Biology 34.1

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Biology 34.1

  1. 1. 34.1 Elements of Behavior <br />
  2. 2. Behavior <br />The way an organism reacts to changes in its internal condition or external environment.<br />
  3. 3. Stimulus<br />A signal to which an organism responds.<br />
  4. 4. Response <br />Single, specific reaction to a stimulus.<br />
  5. 5. Innate Behavior <br />Instinct, or inborn behavior; behavior that appears in a fully functional form the first time it is performed.<br />
  6. 6. Learning<br />Alterations in behavior as a result of experience; also called acquired behavior.<br />
  7. 7. Habituation <br />Learning process by which an animal decreases or stops its response to a repetitive stimulus that neither rewards nor harms it.<br />
  8. 8. Classical Conditioning <br />Learning process in which an animal makes a mental connection between a stimulus and some kind of reward or punishment.<br />
  9. 9. Operant Conditioning<br />Learning process in which an animal learns to behave in a certain way through repeated practice, in order to receive a reward or avoid punishment; also called trail-and-error learning. <br />
  10. 10. Insight Learning <br />Also called reasoning; learning process in which an animal applies something it has already learned to a new situation without a period of trail and error.<br />
  11. 11. Imprinting<br />Learning based on early experience; once imprinting has occurred, the behavior cannot be changed.<br />
  12. 12. Key Concept<br />When an animal responds to a stimulus, body systems including the sense organs, nervous system, and muscles interact to produce the resultant behavior.<br />
  13. 13. Key Concept <br />Innate behaviors appear in fully functional form the first time they are performed, even though the animal may have had no previous experience with the stimuli to which it responds.<br />
  14. 14. Key Concept<br />The four major types of learning are habituation, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and insight learning.<br />

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