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1. Title Page                               1.   Commands2. Table de Contenidos                      2.   Preterite vs. Im...
-AR                                 -ER/IR      -o             -amos                 -o                -emos/             ...
(o-ue)                              (e-i)         Puedo              Podemos             Pido           Pedimos         Pu...
Verbs with –go in the yo form            Tener                                         Oir                                ...
Saber                                   Conocer          (To know a fact,                              (To know/ be   to k...
In Spanish, reflexive pronouns are placed infront of the conjugated verb.                                Me              N...
Impersonal does not address anyone specific. In Spanish, the pronoun “se” is added in front of verbs to make general state...
“Gustar” is unique because it’s only conjugated two ways: “Gusta” and “Gustan”. Which form of gustar used depends on wheth...
Diphthongs are when a strong vowel (a,e,o)and a weak vowel (i/y, u) or two weak vowels  come together to form a strong syl...
Verbs like Ger/Gir, Uir/Guir, and Cer/Cir are changed in the “yo”                    form to keep the diphthong.          ...
Indicates the length of time an action has been taking place.     Hace + (time) + Que + (present tense form of verb)      ...
-ar                                        -er/ir         -aba              -abamos                     -ía               ...
-ar       -é              -amos     -aste                                    Preterite is used for actions that were      ...
Cucaracha verbs are irregular preterite verbs     that have the infinitive changed.                                       ...
Verbs ending in -Car, -Gar, and -Zar have theirendings replaced in the yo form in order to keep the                    dip...
DormirIrregular Preterites        (To sleep)              Y Changers                         Dormí       Dormimos        H...
Comparatives compare two nouns to                 Superlatives show how one noun is the             each other.           ...
Immediate                                                            Future Future tense verbs are used to tell what the  ...
For usted commands, you simply      For nosotros commands, justput the verb in the “yo” form and      put it in nosotros f...
Preterite is used for actions that         Imperfect is used for actions thatwere completed in the past. It is         wer...
Future tense verbs are used to tell what    Conditional tense verbs are used to tell what   the subject is going to do. Th...
Portal                                      ParaExpressing movement along, through,         Expressing purpose.around, by,...
Present Perfect Present perfects tells when you “have        Abrir     Abiertodone” something. It is conjugated using     ...
Double Object PronounsDouble object pronouns are conjugated by using this formula:  Verb + Indirect object pronoun + Direc...
AdverbsAdverbs are adjectives with –mente affixed tothe endings to describe an action or adjective.Example: Facil -> Facil...
Subjunctive• Regular Present Subjunctive- Hablar  – Hable, Hables, Hable, Hablemos, Hablen• Irregular Yo                  ...
Progressives (Ir, Andar,         Seguir)• Ando/ Iendo/ Yendo                                 • Jaime/andar/buscar trabajo•...
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Grammar book

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this thing is retarded.
don't ever make us do this again..

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Grammar book

  1. 1. 1
  2. 2. 1. Title Page 1. Commands2. Table de Contenidos 2. Preterite vs. Imperfect3. El Presente 3. Future vs. Conditional4. Stem Changers 4. Por vs. Para5. Irregular “yo” 5. Present Perfect6. Saber vs. Conocer 6. Double Object Pronouns7. Reflexives 7. Adverbs8. “Se” Impersonal 8. Subjunctive9. Verbs like “Gustar” 9. Progressives (Ir, Andar, Seguir)10. Diphthongs11. Verbos con Ger/Gir, Uir/Guir, Cer/Cir12. Hace + ___ + Que + ___13. El Imperfecto14. Preterite15.Irregulars- Car/Gar/Zar16.Irregulars- Cucaracha Verbs17.Irregulars- Spock/Snake/Snakey18.Comparatives/ Superlatives19.Future Tense 2
  3. 3. -AR -ER/IR -o -amos -o -emos/ imos -as -es -a -an -e -enSUBJECT PRONOUNS Examples: Yo (I) Nosotros/as Bailar (We) Tú bailes bien. Tú (You dance well.)(You- informal) Comer Yo como muchos tacos. El/Ella/Usted Ellos/Ellas/ (I eat many tacos.) (He/She/You- Ustedes Salir formal) (They, You all) Nosotros salimos de la escuela. (We leave the school.) 3
  4. 4. (o-ue) (e-i) Puedo Podemos Pido Pedimos Puedes PidesPoder Pedir Puede Pueden Pide Piden (e-ie) Jugar has a u-ue stem Pienso Pensamos change in all but the nosotros form; incluir and PiensasPensar destruir have an i-y stem Piensa Piensan change in all but the nosotros form. 4
  5. 5. Verbs with –go in the yo form Tener Oir Hacer Tengo Tenemos Oigo Oimos Hago Hacemos Tienes Oyes Haces Tiene Tienen Oye Oyen Hace HacenOther verbs with an irregular yo form Proteger (e-ie) Conocer (c-zc) Protejo Protegemos Conozco Conocemos Proteges Conoces Proteje Protegen Conoce Conocen Ir Ser Estar Dar Voy Vamos Soy Somos Estoy Estamos Doy Damos Vas Eres Estas Das Va Van Es Son Está Están Da Dan 5
  6. 6. Saber Conocer (To know a fact, (To know/ be to know how to do something.) familiar with someone.)Saber is usually followed by an infinitive Conocer can only be followed by a direct or a subordinate clause. object.. Sé Sabemos Conozco Conocemos Sabes Conoces Sabe Saben Conoce ConocenIn the preterite, saber means to learn or In the preterite, conocer means to meet find out. someone for the first time. Ex. Supiste tu lección ayer. Ex. Conocí mi novio en escuela. (I met my boyfriend in school.) 6
  7. 7. In Spanish, reflexive pronouns are placed infront of the conjugated verb. Me Nos Te Se SeExamplesLavar (to wash) --> Lavarse (to wash oneself)Me lavo. (I wash myself.)Te lavas. (You wash yourself.)Se lava. (He/she washes him/herself.)Nos lavamos. (We wash ourselves.) 7Se lavan. (You all wash yourselves.)
  8. 8. Impersonal does not address anyone specific. In Spanish, the pronoun “se” is added in front of verbs to make general statements. A singular verb will typically be used because “se” can be replaced by “uno”.Examples:¿Cómo se dice “dog” en español?(How does one say “dog” in spanish?)Se dice “perro”.(One says “perro”.) 8
  9. 9. “Gustar” is unique because it’s only conjugated two ways: “Gusta” and “Gustan”. Which form of gustar used depends on whether the direct object is singular or plural. Gustar To like Molestar To be a bother Examples: Gustar Fascinar To be fascinating to Me gustan los flores. Aburrir To bore (I like the flowers.) Importar To be important to Encantar Te encanta comprar. Interesar To be interesting to (You love to shop.) Disgustar To hate something Doler Nos duelen los pies. Doler (e-ue) To be painful (We hurt our feet.) Encantar To “love” something Me duele la mano. Quedar To remain (I hurt my hand.) Verbs similar to gustar are conjugated the same way. 9
  10. 10. Diphthongs are when a strong vowel (a,e,o)and a weak vowel (i/y, u) or two weak vowels come together to form a strong syllable. Esquiar Enviar (To ski) (To send) Esquio Esquiamos Envio Enviamos Esquias Envias Esquia Esquian Envia Envian 10
  11. 11. Verbs like Ger/Gir, Uir/Guir, and Cer/Cir are changed in the “yo” form to keep the diphthong. Coger Exigir (To catch) (In Mexico, also slang. Don’t use (To demand) it.) Exijo Exigimos Cojo Cogemos Exiges Coges Exige Exigen Coge Cogen Distinguir Convencer (To distinguish) (To convince) Distingo Distinguimos Convenzo ConvencemosDistingues Convences Distingue Distinguen Convence Convencen 11
  12. 12. Indicates the length of time an action has been taking place. Hace + (time) + Que + (present tense form of verb) Example Hace un año que juego lacrosse. (I have been playing lacrosse for one year.) In the preterite tense: Hace + (time) + Que + (preterite tense form of verb) Example Hace un año que jugué lacrosse. (I played lacrosse one year ago.) 12
  13. 13. -ar -er/ir -aba -abamos -ía -íamos -abas -ías -aba -aban -ía -ían Imperfect is used for actions that were repeated Trigger Words: Siemprehabitually or to “set the stage” for another action. Also, A Veces it is used for telling time and stating one’s age. A Menudo Cadadia Ir Ser Todos los dias Ver Iba Ibamos Era Eramos Veía Veíamos Ibas Eras Veías Iba iban Era Eran Veía Veían 13
  14. 14. -ar -é -amos -aste Preterite is used for actions that were -ó -aron completed in the past. The endings for preterite are conjugated by being affixed to the end of -er/ir the infinitives. -í -imos Examples: Bailar -iste Tú bailaste bien. (You danced well.) -ío -ieron Comer Yo comé muchos tacos. (I ate many tacos.)Trigger Words: SalirAyer Nosotros salimos de la escuela.Anoche (We left the school.)AnteayerLa semana pasado 14
  15. 15. Cucaracha verbs are irregular preterite verbs that have the infinitive changed. The infinitive is then Verb Infinitive affixed with the Andar Anduv- corresponding ending. Estar Estuv- Poder Pud- -é -imos Poner Pus- -iste Querrer Quis- -ío -ieron Saber Sup- Tener Tuv- Examples: Venir Vin- Estar Estuvé muy triste. Conducir Conduj- (I was very sad.) Producir Produj- Estuviste muy triste. Traducir Traduj- (You were very sad.) Traer Traj- Decir Dij- 15
  16. 16. Verbs ending in -Car, -Gar, and -Zar have theirendings replaced in the yo form in order to keep the diphthong. Sacar Pagar Cruzar (To get) (To pay) (To cross) Saqué Sacamos pagué Pagamos crucé Cruzamos Sacaste Pagaste Cruzaste Sacó Sacaron Pagó Pagaron Cruzó Cruzaron -car becomes -qué -gar becomes -gué -zar becomes -cé 16
  17. 17. DormirIrregular Preterites (To sleep) Y Changers Dormí Dormimos Hacer Dormiste Leer Hice Hicimos Durmío Durmieron (To read)Hiciste Leí Leímos Hizo Hicieron Pedir Leiste Ir/Ser (To ask) Leyó Leyeron Fuí Fuimos Pedí PedimosFuiste Pediste Fue Fueron Pidío Pidieron Dar/Ver Di/Vi Di/VimosDi/VisteDio/Vio Di/Vieron 17 Stem Changers
  18. 18. Comparatives compare two nouns to Superlatives show how one noun is the each other. most ____ out of all. They are often represented with the formula: (noun)+es+(comparative)+(adjective)+que+( Examples: noun) Ellá es la estudiante más rica de toda la escuela. (She is the most rich student in the school.)Mejor… Que Better… Than Mateo es el jugador mejor de todo el equipo.Peor… Que Worse… Than (Matt is the best player on the team.)Más… Que More… ThanMenos… Que Less… Than Tan… Como As… AsMayor… Que Older… Than Tanto… Como As… AsMenor… Que Younger… Than Tantas… Como As… AsExamples: Examples:Julia es más inteligiente que Bonita. Julia es tan alta que Bonita.(Julie is more intelligent than Brittany.) (Julie is as tall as Brittany.) 18
  19. 19. Immediate Future Future tense verbs are used to tell what the Immediate futuresubject is going to do. They are conjugated by verbs are conjugated affixing the appropriate ending to the verb by using the formula Trigger Words: WITHOUT dropping the –er, – ar, or –ir. La semana Ir + a + (verb) Proxima Mañana Pasado Semana Endings Examples: Examples: Año Estar Volver Pasado Año -é -emos Estarás en el parque. Yo voy a volver. -ás (You will be in the park.) (I will return. (soon).) Comer Comer -á -án Comeré una manzana. Vamos a comer la manzana. (I will eat an apple.) (We will eat the apple. (soon).) Future Tense Irregulars: Saber- Sabr- Poner- Pondr- Tener- Tendr- Poder- Podr Venir- Vendr- Decir- Dir- Querer- Querr- Hacer- Har- Salir- Saldr- 19
  20. 20. For usted commands, you simply For nosotros commands, justput the verb in the “yo” form and put it in nosotros form and switch the ending vowel. switch the vowel. EX: Comer- Coma/coman EX: Comer- comamosFor usted negative commands, you If it’s a verb like “irse”, the do the same thing. correct conjugation would be EX: Comer- No coma/coman like IR- Vamosnos-Vamonos It’s the same for negativeFor tu commands, you simply put commands. the verb in the “usted” form. EX: Comer- No comamos EX: Comer- ComeFor negative tu commands, use the usted form, switch the vowel, and add an “s”. EX: Comer- No comas 20
  21. 21. Preterite is used for actions that Imperfect is used for actions thatwere completed in the past. It is were repeated habitually or to “set used for actions that are non- the stage” for another action. Also, habitual and completed. it is used for telling time and stating one’s age. Examples: Preterite Fuimos al parque ayer. (We went to the park yesterday.) Imperfect Cuando era nina, ibamos al parque todos los dias. (When I was a little girl, we went to the park every day.) 21
  22. 22. Future tense verbs are used to tell what Conditional tense verbs are used to tell what the subject is going to do. They are the subject would/could/should do. Similarly conjugated by affixing the appropriate to future tense verbs, they are conjugated by ending to the verb WITHOUT dropping affixing the appropriate ending to the verb the –er, – ar, or –ir. WITHOUT dropping the –er, – ar, or –ir. EndingsFor future tense endings, go to slide #19. -ía -íamosIrregulars: -íasTener- Tendr- -ía -íanDecir- Dir-Hacer- Har-Saber- Sabr- Future tense andPoder- PodrQuerer- Querr- conditional tense verbsSalir- Saldr- have the same irregulars.Poner- Pondr-Venir- Vendr- 22
  23. 23. Portal ParaExpressing movement along, through, Expressing purpose.around, by, or about. ParamedicPorever A time limit.Duration of time Paraguay Destination/movement towards a place.PorposeReason/motive for an action. Para Addressee/recipient of action.Import/Export ParaAn exchange. A comparison.PortugalMotion or general location.I’m por, pay for me!Doing something in place of someone else. 23
  24. 24. Present Perfect Present perfects tells when you “have Abrir Abiertodone” something. It is conjugated using Cubir Cubierto this formula: Decir Dicho Haber + Infinitive Escribir EscritoThe infinitive is affixed with either an – ado or –ido ending. Hacer Hecho Example: I have eaten Morir Muerto He comado Poner Puesto We have studied Resolver Resuelto Hemos estudiado Romper Roto He Hemos Ver Visto Has Volver Vuelto Ha Han Ir Ido 24
  25. 25. Double Object PronounsDouble object pronouns are conjugated by using this formula: Verb + Indirect object pronoun + Direct object pronoun Examples: Give me it. Damelo! Da= verb me= IOP lo=DOP Tell me it. Dimelo! Dime=verb me=IOP lo=DOP Answer me it. Contestamelo! 25
  26. 26. AdverbsAdverbs are adjectives with –mente affixed tothe endings to describe an action or adjective.Example: Facil -> FacilmenteRapido -> Rapidamente Irregulars Bastante Bad Demasiando Too Mal Badly Peor Worse Siempre Always 26
  27. 27. Subjunctive• Regular Present Subjunctive- Hablar – Hable, Hables, Hable, Hablemos, Hablen• Irregular Yo Impersonal Expressions – Conducir (zco) Conduzca Es bueno que… Es mejor que… Pedir – e:i Pida, Pidamos Ojala que… Es malo que… Sentir – e:ie Sienta Es necesario que… Dormir – o:ue Duerma, Duermas, Dueran Es urgente que… Indicative Subjunctive Facts Attitudes Real Uncertain Definite Hypothetical 27
  28. 28. Progressives (Ir, Andar, Seguir)• Ando/ Iendo/ Yendo • Jaime/andar/buscar trabajo• Ir + present participle = is Example: Jaime anda buscando slowly but surely ____ing trabajo.Example: Voy estudiando • Yo/ir/cantar/ una cancion• Andar + present participle Example: Voy cantando una cancion = is going around ___ing • Uds./ seguir/ estudiar historiaExample: Caminando Example: Uds. Sigen estudiando historia.• Seguir + present • Tu/ andar/ perder todo. participle= is still ___ing Example: Tu andads perdiendo todo.Example: Sigo calificando 28

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