Chapter10referene group-and-family-reference-091011084922-phpapp02

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Chapter10referene group-and-family-reference-091011084922-phpapp02

  1. 1. Chapter 10Reference Groups and Family References Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall
  2. 2. Chapter Outline • What Is a Group? • Categories of Reference Groups • Selected Consumer-Related Reference Groups • Reference Group Appeals • The Changing U.S. Family • Consumer Socialization • Family Decision Making • The Family Life CycleCopyright 2007 by 10 - 2
  3. 3. What Is a Group? • Two or more people who interact to accomplish either individual or mutual goals • A membership group is one to which a person either belongs or would qualify for membership • A symbolic group is one in which an individual is not likely to receive membership despite acting like a memberCopyright 2007 by 10 - 3
  4. 4. A person or group that serves as a point of comparison (or reference) for an Reference individual in the Group formation of either general or specific values, attitudes, or behavior.Copyright 2007 by 10 - 4
  5. 5. Broad Categories of Reference Groups • Normative Reference Groups • Comparative Reference GroupsCopyright 2007 by 10 - 5
  6. 6. Individuals or groups with whom a person identifies but does not Indirect have direct face-to-face Reference contact, such as movie Groups stars, sports heroes, political leaders, or TV personalities.Copyright 2007 by 10 - 6
  7. 7. Teens are very influenced by indirect reference groups. weblinkCopyright 2007 by 10 - 7
  8. 8. Discussion Question • You are marketing a new fragrance for young men (ages 17-22). Who would make a good spokesperson? Why?Copyright 2007 by 10 - 8
  9. 9. Major Consumer Reference Groups - Figure 10.1Copyright 2007 by 10 - 9
  10. 10. Table 10.1 Positive Influences on Conformity Group Characteristics Personal Characteristics • Attractiveness • Tendency to Conform • Expertise • Need for Affiliation • Credibility • Need to be Liked • Past Success • Desire for Control • Clarity of Group • Fear of Negative Goals EvaluationCopyright 2007 by 10 - 10
  11. 11. Factors Encouraging Conformity: A Reference Group Must ... • Inform or make the individual aware of a specific product or brand • Provide the individual with the opportunity to compare his or her own thinking with the attitudes and behavior of the group • Influence the individual to adopt attitudes and behavior that are consistent with the norms of the group • Legitimize the decision to use the same products as the groupCopyright 2007 by 10 - 11
  12. 12. Discussion Question • Who are your reference groups? • How do they influence different types of purchases? When do certain groups have the most influence?Copyright 2007 by 10 - 12
  13. 13. This adcompares theproduct to a reference group.
  14. 14. Selected Consumer-Related Reference Groups • Friendship groups • Shopping groups • Work groups • Virtual groups or communities • Consumer-action groupsCopyright 2007 by 10 - 14
  15. 15. Selected Consumer-Related Reference Groups The Internet has created many friendship and shopping groups. weblinkCopyright 2007 by 10 - 15
  16. 16. Brand Communities • Saturn car owners who meet for reunions and barbecues • Saab owners • Harley-Davidson Owner GroupsCopyright 2007 by 10 - 16
  17. 17. Brand Communities Since Honda cannot compete on brand community, they choose to emphasize the family.
  18. 18. Brand Communities weblinkCopyright 2007 by 10 - 18
  19. 19. Reference Group Appeals • Celebrities • The expert • The “common man” • The executive and employee spokesperson • Trade or spokes-characters • Other reference group appealsCopyright 2007 by 10 - 19
  20. 20. Thecommon“wo”men
  21. 21. Importance of Celebrity Characteristics According to Product Types Figure 10-4Copyright 2007 by 10 - 21
  22. 22. Households Family Households: Married couple, Nuclear family, Extended family Households Nonfamily Households: Unmarried couples, Friends/ Roommates, BoardersCopyright 2007 by 10 - 22
  23. 23. The Changing U.S. Family • Increase in childless women • More working mothers • Changes in household spending patternsCopyright 2007 by 10 - 23
  24. 24. Evidence of the Dynamic Nature of U.S. Households - Figure 10-7Copyright 2007 by 10 - 24
  25. 25. The process by which children acquire the Consumer skills, knowledge, and Socialization attitudes necessary to function as consumers.Copyright 2007 by 10 - 25
  26. 26. Discussion Question • How do marketers influence consumer socialization? • Does this seem unethical? At what point would it be unethical?Copyright 2007 by 10 - 26
  27. 27. A Simple Model of the Socialization Process - Figure 10.11Copyright 2007 by 10 - 27
  28. 28. Other Functions of the Family • Economic well-being • Emotional support • Suitable family lifestylesCopyright 2007 by 10 - 28
  29. 29. Table 10.7 Eight Roles in the Family Decision-Making Process ROLE DESCRIPTION Influencers Family member(s) who provide information to other members about a product or service Gatekeepers Family member(s) who control the flow of information about a product or service into the family Deciders Family member(s) with the power to determine unilaterally or jointly whether to shop for, purchase, use, consume, or dispose of a specific product or service Buyers Family member(s) who make the actual purchase of a particular product or service Preparers Family member(s) who transform the product into a form suitable for consumption by other family members Users Family member(s) who use or consume a particular product or service Maintainers Family member(s) who service or repair the product so that it will provide continued satisfaction. Disposers Family member(s) who initiate or carry out the disposal or discontinuation of a particular product or serviceCopyright 2007 by 10 - 29
  30. 30. Dynamics of Husband-Wife Decision Making • Husband-Dominated • Wife-Dominated • Joint – Equal – Syncratic • Autonomic – Solitary – UnilateralCopyright 2007 by 10 - 30
  31. 31. Expanding Role of Children In Family Decision Making • Choosing restaurants and items in supermarkets • Teen Internet mavens • Pester powerCopyright 2007 by 10 - 31
  32. 32. The Family Life Cycle • Traditional Family Life Cycle – Stage I: Bachelorhood – Stage II: Honeymooners – Stage III: Parenthood – Stage IV: Postparenthood – Stage V: Dissolution • Modifications - the Nontraditional FLCCopyright 2007 by 10 - 32
  33. 33. Targeting the parenthood segment

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