Compositions and Groups <ul><li>Some 90 elements occur naturally in Earth’s crust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>98% of the crust is made up of only 8 of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>these elements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4000 known minerals  ONLY a few dozen </li></ul><ul><li>are common </li></ul><ul><ul><li>these are composed of the 8 common elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>of Earth’s crust </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most common rock-forming minerals  silicates </li></ul><ul><li>but other groups are also included </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of rock-forming minerals are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feldspar & quartz </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>both silicates & calcite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbonate </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Silicates <ul><li>Silicates  minerals that contain silicon & oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>& usually one or more other elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>silicon & oxygen are the two most abundant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>elements in Earth’s crust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>other minerals are classified according to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their composition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major groups of minerals include  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>carbonates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>oxides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sulfides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sulfates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>halides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hydroxides </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phosphates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>native elements </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The End Hope you enjoyed!

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