CULTURE DEFINITIONCULTURE DEFINITIONAntropologyAntropology•Studies human behaviorCultural antropologyCultural antropology•Examines all learned behaviors, including social, linguistic,and family behaviors.CultureCulture•Encompasses the entire heritage of a society transmitted orally,via literature, or in any other form. Includes all traditions, morals,habits, religion, art, and language.
CULTURE CONCEPTSCULTURE CONCEPTS“Culture is the integrated sum total of learned behavioraltraits that are shared by members of a society” (Hoebel)“Culture is the entirety of societal knowledge, norms andvalues” (Antonides and Van Raaij)“Culture is the collective mental programming of thepeople in an environment. Culture is not a characteristicof individuals; it encompasses a number of people whowere conditioned by the same education and lifeexperience” (Hofstede)Culture both affects and describes humanbehavior,it is essential in international marketing andinternational business
CULTURE Vs. PERSONALITYCULTURE Vs. PERSONALITYHuman nature depends on culture: ideas, values, acts, emotions… are culturalproducts. Cultural patterns help people to live together in a society.
MANIFESTATIONS OFMANIFESTATIONS OFCULTURECULTUREExpressionExpressions of cultures of culture
RITUALSRITUALSRituals are the collective activities considered sociallyessential within a culture.They are carried out for their own sake.They are easily observed, but not always understood.
VALUESVALUESValues are at the core of culture.Values are stable beliefs regarding desired behavior or endstates.They often have a religious, ideological or humanisticbackground.Values are among the first things children learn, notconsciously but implicitly.Core values are resistant to globalization; they vary acrosscultures and are not likely to change frequently.
NORMSNORMSNorms and values are part of the “non-material”culture.Norms are beliefs regarding how to behave andhow not to behave (do’s and don’ts).People differ in the extent to which they acceptand comply with norms.They create expectations and criteria regardingthe conduct of others.
BUSINESS AND EDUCATIONBUSINESS AND EDUCATIONIt shapes people’s outlooks, desires and motivations.Affects: The consumer level and the employee levelLess literacy – Different communication options – More challenge
ATTITUDES TOWARD TIMEATTITUDES TOWARD TIMEMonochronic culture: Activities are undertaken one at a time andpeople respect schedules and agendas.Polychronic culture: Multitasking is common, schedules andagendas bend to the needs of people, and interruptions arecommon
WORK AND LEISURE TIMEWORK AND LEISURE TIMEWork or leisure?Holidays + vacation days?
HOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL MODELHOFSTEDE’S CULTURAL MODELHofstede’s 4D or 5D modelQuantitative and longitudinal study of cultural differences betweencountriesWhy some concepts of motivation do not work in all countries in thesame way“Culture’s Consequences” and “Cultures and Organizations: Software ofthe Mind”Scores for each country explain why people and organizations in variouscountries differ, comparative data.Reference in international business and international marketing
POWER DISTANCE (PDI)POWER DISTANCE (PDI)High PDI vs. Low PDI“the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept andexpect that power is distributed unequally”Reflected in the values of both the less powerful and more powerfulmembers of societyInfluences the way people accept and give authorityShows class or social structureFocuses on the degree of equality, or inequality, between people inthe country’s society
UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE (UAI)UNCERTAINTY AVOIDANCE (UAI)High UAI vs. Low UAI“ the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty andambiguity and try to avoid these situations”Strong UAI = need for rules and formality to structure life, search fortruth and belief in expertsConflict and competition are threateningHigher level of anxiety, show of emotions is accepted
INDIVIDUALISM (IDV)INDIVIDUALISM (IDV)Individualistic vs. Collectivistic“people looking after themselves and their immediate family only, versuspeople belonging to in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty”“I”-conscious and “we”-consciousFocuses on the degree the society reinforces individual or collectiveachievement and interpersonal relationshipsDistinguishes between societies where the group and being a member isimportant (collectiveness) and societies where the group is less important(individualism)
MASCULINITY (MAS)MASCULINITY (MAS)Masculine vs. Feminine“the dominant values in a masculine society are achievement andsuccess; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for othersand quality of life”Focuses on the degree the society reinforces, or does not reinforce, thetraditional masculine work role model of male achievement,performance, control and powerShows the importance of status in societiesIndicates the degree of gender differentiation and the importance ofmasculine values (assertiveness, money, material goods, success…)
LONG-TERM ORIENTATION (LTO)LONG-TERM ORIENTATION (LTO)Long-term vs. Short-term orientationChinese value survey, “Confucian dynamism”“the extent to which a society exhibits a pragmatic future-orientedperspective rather than a conventional historic or short-term point of view”High LTO = perseverance, ordering relationships by status, thrift, sense ofshame, family ties, long-term thinking, paternalismFocuses on the degree the society embraces, or does not embrace, long-term devotion to traditional, forward thinking valuesIndicates whether the country prescribes to the values of long-termcommitments and respect for tradition
Intracultural differencesFew cultures are homogeneous in terms ofcultural traits and normsConsequence of globalization?Intracultural differences (nationality, religion,race, language or geographic areas) result inthe emergence of distinct subculturesExistence of cross-cultural and intraculturaldifferences: opportunities and threats
TO SUMMARIZE ONTO SUMMARIZE ONCULTURE…CULTURE…Culture is complex and multi-dimensional, but classificationis important in businessCultural distance is essential in international businessCulture influences perceptions and drives how wecommunicate and what we communicateSRC and ethnocentrism can explain the failure of manycompanies in the international arenaAcculturation (adjusting and adapting to a specific cultureother than one’s own) is one of the keys to success ininternational operations