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1. introduction to microbiology

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1. introduction to microbiology

  1. 1. Scope of MicrobiologyScope of Microbiology  MicrobiologyMicrobiology  Micro: Small, Bio: Live, Logy: ScienceMicro: Small, Bio: Live, Logy: Science  Study of organisms too small to be seen byStudy of organisms too small to be seen by the naked eye.the naked eye.  MicroorganismsMicroorganisms  Bacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, protozoaBacteria, viruses, fungi, algae, protozoa and helminthes.and helminthes.
  2. 2. Branches of StudyBranches of Study  BacteriologyBacteriology Study of bacteriaStudy of bacteria  MycologyMycology Study of fungi and yeastStudy of fungi and yeast  VirologyVirology Study of virusesStudy of viruses  ParasitologicalParasitological Study of parasitic protozoan andStudy of parasitic protozoan and helmintheshelminthes  ImmunologyImmunology Study of the humoral and cellularStudy of the humoral and cellular immune response to diseaseimmune response to disease agents and allergensagents and allergens
  3. 3. Importance of MicrobiologyImportance of Microbiology  First bacteriaFirst bacteria  Photosynthesis and decompositionPhotosynthesis and decomposition  Human use of microorganismsHuman use of microorganisms  Infectious diseasesInfectious diseases
  4. 4. Modern Uses of MicrobesModern Uses of Microbes  Biotechnology:Biotechnology: Production of food and chemicalsProduction of food and chemicals  Genetic engineering:Genetic engineering: Molecular biology andMolecular biology and recombinant DNA techniquesrecombinant DNA techniques  Gene therapy:Gene therapy: Replaces missing or defectiveReplaces missing or defective genes in human cells through genetic engineering.genes in human cells through genetic engineering.
  5. 5. Infectious DiseasesInfectious Diseases Worldwide infectious disease statistics  United States Public Health Service (USPHS) - agency where notifiable diseases are reported  Centers for Disease Control (CDC)-collects disease data around the U.S. and publishes the MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report)  World Health Organization (WHO)-medical arm of the U.N., monitors diseases worldwide.
  6. 6. Microbial TaxonomyMicrobial Taxonomy Traditional Whittaker 5 Kingdom System
  7. 7. Microbial TaxonomyMicrobial Taxonomy Woese-Fox 3 Domain System
  8. 8. NomenclatureNomenclature  Each organism has two names: the genus andEach organism has two names: the genus and speciesspecies  Italicized or underlineItalicized or underline  Genus name is capitalized and species in lowerGenus name is capitalized and species in lower case.case.
  9. 9. Scientific NamesScientific Names Staphylococcus aureusStaphylococcus aureus Describes clustered arrangement of cells andDescribes clustered arrangement of cells and golden yellow color of coloniesgolden yellow color of colonies Escherichia coliEscherichia coli Honors the discoverer, Theodor EscherichiaHonors the discoverer, Theodor Escherichia and describes its habitat, the colon.and describes its habitat, the colon. After the first use, scientific names may beAfter the first use, scientific names may be abbreviated with the first letter of the genusabbreviated with the first letter of the genus and full letters of the species (Ex:and full letters of the species (Ex: E. coliE. coli))
  10. 10. General CharacteristicsGeneral Characteristics  ProkaryotesProkaryotes  EukaryotesEukaryotes  A cellular agentsA cellular agents Genomes contain eitherGenomes contain either DNA or RNA; e.g. Virus,DNA or RNA; e.g. Virus, newer agent is proteinaceousnewer agent is proteinaceous
  11. 11. Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotesDifferences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes Prokaryotes Eukaryotes Cell size 0.2-2micrometer In diameter 10-100micrometer In diameter Nucleus No nuclear membrane or nucleoli (nucleoid) True nucleus, consisting of nuclear membrane & nucleoli Cell Division Binary Fission Mitosis Cell wall Usually present; chemically complex (typical bacterial cell wall includes peptidoglycan) When present, chemically simple
  12. 12. Cell TypesCell Types Comparative Cellular Structures of Microbes
  13. 13. The MicrobesThe Microbes Viruses Protozoa Bacteria Bacteriophage Algae Spirochaetes Cyanobacteria Fungi
  14. 14. Size of MicrobesSize of Microbes Microbes vary in size ranging from 10 nm (nanometers) to 100 mu (micrometers) to the macroscopic. Viruses in nm = 10-9 m (meter) Bacteria in um = 10-6 m Helminths in mm = 10-3 m
  15. 15. BacteriaBacteria  Prokaryotes  Peptidoglycan cell walls  Binary fission  Eg., Escherichia coli
  16. 16. FungiFungi  Eukaryotes  Chitin cell walls  Molds and mushrooms are multicellular  Yeasts are unicellular
  17. 17. ProtozoaProtozoa  Eukaryotes  Mostly saprobes and commensals  May be motile by means of pseudopod, cilia or flagella
  18. 18. HelminthesHelminthes  Eukaryotes  Multicellular animals  Parasitic flatworms and roundworms called helminthes  Microscopic stages in life cycles
  19. 19. AlgaeAlgae  Eukaryotes  Cellulose cell walls  Photosynthetic  Produce molecular oxygen and organic compounds  Part of food chain
  20. 20. VirusesViruses  A cellular  Obligate intracellular parasites  Genome consist of DNA or RNA  Surrounded by protein coat  May be enclosed in lipid envelope
  21. 21. The First MicroscopeThe First Microscope Microbes were first observed by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek using a simple microscope (ca. 1673) Reported his “animalcules” to the Royal Society of London
  22. 22. Spores and SterilizationSpores and Sterilization  John Tyndall:John Tyndall: Some microbes in dust andSome microbes in dust and air were resistant to heatair were resistant to heat  Ferdinand Cohn:Ferdinand Cohn: Discovered and describedDiscovered and described endosporesendospores  Sterile:Sterile: Complete removal of all life formsComplete removal of all life forms including endosporesincluding endospores
  23. 23. Louis PasteurLouis Pasteur  Microbes causedMicrobes caused fermentationfermentation  Pasteurization:Pasteurization: PreventPrevent spoilagespoilage
  24. 24. Antiseptics and Hand WashingAntiseptics and Hand Washing  1860s:1860s: Joseph Lister:Joseph Lister: Used, carbolicUsed, carbolic acid, a chemical antiseptic to preventacid, a chemical antiseptic to prevent surgical wound infectionssurgical wound infections  Ignaz Semmelweis:Ignaz Semmelweis: Introduced handIntroduced hand washing as a means of preventing transferwashing as a means of preventing transfer of puerpueral sepsis in obstetrical patientsof puerpueral sepsis in obstetrical patients
  25. 25. Infection and DiseaseInfection and Disease  Infection:Infection: Entry of a microbe into the hostEntry of a microbe into the host  Disease:Disease: Appearance of signs and symptomsAppearance of signs and symptoms  Pathogen:Pathogen: An infectious agentAn infectious agent  Opportunistic pathogen:Opportunistic pathogen: A microbe thatA microbe that cause disease in immuno compromised hosts orcause disease in immuno compromised hosts or when the normal microbiota is alteredwhen the normal microbiota is altered

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