Orality and Literacy Walter J. Ong Routledge, 1982, 2002 『声の文化と文字の文化』（ウォルター・Ｊ・オング, 藤原書店, 1991）
Adventure Playground 670 words(C. Alexander) 2 photos, 1 sketch Any kind of playground which disturbs, or reduces, the role of imagination and makes the child more passive, more the recipient of someone else’s imagination, may look nice, may be clean, may be safe, may be health --- but it just cannot satisfy the fundamental need which play is all about. And, to put it bluntly, it is a waste of time and money. Huge abstract sculptured playlands are just as bad as asphalt playgrounds and jungle gyms. They are not just sterile; they are useless. The functions they perform have nothing to do with the child’s most basic needs. ... This need for adventurous and imaginative play is taken care of handily in small towns and in the countryside, where children have access to raw materials, space, and a somewhat comprehensible environment. In cities, however, it has become a pressing concern. The world of private toys and asphalt playgrounds does not provide the proper settings for this kind A castle, made of cartons, rocks, and old branches, by a of play. group of children for themselves, is worth a thousand perfectly detailed, exactly finished castles, made for them in a factory. Play has many functions; it gives children a chance to be together, a chance to use their bodies, to build muscles, and to test new skills. But above all, play is a function of the Therefore: imagination. A child’s play is his way of dealing with the issues Set up a playground for the children in each of his growth, of relieving tensions and exploring the future. It neighborhood. Not a highly finished playground, with reflects directly the problems and joys of his social reality. asphalt and swings, but a place with raw materials of all Children come to terms with the world, wrestle with their kinds --- nets, boxes, barrels, trees, ropes, simple tools, pictures of it, and reform these pictures constantly, through those frames, grass, and water --- where children can create adventures of imagination we call play. and re-create playgrounds of their own.
Jump In 182 words(Learning Patterns) 1 illustration No.4 No. Jump In Do not hesitate to jump into a new learning environment. You have already found the new environment wihch you wish to be in and about to start a new challenge. You are still doubtful whether the community is really suitable for you. It is not until you learn that you really understand what you wanted to learn. Jump into the new environment for your learning. “The great composer does not set to work because he is inspired, but be- “Make up your mind to act decidedly and take the consequences. No good Observe the events that happen there and learn from the members. Engage in the activity with all your effort as possible. After some time, evaluate the environment and rebuild a plan of your learning.
Cheer-up Cookies 68 words(Generative Beauty Patterns) 4 photos 31 Context Your feelings are unclear. Cheer-up Cookies Recover your mood Problem You can’t figure out why your feelings are so pent-up. Solution Know a way that would cheer you up. Listen to your favorite music; eat your favorite food; go out to the movies; talk to a friend. If you know what would cheer you up, you can always be in a good mood. ▶ 28. Lavish Makeover 37. Space Out
Adventure Playground 670 wordsPL1.0 (C. Alexander) 2 photos, 1 sketch Abstract Factory 2,159 wordsPL2.0 (GoF’s Design Patterns) 2 diagram 83 lines code Jump In 182 words (Leaerning Patterns) 1 illustrationPL3.0 Cheer-up Cookies 68 words (Generative Beauty Patterns) 4 photos Pattern Languages as Media for Narrative & Dialogues 語りと対話のメディアとして使うことを考え、パターンの文章を短くシンプルにしている。
Pattern Languages as Media for Narrative & Dialogues語りと対話のメディアとしてのパターン・ランゲージ
The Nature of OrderVol.1-4, Christopher AlexanderVol.1 The Phenomenon of LifePart One1. The Phenomenon of Life2. Degrees of Life3.Wholeness and the Theory of Centers4. How Life comes from Wholeness5. Fifteen Fundamental Properties6. The Fifteen Properties in NaturePart Two7. The Personal Nature of Order8. The Mirror of the Self9. Beyond Descartes: A New Form of ScientificObservation10. The Impact of Living Structure on Human Life11. The Awakening of Space Appendices: MathematicalAspects of Wholeness and Living Structure
Wholeness, Centers,and Pattern Languages ... these parts and entities are rarely pre- existing. They are more often themselves created by the wholeness. This apparent paradox (seeming paradoxical only because of the simple-minded way in which it is expressed) is a fundamental issue in the nature of wholeness: the wholeness is made of parts; the parts are created by the wholeness. To understand wholeness we must have a conception in which "parts" and wholes work in this holistic way. To have a consistent way of talking about these entities, during recent years, I have learned to call them all (whether parts or or local wholes or hardly visible coherent Centers entities), "centers." Christopher Alexander,The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE, Chapter 3, p.84
The Fifteen Fundamental Properties STRONG CENTERS LEVELS OF SCALE POSITIVE SPACES ALTERNATING REPETITION BOUNDARIES CONTRAST THE VOID GRADIENTS GOOD SHAPE ECHOES NOT- DEEP SEPARATENESS INTERLOCK AND LOCAL AMBIGUITY SYMMETRIES SIMPLICITY AND INNER CALM ROUGHNESS Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on Christopher Alexander,The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE
1. Levels Of Scale 2. Strong Centers 3. BoundariesThe FifteenFundamentalProperties 4. AlternatingL Repetition 5. Positive Spaces 6. Good Shape 7. Local Symmetries 8. Deep Interlock and Ambiguity 9. Contrast 10. Gradients 11. Roughness 12. Echoes 13. The Void 14. Simplicity and Inner Calm 15. Not-Separateness Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on Christopher Alexander,The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE
The Fifteen Fundamental Properties1. Levels Of Scale 2. Strong Centers 3. Boundaries4. AlternatingL Repetition 5. Positive Spaces 6. Good Shape Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on Christopher Alexander,The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE
The Fifteen Fundamental Properties7. Local Symmetries 8. Deep Interlock and Ambiguity 9. Contrast10. Gradients 11. Roughness 12. Echoes Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on Christopher Alexander,The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE
The Fifteen Fundamental Properties13. The Void 14. Simplicity and Inner Calm 15. Not-Separateness Visualized by Takashi Iba, based on Christopher Alexander,The Nature of Order, BOOK ONE
Town / community buildingsAlexander’s 1. INDEPENDENT REGIONS 2. THE DISTRIBUTION OF TOWNS 3. CITY COUNTRY FINGERS 4. AGRICULTURAL VALLEYS 5. LACE OF COUNTRY STREETS 67. COMMON LAND 68. CONNECTED PLAY 69. PUBLIC OUTDOOR ROOM 70. GRAVE SITES 71. STILL WATER 72. LOCAL SPORTS 95. BUILDING COMPLEX 96. NUMBER OF STORIES 97. SHIELDED PARKING 98. CIRCULATION REALMS 99. MAIN BUILDING 100. PEDESTRIAN STREET 127. INTIMACY GRADIENT 128. INDOOR SUNLIGHT 129. COMMON AREAS AT THE HEART 130. ENTRANCE ROOM 131. THE FLOW THROUGH ROOMS 132. SHORT PASSAGESPatterns & 6. COUNTRY TOWNS 73. ADVENTURE PLAYGROUND 101. BUILDING THOROUGHFARE 133. STAIRCASE AS A STAGE 7. THE COUNTRYSIDE 74. ANIMALS 102. FAMILY OF ENTRANCES 134. ZEN VIEW 103. SMALL PARKING LOTS 135. TAPESTRY OF LIGHT AND DARK 8. MOSAIC OF SUBCULTURES 75. THE FAMILY 9. SCATTERED WORK 76. HOUSE FOR A SMALL FAMILY 104. SITE REPAIR 136. COUPLES REALM 10. MAGIC OF THE CITY 77. HOUSE FOR A COUPLE 105. SOUTH FACING OUTDOORS 137. CHILDRENS REALM 11. LOCAL TRANSPORT AREAS 78. HOUSE FOR ONE PERSON 106. POSITIVE OUTDOOR SPACE 138. SLEEPING TO THE EASTThe Fifteen 79. YOUR OWN HOME 107. WINGS OF LIGHT 139. FARMHOUSE KITCHEN 12. COMMUNITY OF 7000 108. CONNECTED BUILDING 140. PRIVATE TERRACE ON THE STREET 13. SUBCULTURE BOUNDARY 80. SELF-GOVERNING WORKSHOPS AND OFFICES 109. LONG THIN HOUSE 141. A ROOM OF ONES OWN 14. IDENTIFIABLE NEIGHBORHOOD 81. SMALL SERVICES WITHOUT RED TAPE 142. SEQUENCE OF SITTING SPACES 15. NEIGHBORHOOD BOUNDARY 82. OFFICE CONNECTIONS 110. MAIN ENTRANCE 143. BED CLUSTER 83. MASTER AND APPRENTICES 111. HALF-HIDDEN GARDEN 144. BATHING ROOM 16. WEB OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION 84. TEENAGE SOCIETY 112. ENTRANCE TRANSITION 145. BULK STRAGE 17. RING ROADS 85. SHOPFRONT SCHOOLS 113. CAR CONNECTIONFundamental 18. NETWORK OF LEARNING 86. CHILDRENS HOME 114. HIERARCHY OF OPEN SPACE 146. FLEXIBLE OFFICE SPACE 19. WEB OF SHOPPING 115. COURTYARDS WHICH LIVE 147. COMMUNAL EATING 20. MINI-BUSES 87. INDIVIDUALLY OWNED SHOPS 116. CASCADE OF ROOFS 148. SMALL WORK GOURPS 88. STREET CAFE 117. SHELTERING ROOF 149. RECEPTION WELCOMES YOU 21. FOUR-STORY LIMIT 89. CORNER GROCERY 118. ROOF GARDEN 150. A PLACE TO WAIT 22. NINE PER CENT PARKING 90. BEER HALL 151. SMALL MEETING ROOMS 23. PARALLEL ROADS 91. TRAVELERS INN 119. ARCADES 152. HALF-PRIVATE OFFICEProperties 24. SACRED SITES 92. BUS STOP 120. PATHS AND GOALS 25. ACCESS TO WATER 93. FOOD STANDS 121. PATH SHAPE 153. ROOMS TO RENT 26. LIFE CYCLE 94. SLEEPING IN PUBLIC 122. BUILDING FRONTS 154. TEENAGERS COTTAGE 27. MEN AND WOMEN 123. PEDESTRIAN DENSITY 155. OLD AGE COTTAGE 124. ACTIVITY POCKETS 156. SETTLED WORK 28. ECCENTRIC NUCLEUS 125. STAIR SEATS 157. HOME WORKSHOP 29. DENSITY RINGS 126. SOMETHING ROUGHLY IN THE MIDDLE 158. OPEN STAIRS 30. ACTIVITY NODES 31. PROMENADE 159. LIGHT ON TWO SIDES OF EVERY ROOM 32. SHOPPING STREET 160. BUILDING EDGE 33. NIGHT LIFE 161. SUNNY PLACE 34. INTERCHANGE 162. NORTH FACE 163. OUTDOOR ROOM 35. HOUSEHOLD MIX 164. STREET WINDOWS 36. DEGREES OF PUBLICNESS STRONG 165. OPENING TO THE STREET 37. HOUSE CLUSTER 166. GALLERY SURROUND CENTERS 38. ROW HOUSES LEVELS OF SCALE 167. SIX-FOOT BALCONY 39. HOUSING HILL 168. CONNECTION TO THE EARTH 40. OLD PEOPLE EVERYWHERE 169. TERRACED SLOPE 41. WORK COMMUNITY POSITIVE SPACES ALTERNATING 170. FRUIT TREES 42. INDUSTRIAL RIBBON 171. TREE PLACES REPETITION 43. UNIVERSITY AS A MARKETPLACE 172. GRADEN GROWING WILD 44. LOCAL TOWN HALL BOUNDARIES 173. GARDEN WALL 45. NECKLACE OF COMMUNITY PROJECTS 174. TRELLISED WALK CONTRAST 46. MARKET OF MANY SHOPS 175. GREENHOUSE 47. HEALTH CENTER 176. GRADEN SEAT THE VOID GRADIENTS 48. HOUSING IN BETWEEN 177. VEGETABLE GARDEN 178. COMPOST 49. LOOPED LOCAL ROADS 50. T JUNCTIONS GOOD SHAPE 179. ALCOVE 51. GREEN STREETS 180. WINDOW PLACE 52. NETWORK OF PATHS AND CARS 181. THE TREE 53. MAIN GATEWAYS ECHOES 182. EATING ATMOSPHERE 54. ROAD CROSSING 183. WORKSPACE ENCLOSURE 55. RAISED WALK NOT- DEEP 184.COOKING LAYOUT 56. BIKE PATHS AND RACKS SEPARATENESS INTERLOCK AND 185. SITTING CIRCLE 57. CHILDREN IN THE CITY AMBIGUITY 186. COMMUNAL SLEEPING LOCAL 187. MARRIAGE BED 58. CARNIVAL SYMMETRIES 188. BED ALCOVE 59. QUIET BACKS 189. DRESSING ROOM 60. ACCESSIBLE GREEN SIMPLICITY AND 61. SMALL PUBLIC SQUARES 190. CEILING HEIGHT VARIETY 62. HIGH PLACES INNER CALM ROUGHNESS 191. THE SHAPE OF INDOOR SPACE 63. DANCING IN THE STREET 192. WINDOWS OVERLOOKING LIFE 64. POOLS AND STREAMS 193. HALF-OPEN WALL 65. BIRTH PLACES 194. INTERIOR WINDOWS 66. HOLY GROUND 195. STAIRCASE VOLUME 196. CORNER DOORS 197. THICK WALLS structure / details 198. CLOSETS BETWEEN ROOMS 199. SUNNY COUNTER 200. OPEN SHELVES 205. STRUCTURE FOLLOWS SOCIAL SPACES 226. COLUMN PLACE 201. WAIST-HIGH SHELF 206. EFFICIENT STRUCTURE 227. COLUMN CONNECTION 202. BUILT-IN SEATS 207. GOOD MATERIALS 228. STAIR VAULT 203. CHILD CAVES 208. GRADUAL STIFFENING 229. DUCT SPACE 204. SECRET PLACE 230. RADIANT HEAT 209. ROOF LAYOUT 231. DORMER WINDOWS 210. FLOOR AND CEILING LAYOUT 232. ROOF CAPS 211. THICKENING THE OUTER WALLS 212. COLUMNS AT THE CORNERS 223. FLOOR SURFACE 213. FINAL COLUMN DISTRIBUTION 234. LAPPED OUTSIDE WALLS 235. SOFT INSIDE WALLS 214. ROOT FOUNDATION 236. WINDOWS WHICH OPEN WIDE 215. GROUND FLOOR SLAB 237. SOLID DOORS WITH GLASS 216. BOX COLUMNS 238. FILTERED LIGHTVisualized by Takashi Iba, based on 217. PERIMETER BEAMS 239. SMALL PANES 218. WALL MEMBRANES 240. HALF-INCH TRIM 219. FLOOR-CEILING VAULTS 220. ROOF VAULTS 241. SEAT SPOTSChristopher Alexander,The Nature of 242. FRONT DOOR BENCH 221. NATURAL DOORS AND WINDOWS 243. SITTING WALL 222. LOW SILL 244. CANVAS ROOFS 249. ORNAMENT 223. DEEP REVEALS 245. RAISED FLOWERS 250. WARM COLORSOrder, BOOK ONE 224. LOW DOORWAY 225. FRAMES AS THICKENED EDGES 246. CLIMBING PLANTS 247. PAVING WITH CRACKS BETWEEN THE STONES 248. SOFT TILE AND BRICK 251. DIFFERENT CHAIRS 252. POOLS OF LIGHT 253. THINGS FROM YOUR LIFE
a whole of learninga learner learning learning learning as a center as a center learning as a center as a center