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Scala Frameworks for
Web Application 2016
BizReach, Inc
Scala Kansai Summit 2016
#scala_ks
Standard Frameworks for
Web Application in Scala
Why we've used Play2 and Slick?
● Many users and developers
● Future prospects
● Supported by Typesafe
Dissatisfaction to Play2
● Unnecessary features
○ View support
○ Assets management
○ Dependency injection
● Poor integration
○ Zipkin https://github.com/levkhomich/akka-tracing
○ Swagger https://github.com/swagger-api/swagger-play
Dissatisfaction to Slick
● Lerning curve
○ DBIO is hard for non-functional programmers
○ Asynchronous is not always needed
● Performance
○ Join makes subquery frequently
○ It causes performance issue with MySQL
Alternatives?
Alternatives
● Web Framework
○ Finagle
○ Akka HTTP
○ Skinny Micro
● Database Framework
○ Quill
○ doobie
○ Scalike JDBC
Finagle
● Pluggable asynchronous RPC framework
based on Netty
● Client API with Circuit Breaker
● Zipkin integration
● Finatra or Finch for HTTP server
● Swagger 1.x support for Finatra (3rd party)
○ https://github.com/xiaodongw/swagger-finatra
Finagle
val router = RoutingService.byPathObject[Request] {
case Root => new Service[Request,Response] {
def apply(req: Request): Future[Response] = {
Future(Response(
req.version, Status.Ok, Reader.fromBuf(Utf8("API is Ready."))
))
}
}
case Root / "hello"/ name => new Service[Request, Response] {
def apply(req: Request): Future[Response] = {
Future(Response(
req.version, Status.Ok, Reader.fromBuf(Utf8(s"Hello ${name}!"))
))
}
}
}
Maybe Finatra or Finch is better choise for REST API server
Akka HTTP
● Actor-based toolkit for interacting web
services and clients
● spray like routing DSL
● Reactive Streams
● Swagger 2.0 support (3rd party)
○ https://github.com/swagger-akka-http/swagger-akka-http
● Play 3.0 will move to Akka HTTP?
○ Experimental in Play 2.5
○ https://www.playframework.com/documentation/2.5.x/AkkaHttpServer
Akka HTTP
val route = get {
pathEndOrSingleSlash {
handleWith((request: HttpRequest) => "API is ready.")
}
} ~ path("hello" / ".+".r) {
get { case (name) =>
complete {
HelloResult(message = s"Hello, ${request.name}!")
}
}
}
Skiny Micro
● Servlet-based micro framework
● Scalatra comparible routing DSL
● Future-wired async operation
● No Swagger and Zipkin support
Skiny Micro
object Hello extends WebApp with JSONSupport {
get("/") {
"API is ready"
}
post("/hello/:name") {
contentType = "application/json"
toJSONString(
HelloResult(message = s"Hello, ${params("name")}!")
)
}
}
Results
Version View DI Routing Circuit
Breaker
Reactive
Streams
Zipkin Swagger
Play2 2.5.8 Supported Guice Method +
DSL
- ※2 3rd party
library
3rd party
library
Finagle 6.38.0 - ※1 DSL Supported - Supported 3rd party
library
Akka HTTP 2.4.10-exp
erimantal
- - DSL - Supported 3rd party
library
3rd party
library
Skinny
Micro
1.1.0 - - DSL - - - -
※1 Finatra is equipped Guice based dependency injection as same as Play2
※2 There is an experimental module in Play 2.5
https://www.playframework.com/documentation/2.5.x/ReactiveStreamsIntegration
Quill
● Macro-based compile time SQL generation
○ No overhead in runtime
○ Compile time SQL validation is available
○ Some constraints in query building
● Development is very active
○ Many sub modules are available such as async,
cassandra support and finagle integration
● Move to scala.meta in the future?
Quill
val account: Option[Account] = ctx.run(
quote { (mailAddress: String, includeRemoved: Boolean) =>
query[Account].filter { t =>
if(includeRemoved){
t.mailAddress == mailAddress
} else {
t.mailAddress == mailAddress && t.removed == false
}
}
}
)(mailAddress, includeRemoved).headOption
Quill
val account: Option[Account] = ctx.run(
quote { (mailAddress: String, includeRemoved: Boolean) =>
query[Account].filter { t =>
if(includeRemoved){
t.mailAddress == mailAddress
} else {
t.mailAddress == mailAddress && t.removed == false
}
}
}
)(mailAddress, includeRemoved).headOption
Macro (expanded in compile time)
Quill
val account: Option[Account] = ctx.run(
quote { (mailAddress: String, includeRemoved: Boolean) =>
query[Account].filter { t =>
if(includeRemoved){
t.mailAddress == mailAddress
} else {
t.mailAddress == mailAddress && t.removed == false
}
}
}
)(mailAddress, includeRemoved).headOption
Take variables as argument
Quill
val account: Option[Account] = ctx.run(
quote { (mailAddress: String, includeRemoved: Boolean) =>
query[Account].filter { t =>
if(includeRemoved){
t.mailAddress == mailAddress
} else {
t.mailAddress == mailAddress && t.removed == false
}
}
}
)(mailAddress, includeRemoved).headOption
Assemble condition dynamically?
Quill
SELECT ...
FROM account t
WHERE CASE WHEN ? THEN
t.mail_address = ?
ELSE
(t.mail_address = ?) AND (t.removed = false)
END
No, translated to CASE expression
doobie
● A pure-functional JDBC layer for Scala
○ It is not an ORM
● Designed for people who are interested in:
○ typed
○ pure functional programming
● IO and monadic effects
doobie
sql"select * from account where uid = $id"
.query[Account]
.option
.transact(xa)
.unsafePerformAsync {
case -/(throwable) => ...
case /-(account) => ...
}
doobie
sql"select * from account where uid = $id"
.query[Account] // Query0[Account]
.option // ConnectionIO[Option[Account]]
.transact(xa) // Task[Option[Account]]
.unsafePerformAsync {
case -/(throwable) => … // Throwable
case /-(account) => … // Option[Account]
}
Query0[Account] is all columns query that maps one returned row.
Ultimately producing a value of type Option[Account].
doobie
sql"select * from account where uid = $id"
.query[Account] // Query0[Account]
.option // ConnectionIO[Option[Account]]
.transact(xa) // Task[Option[Account]]
.unsafePerformAsync {
case -/(throwable) => … // Throwable
case /-(account) => … // Option[Account]
}
Task is scalaz.concurrent.Task!!
doobie
● Typechecking (experimental)
○ Validate queries against the database schema in
runtime
val q: Query0[Account] =
sql"select * from account where uid = $id".query[Account]
q.check.unsafePerformSync
✓ SQL Compiles and Typechecks
✕ C01 UID INTEGER (INTEGER) NOT NULL → String
- INTEGER (INTEGER) is ostensibly coercible to String according to the JDBC
specification but is not a recommended target type. Fix this by changing the
schema type to CHAR or VARCHAR; or the Scala type to Int or JdbcType.
✓ C02 LOGIN_ID VARCHAR (VARCHAR) NOT NULL → String
ScalikeJDBC
● A tidy SQL-based DB access library for
Scala
○ Naturally wrap JDBC APIs
○ easy-to-use
● QueryDSL is available (since 1.6)
ScalikeJDBC
val id = 1
// QueryDSL
val a = Account.syntax("a")
val account: Option[Account] = DB readOnly { implicit s =>
withSQL {
select.from(Account as a).where.eq(a.uid, id)
}.map(Account(a)).single.apply()
}
ScalikeJDBC
val id = 1
case class Email(name: String, address: String)
// basic SQL
val email: Option[Email] = DB readOnly { implicit s =>
sql"select * from account where uid = ${id}"
.map(rs =>
Email(rs.get("name"), rs.get("mail_address"))
).single.apply()
}
Results
Version Monad Async Mapping Typesafe
DSL
Genarated
SQL
Timing PlainSQL
Slick 3.1.1 Required Always Required
※2
Supported Non-intuitiv
e
Runtime Supported
Quill 0.10.0 Option ※1 - Supported
※3
Intuitive Compile
time
-
doobie 0.3.0 Required Option - - - - Supported
※4
Scalike
JDBC
2.4.2 - ※1 Required
※2
Supported Intuitive Runtime Supported
※1 Provides non-blocking API using postgresql-async or mysql-async
※2 A tool to generate table mappings from actual database schema is available
※3 Compile time SQL validation is available
※4 Runtime typechecking is available as experimental feature
Conclusion
Conclusion
● Web Fraemwork
○ All alternatives look good, but Play2 is not so bad
as well
○ For servlet container, Skinny Micro would be good
● Database Framework
○ There is no de-facto standard library currently
○ ScalikeJDBC looks good for us and almost users

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Scala Frameworks for Web Application 2016

  • 1. Scala Frameworks for Web Application 2016 BizReach, Inc Scala Kansai Summit 2016 #scala_ks
  • 2. Standard Frameworks for Web Application in Scala
  • 3. Why we've used Play2 and Slick? ● Many users and developers ● Future prospects ● Supported by Typesafe
  • 4. Dissatisfaction to Play2 ● Unnecessary features ○ View support ○ Assets management ○ Dependency injection ● Poor integration ○ Zipkin https://github.com/levkhomich/akka-tracing ○ Swagger https://github.com/swagger-api/swagger-play
  • 5. Dissatisfaction to Slick ● Lerning curve ○ DBIO is hard for non-functional programmers ○ Asynchronous is not always needed ● Performance ○ Join makes subquery frequently ○ It causes performance issue with MySQL
  • 7. Alternatives ● Web Framework ○ Finagle ○ Akka HTTP ○ Skinny Micro ● Database Framework ○ Quill ○ doobie ○ Scalike JDBC
  • 8. Finagle ● Pluggable asynchronous RPC framework based on Netty ● Client API with Circuit Breaker ● Zipkin integration ● Finatra or Finch for HTTP server ● Swagger 1.x support for Finatra (3rd party) ○ https://github.com/xiaodongw/swagger-finatra
  • 9. Finagle val router = RoutingService.byPathObject[Request] { case Root => new Service[Request,Response] { def apply(req: Request): Future[Response] = { Future(Response( req.version, Status.Ok, Reader.fromBuf(Utf8("API is Ready.")) )) } } case Root / "hello"/ name => new Service[Request, Response] { def apply(req: Request): Future[Response] = { Future(Response( req.version, Status.Ok, Reader.fromBuf(Utf8(s"Hello ${name}!")) )) } } } Maybe Finatra or Finch is better choise for REST API server
  • 10. Akka HTTP ● Actor-based toolkit for interacting web services and clients ● spray like routing DSL ● Reactive Streams ● Swagger 2.0 support (3rd party) ○ https://github.com/swagger-akka-http/swagger-akka-http ● Play 3.0 will move to Akka HTTP? ○ Experimental in Play 2.5 ○ https://www.playframework.com/documentation/2.5.x/AkkaHttpServer
  • 11. Akka HTTP val route = get { pathEndOrSingleSlash { handleWith((request: HttpRequest) => "API is ready.") } } ~ path("hello" / ".+".r) { get { case (name) => complete { HelloResult(message = s"Hello, ${request.name}!") } } }
  • 12. Skiny Micro ● Servlet-based micro framework ● Scalatra comparible routing DSL ● Future-wired async operation ● No Swagger and Zipkin support
  • 13. Skiny Micro object Hello extends WebApp with JSONSupport { get("/") { "API is ready" } post("/hello/:name") { contentType = "application/json" toJSONString( HelloResult(message = s"Hello, ${params("name")}!") ) } }
  • 14. Results Version View DI Routing Circuit Breaker Reactive Streams Zipkin Swagger Play2 2.5.8 Supported Guice Method + DSL - ※2 3rd party library 3rd party library Finagle 6.38.0 - ※1 DSL Supported - Supported 3rd party library Akka HTTP 2.4.10-exp erimantal - - DSL - Supported 3rd party library 3rd party library Skinny Micro 1.1.0 - - DSL - - - - ※1 Finatra is equipped Guice based dependency injection as same as Play2 ※2 There is an experimental module in Play 2.5 https://www.playframework.com/documentation/2.5.x/ReactiveStreamsIntegration
  • 15. Quill ● Macro-based compile time SQL generation ○ No overhead in runtime ○ Compile time SQL validation is available ○ Some constraints in query building ● Development is very active ○ Many sub modules are available such as async, cassandra support and finagle integration ● Move to scala.meta in the future?
  • 16. Quill val account: Option[Account] = ctx.run( quote { (mailAddress: String, includeRemoved: Boolean) => query[Account].filter { t => if(includeRemoved){ t.mailAddress == mailAddress } else { t.mailAddress == mailAddress && t.removed == false } } } )(mailAddress, includeRemoved).headOption
  • 17. Quill val account: Option[Account] = ctx.run( quote { (mailAddress: String, includeRemoved: Boolean) => query[Account].filter { t => if(includeRemoved){ t.mailAddress == mailAddress } else { t.mailAddress == mailAddress && t.removed == false } } } )(mailAddress, includeRemoved).headOption Macro (expanded in compile time)
  • 18. Quill val account: Option[Account] = ctx.run( quote { (mailAddress: String, includeRemoved: Boolean) => query[Account].filter { t => if(includeRemoved){ t.mailAddress == mailAddress } else { t.mailAddress == mailAddress && t.removed == false } } } )(mailAddress, includeRemoved).headOption Take variables as argument
  • 19. Quill val account: Option[Account] = ctx.run( quote { (mailAddress: String, includeRemoved: Boolean) => query[Account].filter { t => if(includeRemoved){ t.mailAddress == mailAddress } else { t.mailAddress == mailAddress && t.removed == false } } } )(mailAddress, includeRemoved).headOption Assemble condition dynamically?
  • 20. Quill SELECT ... FROM account t WHERE CASE WHEN ? THEN t.mail_address = ? ELSE (t.mail_address = ?) AND (t.removed = false) END No, translated to CASE expression
  • 21. doobie ● A pure-functional JDBC layer for Scala ○ It is not an ORM ● Designed for people who are interested in: ○ typed ○ pure functional programming ● IO and monadic effects
  • 22. doobie sql"select * from account where uid = $id" .query[Account] .option .transact(xa) .unsafePerformAsync { case -/(throwable) => ... case /-(account) => ... }
  • 23. doobie sql"select * from account where uid = $id" .query[Account] // Query0[Account] .option // ConnectionIO[Option[Account]] .transact(xa) // Task[Option[Account]] .unsafePerformAsync { case -/(throwable) => … // Throwable case /-(account) => … // Option[Account] } Query0[Account] is all columns query that maps one returned row. Ultimately producing a value of type Option[Account].
  • 24. doobie sql"select * from account where uid = $id" .query[Account] // Query0[Account] .option // ConnectionIO[Option[Account]] .transact(xa) // Task[Option[Account]] .unsafePerformAsync { case -/(throwable) => … // Throwable case /-(account) => … // Option[Account] } Task is scalaz.concurrent.Task!!
  • 25. doobie ● Typechecking (experimental) ○ Validate queries against the database schema in runtime val q: Query0[Account] = sql"select * from account where uid = $id".query[Account] q.check.unsafePerformSync ✓ SQL Compiles and Typechecks ✕ C01 UID INTEGER (INTEGER) NOT NULL → String - INTEGER (INTEGER) is ostensibly coercible to String according to the JDBC specification but is not a recommended target type. Fix this by changing the schema type to CHAR or VARCHAR; or the Scala type to Int or JdbcType. ✓ C02 LOGIN_ID VARCHAR (VARCHAR) NOT NULL → String
  • 26. ScalikeJDBC ● A tidy SQL-based DB access library for Scala ○ Naturally wrap JDBC APIs ○ easy-to-use ● QueryDSL is available (since 1.6)
  • 27. ScalikeJDBC val id = 1 // QueryDSL val a = Account.syntax("a") val account: Option[Account] = DB readOnly { implicit s => withSQL { select.from(Account as a).where.eq(a.uid, id) }.map(Account(a)).single.apply() }
  • 28. ScalikeJDBC val id = 1 case class Email(name: String, address: String) // basic SQL val email: Option[Email] = DB readOnly { implicit s => sql"select * from account where uid = ${id}" .map(rs => Email(rs.get("name"), rs.get("mail_address")) ).single.apply() }
  • 29. Results Version Monad Async Mapping Typesafe DSL Genarated SQL Timing PlainSQL Slick 3.1.1 Required Always Required ※2 Supported Non-intuitiv e Runtime Supported Quill 0.10.0 Option ※1 - Supported ※3 Intuitive Compile time - doobie 0.3.0 Required Option - - - - Supported ※4 Scalike JDBC 2.4.2 - ※1 Required ※2 Supported Intuitive Runtime Supported ※1 Provides non-blocking API using postgresql-async or mysql-async ※2 A tool to generate table mappings from actual database schema is available ※3 Compile time SQL validation is available ※4 Runtime typechecking is available as experimental feature
  • 31. Conclusion ● Web Fraemwork ○ All alternatives look good, but Play2 is not so bad as well ○ For servlet container, Skinny Micro would be good ● Database Framework ○ There is no de-facto standard library currently ○ ScalikeJDBC looks good for us and almost users