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Biology Chapter 28 Section 2[1]


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Biology Chapter 28 Section 2[1]

  1. 1. Biology: Chapter 28 Section 2: Groups of Arthropods By: Adam Goetsch Period 3 3/29/09
  2. 2. Crustaceans <ul><li>Crustaceans are in the subphylum Crustacea </li></ul><ul><li>They typically have two pairs of antennae, two or three body sections, and chewing mouthparts called mandibles . </li></ul><ul><li>Body plan: </li></ul><ul><li>Cephalothorax - formed by fusion of the head with the thorax </li></ul><ul><li>Thorax –lie behind the head and houses most of internal organs </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen – the posterior part of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Carapace – part of the exoskeleton that covers the cephalothorax </li></ul>
  3. 3. Crustaceans (continued) <ul><li>Body plan (continued): </li></ul><ul><li>Mandibles – a mouthpart adapted for biting and grinding food. </li></ul><ul><li>Gills attached to the appendages associated with the cephalothorax </li></ul><ul><li>Chelipeds – bear large claws that are modified to catch, pick up, crush, and cut food (behind the claws are four pairs walking legs). </li></ul><ul><li>Swimmerets - are flipper-like appendages used for swimming </li></ul>
  4. 5. Spiders and Their Relatives <ul><li>Horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, and scorpions are members of the subphylum Chelicerata . </li></ul><ul><li>Chelicerates have mouthparts called chelicerae and two body sections, and nearly all have four pairs of walking legs . </li></ul><ul><li>Body plan: </li></ul><ul><li>Chelicerae- mouthpart that contains fangs and are used to stab and paralyze prey </li></ul><ul><li>Pedipalps- longer than the chelicerae and are usually modified to grab prey </li></ul>
  5. 6. Horseshoe Crabs <ul><li>Are the oldest living arthropods </li></ul><ul><li>First appeared 600 million years ago that haven’t evolved much </li></ul><ul><li>Closest relatives are spiders, but heavily armored bodies like crabs </li></ul><ul><li>Has long tail used for movement </li></ul><ul><li>Get as big and shape of a large frying pan </li></ul>
  6. 8. Spiders <ul><li>Feeding: from small birds to other arthropods, some use webs and others stalk and pounce. </li></ul><ul><li>Spiders can’t swallow unless food is liquefied and they inject their prey with paralyzing venom. </li></ul><ul><li>When paralyzed the spider then injects digestive enzymes that break down tissues the prey’s tissues. </li></ul>
  7. 10. Mites and Ticks <ul><li>They are often parasites. </li></ul><ul><li>Chelicerae and Pedipalps are meant for digging into the host’s tissues and sucking out their blood or plant fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Pedipalps are often used to attach to the host. </li></ul><ul><li>Example of Mites: kill houseplants and major agricultural crops like cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Example of Ticks: bring serious diseases such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever or Lyme disease. </li></ul>
  8. 12. Scorpions <ul><li>Habitat: warm area such as deserts. </li></ul><ul><li>Have long segmented abdomens that carries a venomous stinger that can kill or paralyze prey. </li></ul><ul><li>Scorpions chew prey unlike spiders. </li></ul>
  9. 14. Insects and Their Relatives <ul><li>Belong to the subphylum Uniramia </li></ul><ul><li>Examples of Uniramia: centipedes, millipedes, and insects </li></ul><ul><li>Uniramians have jaws, one pair of antennae and unbranched appendages </li></ul><ul><li>Centipedes: worm- like bodies with 100 pairs of legs, class of chilopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Millipedes: worm- like bodies with double the pairs of legs and body segments then the centipedes </li></ul>