3.2 revision 2013

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Revision powerpoint for 3.2 Tourism Development focusing on Hawaii and Rotorua by Takapuna Grammar Geography

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3.2 revision 2013

  1. 1. TOURISM DEVELOPMENT REVISION 3.2
  2. 2. In this session: • It will be more like a lecture because of time • I suggest you listen and understand rather than trying to make copious notes • I will make the power point available on knowledge net so you can look at it in more detail later.
  3. 3. This standard is titled: Demonstrate understanding of how a cultural process shapes geographic environment(s)
  4. 4. This standard is titled: Shapes an environment = how it has got to be how it is today via TD Demonstrate understanding of how a cultural process shapes geographic environment(s)
  5. 5. This standard is titled: Demonstrate understanding of how a cultural process shapes geographic environment(s) Your cultural process is Tourism Development
  6. 6. It is important to appreciate that the AS states: • Demonstrate comprehensive understanding of how a cultural process shapes geographic environment(s) involves: • • providing an insightful analysis of aspects of the cultural process and how they shape the geographic environment(s) • • integrating comprehensive supporting case study evidence. • An insightful analysis includes an analysis of the links between the elements of the cultural process to draw conclusions.
  7. 7. Hence to score marks you must: • 1. Analyse not just describe (always give depth) • 2. Show understanding of the process • 3. Use 2 different settings in the paper with specifics on each(or you can do one) but that’s not a great idea IMHO
  8. 8. Understand this is different to the 3.1 • There is only ONE process (3.1 has several) • There are 2 settings (3.1 only has 1) • Hence is more about ONE process that you must know well.
  9. 9. How Well Do You Know Your Specifics? • On some paper write down: • 5 specifics based on Rotorua • 5 specifics based on Waikiki
  10. 10. We will break up this revision session into: • 1. Going over content • 2. How To answer Questions • 3. What to expect with this exam.
  11. 11. Part 1: CONTENT
  12. 12. 3.2 CONTENT • There are 5 main parts to the AS: • the operation of the cultural process • spatial variations found in the cultural process • temporal variations found in the cultural process • factors that have brought about change in the cultural process • effects of the cultural process on people and places. •
  13. 13. Background to the settings:
  14. 14. Location
  15. 15. Describe each location: • Rotorua lies approx 200km SE of Auckland in the Bay of Plenty region. It has a latitude of 38°S and longitude of 176°E. • Waikiki lies 3km SE of Honolulu on the Southern coast of Oahu Island in Hawaii. Longitude157° 50' W Latitude: 21° 16‘N.
  16. 16. Background to the Process INPUTS PROCESS Attractions OUTPUTS Spatial Patterns OPERATION OF Tourists Facilities TOURISM DEVELOPMENT Effects of the process
  17. 17. Background to the elements • How can we analyse or break down these categories in a logical way? • • • • ATTRACTIONS Natural and Cultural Primary and Secondary Fixed and Footloose • • • • • TOURISTS Domestic and International Different Ages Different Socio-economic groups Allocentric (wanderlust) and Psychocentric (sunlust)
  18. 18. • FACILITIES • Accommodation (Hotels, motels, backpackers, campgrounds and specialist) • Transport (roads, air) • Retail (shopping centres, souvenirs, cafes and nightclubs) • Services (information, conference centres) • • • • REGULATORS Government (visas, immigration, exchange rate) Local Council (planning zones, bye laws) Local Community (positive attitude or otherwise, Iwi)
  19. 19. Now need to add the details:
  20. 20. TOURISTS ROTORUA -3.2 million tourists of which 1.5 million stay overnight. 70% of these are domestic and 30% International mainly from Australia and UK. Stay 2.1 nights and contribute $250 million into regions economy. Wanderlust and families dominate TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Mainly fixed natural such as Waimangu valley or Hell’s Gate or cultural connected to Maori culture such as Tamaki Village. TOURIST FACILITIES -Accommodation 150 establishments mostly motels like 4 Canoes but a few high quality hotels like Rydges -Transport Where 3 major highways converge. Easy road and air access to Auckland and International traffic to Australia. -Services Tourism Rotorua provides good information. Good conference venue with Unison Arena
  21. 21. TOURISTS WAIKIKI -5 million tourists 65% of these are domestic and 25% International mainly from Japan (17%). Mainly young and single. Sunlust. Stay 9 nights and contribute $12 billion into regions economy. TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Mainly natural based around water sports (Outrigger canoes or Haunama Bay snorkelling) or cultural connected to Polynesian culture ( Polynesian cultural Centre or Paradise Valley Lu’au). Secondary attractions in shopping. TOURIST FACILITIES -Accommodation 39,000 rooms of which 17% high class. Most hotels such as Sheraton Moana or Ohana Malia. Transport Easy access from airport via Lunalilo highway. Retail 12 shopping centres within walking distance of hotels such as Ala Moana centre. -Services good conference centre for business market
  22. 22. Criteria 1: The Operation of the Process • A process is a series of actions. This happens then this and then this. • First you start with an Attraction then the tourists come, then there is a need for facilities, then more tourists come so you provide more attractions and on it goes. • This is trickier to see than for a natural process in 3.1 as there is no end product. It is all interconected.
  23. 23. Criteria 1: The operation Of the Process • Hence it is easier to show this as the interaction between the 3 main elements: TOURISTS TOURIST ATTRACTIONS TOURIST FACILITIES
  24. 24. The operation Of the Process REGULATORS TOURISTS REGULATORS TOURIST ATTRACTIONS TOURIST FACILITIES
  25. 25. Regulators TOURIST ATTRACTIONS Government- Zoning, visas, Expos Social- Locals favour tourism Mainly fixed natural such as Waimangu valley or Hell’s Gate or cultural connected to Maori culture such as Tamaki Village. TOURISTS -3.2 million tourists of which 1.5 million stay overnight. 70% of these are domestic and 30% International mainly from Australia and UK. Stay 2.1 nights and contribute $250 million into regions economy. TOURIST FACILITIES -Accommodation 150 establishments mostly motels like 4 Canoes but a few high quality hotels like Rydges -Transport Regulators Local operators – band together to promote tourism ie Tourism Rotorua Iwi – own much of land used for tourism -Where 3 major highways converge. Easy road and air access to Auckland and International traffic to Australia. -Services Tourism Rotorua provides good information. Good conference venue with Unison Arena
  26. 26. Check you understand these interactions: My resort has lots of lovely beaches - who do I want to attract?
  27. 27. Check you understand these interactions: Young, single tourists Provide good night life Adventure tourism
  28. 28. Check you understand these interactions: Older tourists More sedate attractions Cafes and nice restaurants
  29. 29. For Our Settings: • International Tourists in Rotorua • Families in Rotorua • Domestic Market in Rotorua and Waikiki • Wanderlust tourist to Rotorua • Japanese in Waikiki • More expensive tourist to Waikiki
  30. 30. For Our Settings: • International Tourists in Rotorua (Agrodome, Te Puia) • Families in Rotorua (Paradise Valley,Motels) • Domestic Market (Luge, Agroventures,Fast Food Chains) • Wanderlust tourist to Rotorua (Backpackers and motels) • Japanese in Waikiki (Japanese shops,) • More expensive tourist to Waikiki (luxury hotels)
  31. 31. Interactions show 2 way effects: I demand a nice place to stay I supply a nice hotel to attract those who want it.
  32. 32. Criteria 2: Temporal Variation This is easier to see over time: Starts with an attraction A few people come to see it They tell more people who also come As more people come more facilities and attractions are provided This attracts more tourists to come
  33. 33. This results in the stages of the Butler model:
  34. 34. Check you understand the term ‘Temporal Variation” • A process happens fast at some stages in time and slow in others. This is dependant on the elements that are present.
  35. 35. You can see that the operation of the process is not constant. This varies over time (temporal variations) STAGE Tourists Attractions Facilities Regulators ONE TWO THREE FOUR
  36. 36. You can see that the operation of the process is not constant. This varies over time (temporal variations) STAGE ONE TWO THREE FOUR Tourists Very few A few Lots Fluctuates around max Attractions One main one A few Lots Upgrades only Facilities Very few A few Lots Upgrades only Regulators Too small to effect locals Start to have a small impact Positive as effects spread – need for schemes Negative effects as problems occur. Laws. For temporal variations choose 2 different stages to compare
  37. 37. So put this together: • STAGE 1: Based on one attraction only, Few tourists, no facilities, no one aware of it so no impacts on area. TD shows very little growth. • STAGE 2: A couple of attractions, slightly more tourists but tend to be wealthy only, Starting to get more known, more facilities for these few, hard to reach. TD starting to slowly grow • STAGE 3: Boom of tourists as open to all socio-economic groups, easier to get to, rapid rise in attractions and facilities, need for planning as having impact on area both positive and negative. TD grows rapidly • STAGE 4: Number of tourists plateau as reached max can cope with, problems arise, need to upgrade attractions and facilities. TD slows.
  38. 38. So details for each setting: A. Rotorua • STAGE 1: First attraction Pink and white Terraces and moved to Whakarewarewa after 1886, Few wealthy English tourists, Princes Gate hotel, no one aware of it so no impacts on area. TD shows very little growth. • STAGE 2: government invests in new bath house and starts spa attraction, slightly more tourists but tend to be wealthy Europeans only, Starting to get more known, more facilities for these few such as Fenton St, hard to reach. TD starting to slowly grow • STAGE 3: Boom of tourists in 1960’s as open to all socio-economic groups following development in air and road travel, easier to get to, rapid rise in attractions such as Paradise Valley and facilities like Four Canoes motel, need for planning by RDC as having impact on area both positive and negative. TD grows rapidly
  39. 39. B. Waikiki: • STAGE 1: Based on one attraction of beach only, Few tourists from Honolulu only, only facility is Sheraton Moana hotel, no one aware of it so no impacts on area. Unpleasant due to swamp and mosquitoes so TD shows very little growth. • STAGE 2: Draining of swamp in 1922 led to more facilities like Pink Palace 1927, slightly more tourists but tend to be wealthy Californians only, Starting to get more known, hard to reach. TD starting to slowly grow • STAGE 3: Boom of tourists as open to all socio-economic groups, grew from 300,000 1960 to 7 million by 1990, due to planes so easier to get to, rapid rise in attractions and facilities, 13,000 rooms 1960 to 39,000 by 1990. TD grows rapidly • STAGE 4: Number of tourists plateau around 7 million as reached max can cope with and last piece of real estate sold, problems arise, Set room cap at 39,000 and introduce one way street system, need to upgrade attractions and facilities. TD slows.
  40. 40. SPECIALISATION PHASE UK ROTORUA AUCKLAND USA Paradise Valley Agrodome Museum Plane Plane/ car Buried Village Australia Te Puia Rydges Japan Backpackers Attraction for domestic visitor Motel South Korea Hotel Attraction for international visitor
  41. 41. When the process operates it results in spatial patterns • You should be able to show the distribution of attractions and facilities (accommodation, transport, retail and services) on a map of your setting. Where are they located • From this you should then identify specific patterns. Use terms such as linear, clustered and dispersed.
  42. 42. This is not enough alone: • From this you should then identify specific patterns. Use terms such as linear, clustered and dispersed.
  43. 43. Criteria 3: Spatial Variation • Check you know what this means. The process is not happening uniformly everywhere. It happens more here than here. • For a ‘variation/difference’ you must mention 2 places to count. • We break this down into the core, the fringe and the periphery. You will need to describe the variation and explain it.
  44. 44. Spatial variations exist because the elements differ in different parts: CORE Tourists Attractions Facilities Transport FRINGE PERIPHERY
  45. 45. Spatial variations exist because the elements differ in different parts: CORE FRINGE PERIPHERY Tourists Lots Some Few Attractions Lots both primary and secondary Those needing more land Fixed only that are unique Facilities Lots Those needing land like camp grounds Specialised like resorts Transport Good network Some roads Few roads TD extensive in core TD specialised only in periphery. Operators need to publicise this area more.
  46. 46. Give Reasons for these patterns: • HISTORY: Where it began and acted as a node for further development of necessary infrastructure. • ACCESSIBILITY: Must be easy for tourists to reach via road network and air. Generally where these meet. • LAND NEEDS: Importance of being near to the centre or does it need lots of land so have to move to outskirts, how unique is it? • TOURISTS: Need to be where the tourists are, where are main roads, how much as tourists prepared to travel to get there?
  47. 47. Apply to Each setting. A. Rotorua • History: Began Bath house and Whakarewarewa so developed along Fenton St. Infrastructure build along here. • Accessibility: where State highway 5 and 30 meet, close to airport. Fenton Street easy for tourists to get to places. Development of airport opens up to other destinations like Australia and Queenstown. • Tourists: Wanderlust tourists who only stay 2 days. Prepared to travel so can afford to locate some attractions on fringes • Land Needs: Attractions often unique (geothermal valleys) and fixed so tourists will go there. Also those needing lots of land on outskirts like Agrodome on main road or travel part of the attraction like Tamaki village. Cheaper accommodation on fringes like campgrounds and backpackers.
  48. 48. Apply to Each setting. B. Waikiki • History: Beach main attraction so area most in demand. Infrastructure build along here. Sheltered part of Island. • Accessibility: Easy access from airport on Lunalilo highway and along Kalakau Ave, easy for tourists to get to places. • Tourists: Sunlust tourists who stay 9 days. Not so prepared to travel so most attractions need to be within waking distance of the hotels. • Land Needs: Attractions which are unique (North Shore beaches) and fixed so tourists will go there. Also those needing lots of land on outskirts like Polynesian cultural Centre on main road or travel part of the attraction like Paradise Cove Lu’au. Get land use zones away from beach with residential pushed to back of beach. Also morphological pattern of building height.
  49. 49. Some factors change the way that the process operates. FACTOR MAKES TD INCREASE OR DECREASE
  50. 50. YOU CAN BREAK THEASE FACTORS DOWN: • We remember this by the word: • S ocial You can also break this down in internal and external factors and those that cause TD to • P olitical increase and those that make it decrease • E conomic • N atural • T echnological
  51. 51. • Social – Commercialism of culture, crime, fear of flying, trends like adventure tourism and ecotourism, friendly nature • Political – Exchange rate, need for visas, airport security, local laws, planning schemes, government agreements
  52. 52. • Economic – Stock market crash, worldwide recession, tourist prices, oil prices, competition of airlines, injection of capital, upgrading, multiplier effect. • Natural – disasters like cyclones, earthquakes and tsunamis, climate change. • Technological – transport, internet booking and information, new inventions
  53. 53. Finally is the effects on people and place OPERATION OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT EFFECT ON PEOPLE EFFECT ON PLACE Note this is the opposite way round to the former
  54. 54. We can break this down further: • People refers to the cultural environment • Place refers to the natural environment • Effects can be positive or negative
  55. 55. • Think SEE • Social • Economic • Environmental • • This is tricky – many factors causing change also become an effect like commercialism of culture, high prices, crime
  56. 56. • Social – Effect of commercialism, crime, lots to do, preservation of culture, pushing locals to outskirts, anti-tourist feeling • Economic – Tourist prices, jobs, economy • Environmental – pollution, way of preserving local ecosystems, education.
  57. 57. End of content • Do you feel you understand this better? • Get up and have a 3 min break.
  58. 58. Part B: How To Answer questions • They are asked in 3 ways: • 1. An Essay (diagrams may be included) • 2. A diagram only (one or a series of them) • 3. A diagram for (a) with a written component for (b)
  59. 59. Let us start with Essays
  60. 60. Rules for different grades: • Be clear what the different grades are awarded for • There are at least 2 marks per question • 1 refers to depth of answer • 1 refers to use of specific information
  61. 61. Let’s look at depth of answer first: • Analyse the temporal variations that occur in your chosen cultural process in one of your settings • Tourism is happening at a fast rate in Rotorua today as so many tourists go there. • This gets an NA as does not show an understanding of ‘temporal variation’ or analyses.
  62. 62. • Tourism is happening at a faster rate in the centre of Rotorua than in the periphery today since more facilities occur in the centre compared to the periphery. • • This now would get an A as has some explanation/ analysis in it
  63. 63. • Tourism is happening at different rates in different parts of Rotorua. It is happening more extensively in central Rotorua where most attractions and facilities occur compared to the periphery where it only occurs in a few locations as attractions and facilities here are more dispersed. • This has some depth so gets a Merit.
  64. 64. To lift this further you need to give technical understanding • As a process Tourism Development does not act equally in all parts of an environment but is concentrated into specific locations. In Rotorua it is concentrated in the centre where the process began. As a consequence the main elements required for the process , attractions and facilities are numerous. These attract tourists and the process grows by cumulative causation. In contrast the process occurs to a much lesser extent in the periphery. Such areas are harder to reach so are less accessible for tourists. As a result only the few attractions and facilities able to locate on the main road are visited and are part of the process. Attractions and facilities here are much more dispersed and rely on their unique characteristics or need for extensive areas of land to attract visitors to them.
  65. 65. Then you must add specific information to this: • First time it is linked to setting is equal to an A • When 3 mentions made becomes an M • When more than 3 used throughout the answer becomes an E. • (you can repeat specifics in different questions)
  66. 66. So if we take our Excellence example it becomes: • Tourism Development (TD) is an important process in Rotorua, located 200km SE of Auckland since it is visited by over 3 million people a year of which 1.5 million stay an average of 2.1 nights. As a process TD does not act equally in all parts of an environment but is concentrated into specific locations. In Rotorua it is concentrated in the centre where the process began when Whakarewarewa was set up as a major tourist attraction in the 1890’s. As a consequence the main elements required for the process , attractions and facilities are numerous. Over 100 motels occur along Fenton Street. These attract tourists and the process grows by cumulative causation. In contrast the process occurs to a much lesser extent in the periphery. Such areas are harder to reach so are less accessible for tourists. As a result only the few attractions and facilities able to locate on the main road such as the Agrodome are visited and are part of the process. Attractions and facilities here are much more dispersed and rely on their unique characteristics such as the Waimangu geothermal valley or need for extensive areas of land such as Tamaki Village to attract visitors to them.
  67. 67. What Are the other rules about essays? • 1. Read the question carefully and highlight key words • 2. Do a rough plan on the planning page and keep to it. • 3. It needs an introduction, body and conclusion • 4. You must write in full sentences. Bullet points or note form is only able to score a maximum of an A. • 5. Use space as a guide to length needed. Aim to fill this. • 6. Try to include at least one diagram even if rough and refer to it in text.
  68. 68. Learn a few short cuts: • Start with a standard paragraph that includes your 3 specifics: • Tourism Development is an important process in Rotorua which is located 200km SE of Auckland and is visited by over 3 million tourists a year. • Specifics can also count in a map so include this.
  69. 69. Diagrams
  70. 70. What is the difference? • 1. A stand alone diagram question • You need to give extensive notes that allow analysis and specific information. If it says ‘use correct mapping conventions” remember FACKTS • 2. A diagram as part (a) with written part (b). • Again usually asks for FACKTS. However as both sections marked as a whole do not need to give as extensive notes as in 1. • 3. A diagram within an essay • This does not need its FACKTS or any annotations but adds to info in your essay.
  71. 71. Add this to your map as well as FACKTS
  72. 72. Part 3 : What is this years exam likely to look like?
  73. 73. Assessment Specifications • Format of the assessment • Candidates will be provided with a choice of TWO questions to answer. • Candidates will be expected to answer ONE question using both an annotated map or diagram and a related written component. • Both parts contribute toward the single grade that will be awarded.
  74. 74. • Format of the assessment • Candidates should use specific information and / or case studies to illustrate their answers • • Equipment to bring • Scientific calculator, coloured pencils, and a ruler. • Candidates should use coloured pencils in their diagrams / maps. Annotations on these diagrams / maps must be in pen. Any work done in pencil will not be eligible for reconsideration.
  75. 75. What can we learn from this? • Format is 2 questions but you choose 1 only • You must include both Rotorua and Waikiki to get best marks. Read all questions first to see which setting applies the most • There is the need to justify. This can be based on one setting by looking at other elements/factors or comparing Rotorua to Waikiki.
  76. 76. Finally • Have we answered all your questions • Do you have any other questions on 3.2?
  77. 77. Tips for 3.4: • 1. It will take the longest as material new to you. Suggest leave to last unless it is your strength. • 2. As will take longest try to get others done in correct time so you can have time for this. • 3. Attempt every question especially a skills and an ideas question. You need to pass 2 of the 3 to Achieve the paper • 4. Read questions carefully and look for the key words to highlight. • 5. Use space given as a guide to length of answer.
  78. 78. • 6. You must use the resources provided so if a familiar setting do not be tempted to bring in extra information • 7. Look at instruction words – accurate , detailed, justify, evaluate, critically evaluate. • 8. Remember you graphing rules. Title, Even Scale, Axes labelled, key or labels, accurate points and shading.
  79. 79. General Tips For All Papers: • 1. Don’t forget to bring correct equipment. Know how to delete memory of calculator. • 2. Work out the order you intend to do exams before and stick to it. • 3. Watch the clock!! • 4. Use time wisely – if you finish early check your answers. You cannot go back later!! • 5. Please leave resource booklet on the desk so we can use these in future.
  80. 80. FINALLY • Get in touch if you think of any other questions s.smith@takapuna.school.nz • If you have any concerns re marking then bring in your papers to us at start of Feb next year. You have only a few weeks for this. • Bring in ANY Social Studies resources you have at home – no questions asked!!
  81. 81. •Good luck – show what you can do!!! We will be thinking of you. • See you at leavers dinner!!!

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