• “Progress is impossible without change” – Ireland born Fabian.• “Those who do not change their minds can not change anything” – George Bernard Shaw.• Change is an inevitable all the time.• Making things different.
• Every organization or a corporate , in Lincoln’s language may be described as an “of the people by the people for the people.” i.e. , it is an institutions of those who own it (shareholders) , by those who run it ( HR) and for those who support it ( the customers).• The workforce that propels the organization towards commercial prosperity.• The same human capita that would also steer the organization to economic safety, whenever the inevitable waves of change happen to rock the very business keel of the organization.
Why Change?The customers demands and preferences arenever static in developing economies andthe shifts in the consumption patternstrigger waves in the market, which ,in turn ,jerk the business entities in to newperspectives and attitude compelling themto consider an organizational change.
Organizational change manifest in the following manner• Change in the style of management.• Change in the marketing approach and operational functions.• Production of new products and reorientation of services• Reorientation of HR policies.• Hunt for new skills.• Attempts to inculcate in the workforce, new perspectives of many business functions.• Change in the approach to placements , promotions and training .• Change in the physical infrastructure and change in business diplomacies and business rules.
Forces of Organizational Change rs Exte rnal Facto s Political Factors ing need ng ha omer C st s Cu nce ere up p ref l& gro i dua vi System Ind Economic ons Dynamics Globalization tati Factors ex pec &Increased Managerial & competition Technological Administrative processes Changes Organizational structure & design rs acto Govern rn al F g es ment P olicies Inte lC han ica no log h Tec
Features of Planned Changed• It is deliberate ,systematic and intentionally undertaken.• Its takes place in all organizations at varying speeds and degrees of importance.• It takes place in all parts of an organization.• Planned change may focus on organizations technology , products ,markets , processes , people etc.• It can have positive as well as negative impacts.• Planned changes are costly ,time consuming , and difficult bring about .
Goal of Managing Planned Change• Its seeks to improve the ability of the organization to adapt to changes in its environment.• It seeks to change employee behavior.
Change Agents• Change agent can be managers or non mangers , employees of the organization or outside consultants.• Persons who act as catalysts and assume the responsibility for managing change activities.
Resistance to ChangeIndividual Resistance Organizational Resistance• Habit • Structural inertia• Security • Limited Focus of Change• Economic Factors • Group Inertia• Fear of Unknown • Threat to Expertise• Selective Information • Threat to established Power Processing Relationships • Threats Established resources Allocations
Overcoming Resistance to Change• Education and Communication• Participation• Facilitation and Support• Negotiation• Manipulation & Cooptation (participations)• Coercion ( threats of transfer , loss of promotions , negative performance evaluations, and a poor letter of recommendation .)
Lewin’s Three Step Process to Changing Behaviour UNFREEZINGResistance to change lessened, need for change created (Equilibrium disturbed) MOVING From old behaviour to the new (Changes) REFREEZING Change made permanent
• Unfreezing : change efforts to overcome the pressure of both individual resistance and group conformity.• Refreezing : stability a change intervention by balancing driving and restraining forces.• Driving Forces : Forces that direct behaviour away from the status quo.• Restraining Forces : Forces that hinder movement from the existing equilibrium.
Restraining &Driving Forces Restraining Forces Driving Force
Organizational Development (OD)• A collection of planned change interventions , built on humanistic – democratic values , that seeks to improve organizational effectiveness and employee well-being.
Organization Development (OD)‘Organization development (OD) is a long termeffort, led and supported by top management,to improve an organization’s visioning,empowerment, learning, and problem-solvingprocesses, through an ongoing, collaborativemanagement of the organization culture - withspecial emphasis on the culture of intact workteams and other team configurations - utilizingthe consultant-facilitator role and the theoryand technology of applied behavioral science,including action research.’
The OD Paradigm Values and Organizational growthand Collaborative and participative processes and a spirit of inquiry.The following values in most OD effort.• Respect for people• Trust and support• Power equalization• Confrontation• Participation
OD Techniques or interventions• Sensitivity Training (laboratory training , encounter groups , T-groups)• Survey Feedback• Process Consultation• Team Building• Intergroup Development• Appreciative Inquiry