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Culture. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch17 culture


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From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO).

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Culture. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch17 culture

  1. 1. Completed in 1930, the painting Festival on South Street is one of Kuo Hsueh-hu’s best-loved works. This gouache-on-silk (188x94.5 cm, detail shown here) depicts Taipei’s bustling Dihua Street during the Ghost Festival. (Courtesy of Taipei Fine Arts Museum)17-new-1014.indd 234 2011/10/18 2:43:13 AM
  2. 2. 17 Culture At a Glance • Reinventing traditional arts • An increasingly varied dance scene • Art festivals showcase local and international works T aiwan is a multi-ethnic society, where waves of settlement and encounters with other civilizations have bequeathed it a diverse cultural heritage. The settlers from southern main- land China centuries ago, the 17th-century Dutch and S ­ panish presence, Japanese colonial rule from 1895 to 1945, and the influx of 1.3 million people from various parts of mainland China in 1949 all helped shape the culture. Millennia-old customs and rituals of its indigenous peoples continue to be observed in Taiwan today, while cross-cultural marriages involving more than 400,000 new immigrants have further enriched the island’s cultural tapestry, making Taiwan an i ­ncubator of diverse art forms that not only coexist, but blend with or influence each other. In 2010, a number of firsts were seen in the cultural sector, including the inaugural Huashan Living Arts Festival, which featured over a h ­ undred performances and workshops. The first contemporary opera to ­ mploy nanguan music and the first feature-length film using only the e indigenous Atayal language were also highlights of the year. The first Taiwan Academy, which aims to promote Taiwan’s culture abroad, is also slated to open in 2011 in the United States. 23517-new-1014.indd 235 2011/10/18 2:43:13 AM
  3. 3. 17 Culture Folk Arts Tainan City 臺南市, while other notable styles of door deity paintings can be seen Common folk crafts include pa- at the historic Lin Family Gardens 林家 per cutting, knotting, dough sculpture, 花園 in Taichung City 臺中市. lantern making, lacquerwork, bamboo crafts, woodcarving, leather carving, jade Carving sculpture, gold carving, and pottery- and The Zushi Temple 祖師廟 in New porcelain-making. Waning interest in ap- Taipei City’s 新北市 Sanxia District 三峽 prenticeships threatens the passing on of 區 may be the island’s richest trove of crafting techniques. Traditional perform- temple wood carvings, featuring astonish- ing arts such as puppetry, folk opera, ing caisson (or “spider web”) ceilings of dragon and lion dances, and acrobatics interlocking wooden brackets, whirling have also had difficulty competing with layer upon layer in geometric symmetry. modern entertainment forms. Moreover, each of the temple’s wooden Nevertheless, folk arts have wit- sculptures is exquisitely carved, painted nessed a revival in the past two decades, and covered in gold leaf. As for carved thanks to public and private promotional deity statues, ­ iaoli County’s 苗栗縣 M efforts. The Folk Arts Preservation and Sanyi Township 三義鄉 has long enjoyed a Training Program 民間藝術保存傳習計畫, reputation for its delicate camphor josses. for example, has sponsored over 150 Stone carvings are another noteworthy projects to digitize the works of selected element of these places of worship. They craftspeople and performing groups. are often seen at temple entranceways in Also, the National Taiwan Craft Re- the form of lions, turtles or drums, inside search and Development Institute 國立臺 main halls on columns and as pillar bases, 灣工藝研究發展中心 and the National Cen- and sometimes as ­ cauldron-like incense ter for Traditional Arts 國立傳統藝術中心 burners and staircases. Outstanding ex- are compiling information on traditional amples of such works can be found at arts and promoting unique crafts and in- Tainan’s Chihkan Tower 赤崁樓 and Grand novation in the industry. Ma Zu Temple, and Miaoli County’s Tzuyu ­ emple 慈裕宮. T Temple Arts For centuries, temples have been Sculpture the center of community life. Both the Temples also feature colorful pottery physical structures themselves and the sculptures as architectural decorations. objects they contain are testament to the Jiannian 剪黏, or ceramic figurines of high level of crafting talent in Taiwan. dragons, phoenixes and other mythical features, may be found atop the swal- Painting lowtail roofs of temples. Koji pottery Temple paintings depict moral stories 交趾陶, found exclusively in Taiwan, is drawn from history and folklore, with o ­ ften attached to the upper-most panel of a major feature being illustrations of a temple’s walls or under temple eaves. heavenly generals as temple guardians or Though similar in appearance, jian- door deities. Masterpieces by individuals nian consists of pottery shards glued to trained in the schools of Pan Chun-yuan ­ ement and iron wire while koji pottery c 潘春源 and Chen ­ Yu-fong 陳玉峰 domi- is made of glazed clay. Ciji Temple 慈濟 nate the Grand Ma Zu Temple 大天后宮 in 宮 in Tainan City’s Xuejia District 學甲區 23617-new-1014.indd 236 2011/10/18 2:43:13 AM
  4. 4. and performers have also been involved in this effort by exploring their cultural heritage in their work. Arts and Crafts All 14 groups engage in woodcarving, weaving, basketry, beadwork and ceram- ics. Of these, the Yami 雅美, the Paiwan 排 灣 and the Rukai 魯凱 are master wood- carvers. The Yami, who live on Orchid Is- land 蘭嶼 off the southeast coast of Taiwan proper, construct wooden dugout canoes largely confined to ­ eremonial use today. c The Paiwan and the Rukai adorn their houses and numerous other artifacts with carvings of the “hundred-pace” snake, an- cestor figures and diamond patterns. The Paiwan, the Rukai and the ­ tayal A 泰雅 are renowned for their weaving. The first two groups use the same ­ otifs m found on their woodcarving, and the last prefers geometric patterns of squares, diamonds and triangles in red, blue, black and white. The Rukai, the Yami, the Bunun 布 農 and the Amis 阿美 all have strong The auspicious, mythical qilin is a t ­ raditions of pottery. The Paiwan as- common theme of koji pottery. sociate clay pots with ancestor worship, whereas among other groups, pots are for everyday use. Dance and Music houses excellent examples of both styles Each of Taiwan’s indigenous groups of sculptures. has unique traditions of dance, music and song that in the past were integral Indigenous Culture to tribal life. Today, these traditions still play a special role for many indig- As Han and Western cultures are the enous people. Communal dance rituals mainstream influences on Taiwan’s ­ ultural c are performed during important events, scene, the island’s 14 officially recognized such as springtime festivals, religious indigenous groups have been working ceremonies and coming-of-age rites. over the last two decades to preserve their Indigenous groups have a rich song cultural heritage and identity. Younger heritage that is connected to nearly generations are keeping their culture alive every aspect of traditional tribal life, by carrying on the practice of traditional from daily chores and harvests to love, arts, music and dance. ­ ndigenous artists I legends and religious rites. Their music 23717-new-1014.indd 237 2011/10/18 2:43:17 AM
  5. 5. 17 Culture is performed on string, woodwind and and were a way people could cheer each other on while working in the fields. percussion instruments. Hakka grand opera 客家大戲 is unique Hakka Culture to Taiwan, having incorporated elements of Taiwanese opera 歌仔戲 and popular In the course of adapting to local music into traditional operas, which circumstances, the early Hakka 客家 im- predominately featured tea-farming migrants and their descendants have de- songs. Themes include historical events veloped new aspects of Hakka culture in and Hakka anecdotes. About 20 opera Taiwan that are markedly different from troupes now perform across the island, those in mainland China. incorporating modern instruments and an innovative flair in a bid to expand their audience. Cuisine The frequently migrant Hakka learned Traditional Craft early on to make the most of available food resources, using seasonal ingredi- In Hakka culture, oiled paper parasols ents to produce a variety of pickled veg- signify “posterity” and “completeness.” etables, dipping sauces and desserts made In times past, Hakka parents would pres- of rice. A common treat for guests is lei ent a pair of paper parasols to a daughter (“pounded”) tea 擂茶 composed of tea on her wedding day or to a son during the leaves, sesame seeds and roasted peanuts ceremony marking his passage into adult- pounded into powder and then steeped in hood. Kaohsiung City’s 高雄市 Meinong hot or cold water. District 美濃區 enjoys a reputation for this unique craftwork. Traditional Clothing Though sharing a common belief in Calligraphy austerity and pragmatism, Hakka women Chinese brush writing, which dates in northern and southern Taiwan have back thousands of years, has developed developed sharply contrasting styles of into a means of self-expression and a traditional wear. While simple, plain prominent visual art form. The Qing blue shirts were prevalent in the south, court’s 清廷 opening of imperial civil serv­ floral fabric with big bright peonies ice examinations to residents of Taiwan in s ­ ymbolizing prosperity were preferred the late 19th century encouraged higher pattern in the north. Both styles have levels of learning, laying the groundwork seen interpretations of this incorporated for local calligraphers to emerge. into modern designs. At the end of the Chinese Civil War in 1949, many literati, including renowned Traditional Music and Drama calligraphers, followed the Republic of Hakka folk songs, known as “hill China government to Taiwan. Key figures songs” 山歌 or “tea-picking songs,” 採 of the day included Yu You-ren 于右任, who 茶歌 evolved from tunes sung by Hakka developed standard cursive script 草書 in pioneers as they worked on the farm or in the early 1930s; Tung Tso-pin 董作賓, the tea fields around their hilltop settlements. first to render the style used in the “oracle The melodies often took the form of an- bone” inscriptions in calligraphic form; tiphonal (or “call and response”) songs, and Fu Juan-fu 傅狷夫, famous for his 23817-new-1014.indd 238 2011/10/18 2:43:17 AM
  6. 6. continuous cursive script style in which ­ introspective studies of issues such as dozens of characters are completed with identity, personal relationships, materi- one uninterrupted stroke. alism versus spiritualism, and the mo­ In the 1990s, as this generation of dernizing society. These trends have calligraphers began to retire, younger continued into the new millennium. Con- calligraphers began to meld new styles temporary artists include Liu Shih-fen 劉 with traditional techniques. One of the 世芬, whose paintings ­ xplore gender is- e most celebrated of these modern callig- sues through her extraordinary renderings raphers is Tong Yang-tze 董陽孜, whose of the human body. outsized works are characterized by thick bold strokes and disproportioned, discon- nected characters set against generously Sculpture empty background. Temple, folk and indigenous sculp- ture have long been popular, but it was not until the 1970s that sculpture fi- Painting nally gained widespread acceptance as a In the 1980s, styles of painting and fi ­ ne-art genre. subject matters became increasingly di- The tide of Western abstractionism that verse. The Made in Taiwan 台灣製造 series swept through the art world in the 1960s by Yang Mao-lin 楊茂林 explored topics nurtured the first sculptor from ­ aiwan to T native to the island, such as sweet pota- attract worldwide attention. Yuyu Yang toes, sea shells, indigenous peoples, the 楊英風 was most famous for his stainless 17th-century Dutch presence and violent steel sculptures of traditional ­ Chinese outbursts in the Legislature. Other post- symbols, like the phoenix and dragon, modern artists broke through political converted into fluid forms. His works, taboos by providing alternative views on sometimes monumental in size, have been erected in cities around the world, such as Taiwan society, as with Wu Tien-chang’s his East West Gate 東西門 on Manhattan’s 吳天章 History Images 史學圖像 series, Wall Street and the ­ 3-foot Advent of the 2 which voiced strong dissatisfaction Phoenix 鳳凰來儀 in Osaka. through biting portrayal of politicians. The most accomplished contemporary Subtle innovations have also been seen sculptor in Taiwan is Ju Ming 朱銘, who in modern Chinese ink painting. Promi- initially trained as a folk sculptor before nent artists in this field include Liu Kuo- studying under Yuyu Yang. Ju made his sung 劉國松, who amalgamated abstract name in the 1970s with the Taichi Series expressionism and his own ideas into tra- 太極系列—large sculptures crafted from ditional ink paintings; Chu Ko 楚戈, whose thick, heavy wood rendering the gentle works featured ingenious combinations of fluid motions of the Chinese martial art. calligraphic cursive script and rope braid- Since the mid-1980s, he has explored ing; and Lo Ching 羅青, who conveyed a variety of other sculpture materials, modern elements such as buildings, i ­ncluding painted bronze, stainless steel airplanes and cell phones in the form of and stone. The Living World Series 人 conventional Chinese ink painting. 間系列, which has been in development A wave of Westernization took place for more than 30 years, is Ju’s most during the 1990s as a large number of s ­ ignificant composition. The latest in this students returned from abroad. ­ rt­­ ­ A ists series, Imprisonment 囚 (2010), reflects moved away from political critique ­oward t on three “frameworks” of society—that 23917-new-1014.indd 239 2011/10/18 2:43:17 AM
  7. 7. 17 Culture of imprisoning others, being imprisoned by others and self-imprisonment. the first contemporary nanguan opera to be staged by French-German theater director Lukas Hemleb and the Xinxin Nanguan Ensemble 心心南管樂坊. This Music adaptation of a Chinese legend portrays Beiguan and Nanguan the relationship between humans and God and people’s inability to maintain balance Beiguan 北管 and nanguan 南管, lit- between technology and nature. erally “northern pipes” and “southern pipes,” are two distinct styles of tradi- tional Chinese music brought to Taiwan Chinese Music by immigrants from the mainland’s Fu- Chinese music in Taiwan, known as jian Province 福建省. Beiguan, character- guoyue 國樂 (national music), consists ized by the playing of gongs, drums and mostly of traditional compositions played wind instruments at fast tempos, remains on Chinese instruments. Efforts have been integral today to religious processions, made to incorporate Western-style music funerals and traditional drama perfor- and local genres, including Taiwanese mances. The Lichun Club 梨春園, founded folk songs as well as Hakka, indigenous nearly 200 years ago, is the oldest extant and popular music. New interpretations beiguan performance group in Taiwan. are continually being introduced through In contrast to the sprightly beiguan increasing cultural exchanges with main- style, nanguan, whose core ensemble land China. comprises gentler-sounding instruments The four main professional Chinese such as the zither and bamboo flute, is music groups are: the Taipei Chinese marked by a soothing and emotive me- Orchestra 臺北市立國樂團, the National lodic progression. This ancient musical Chinese Orchestra Taiwan 臺灣國家國樂團, form has been given new life in recent the Kaohsiung City Chinese Orchestra 高 雄市立國樂團 and the Ensemble Orientalia productions. The classical dance drama of Taipei 台北民族樂團. The Chinese Music Mémoire des vents du Sud 教坊記, jointly Festival 國樂節 has been staged annually performed by the Han Tang Yuefu Music in Chiayi City 嘉義市 since 1995. Ensemble 漢唐樂府 and French music and vocal group Doulce Mémoire, integrated nanguan music with Buddhist melodies, Western Classical Music Taoist tunes and medieval French hymns. Taiwan’s leading professional orch­ s­ e Feather 羽, first performed in 2010, was tras include the National Taiwan ­ ymphony S Ju Percussion Group The first professional percussion group in Taiwan, the Ju Percussion Group 朱宗慶打擊樂 團 was founded in 1986. The group often blends sounds from Western and Chinese music using traditional and experimental instruments ranging from drums, gongs and xylophones to beer bottles, steel pipes and bursting balloons. In addition to giving performances at home and abroad, the group operates a traditional Chinese percussion music research cen- ter as well as educational centers for children. The Ju Percussion Group also organizes the triennial Taipei International Percussion Convention 台北國際打擊樂節, which was expanded and renamed the Taiwan International Percussion Convention 台灣國際打擊樂節 in May 2011. 24017-new-1014.indd 240 2011/10/18 2:43:18 AM
  8. 8. The National Concert Hall in Taipei City plays host to the best and brightest musical talents from around the world. The largest pipe organ in Asia can be seen at the rear. Orchestra 國立臺灣交響樂團, the National 20th century, when it was chiefly com- Symphony Orchestra 國家交響樂團, the posed of Japanese popular songs with lyr- Taipei Symphony Orchestra 臺北市立交響 ics translated into or rewritten in the Holo 樂團 and the Kaohsiung City Symphony language. Among pioneering songwriters Orchestra 高雄市交響樂團. These groups was Deng Yu-hsien 鄧雨賢, the “father of often work with foreign performers and Holo ballads,” whose songs flowed with conductors to perform works by Western vivid portrayals of society during the composers. Among private orchestras are Japanese colonial era. the Taipei Philharmonic Orchestra 台北愛 After encountering censorship in the 樂管絃樂團, the largest private ensemble 1970s, Holo popular music underwent a in Taiwan; and the Evergreen Symphony revival in the 1980s with the rise of ac- Orchestra 長榮交響樂團, one of the few in claimed artists such as Chiang Hui 江惠 the world that have performed with each and Blacklist Studio 黑名單工作室. The al- of the Three Tenors. bum Songs of Madness 抓狂歌 released by Major events in the realm of Western Blacklist Studio dealt with sociopolitical classical music in Taiwan in 2010 includ- issues and signaled a departure from old- ed two year-long celebrations of Chopin’s fashioned Japanese-style music through 200th birthday. The International Chopin a blend of rock, folk and even rap music. Festival 2010 featured world-class virtuo- Present singer-songwriters in the genre so pianists such as Garrick Ohlsson. And include Lim Giong 林強, Bobby Chen 陳昇, during the International Taiwan Chopin Wu Bai 伍佰 and Chen ­ ing-chang 陳明章. M Bicentennial Gala Festival, Taiwan’s best pianists performed all of the maestro’s Mandarin Popular Music nearly 200 musical creations. In the 1970s, a series of diplomatic crises triggered a strong sense of national Popular Music identity within the music community. A movement that came to be known as Holo Popular Music “campus folk songs” 校園民歌 was ­nitiated i Modern Holo 河洛語 popular music by college students ­ calling for more of dates back to the early decades of the “our own songs” over songs from the 24117-new-1014.indd 241 2011/10/18 2:43:19 AM
  9. 9. 17 Culture West. Characterized by freshness and simplicity, these tunes ­ commonly re- Ta-you 羅大佑 created a new model of Mandarin songs. Luo and Jonathan Lee 李 flected themes of nostalgia and self- 宗盛, who together dominated the scene sufficiency. With participation of the from the 1980s to the 1990s, were dubbed intelligentsia, the movement influenced the “godfather” and “musical genius” of culture and the market from the 1970s Mandarin popular ­ usic, ­ espectively. m r to the 1990s and laid the groundwork The 1990s were the heyday of popular for the Mandarin pop ­ usic industry. m music in Taiwan, which was at one point Injecting strong tones of social ­ riticism c Asia’s second-largest market behind only and rebellion into campus folk songs, Luo Japan. Today, Taiwan ­ ontinues to be the c Annual Awards and Cultural Events Film The Golden Horse Film Festival and Awards 金馬影展與金馬獎, established in 1962, is one of the most prestigious awards ceremonies for Chinese-language films. The Golden Harvest Awards 金穗獎, launched in 1978 for short features and non-commercial films, is a cradle for up-and-coming directors. Art The Taiwan Fine Art Biennial Exhibition 臺灣美術展覽會 started in 1927 promotes public appre- ciation of new and established artists. The annual Art Taipei 台北國際藝術展覽會 international exhibition showcases young artists. The Public Art Awards 公共藝術獎 begun in 2008 fosters public participation in and ­ familiarity with public art installations. Music The Golden Melody Awards 金曲獎, first held in 1990, are the major prizes for popular, classical, traditional and alternative music. The Taiwan Original Music Awards 臺灣原創流行音樂大獎, created in 2003, recognize songwriters and singers working in Holo, Hakka and indigenous languages. Culture The Executive Yuan Cultural Award 行政院文化獎, first presented in 2005, honors Taiwanese ­ artists, cultural performers, writers, composers, musicians and architects for outstanding cultural contributions. The National Award for Arts 國家文藝獎, held by the National Cultural and Arts Foundation 國家文化藝術基金會 since 1997, rewards achievement in literature, fine art, music, drama, dance, architecture and cinema. Literature The Taiwan Literature Award 台灣文學獎, presented by the National Museum of Taiwan ­ Litera­ure 國立台灣文學館 since 2006, recognizes literary works including novels, essays, t poetry and scripts in Mandarin and Holo. The Golden Tripod Awards 金鼎獎, created in 1976, honors outstanding organizations and ­ individuals in the publishing world. 24217-new-1014.indd 242 2011/10/18 2:43:19 AM
  10. 10. genre’s most prolific producer, with 80 Taiwan. In 1976, she formed the Neo-Classic percent of Mandopop originating from Dance Co. 新古典舞團. The troupe’s latest the island and local icons Jay Chou 周杰 offering was the 2009 multimedia musi- 倫 and A-mei 張惠妹 dominating charts cal Land of the Clouded Leopard 雲豹之鄉, throughout the Chinese-speaking world. which combines indigenous song and dance with modern choreography within a narra- Indie Music tive framework. To revive the court music With growing interest in local cultural and dance of the Tang 唐 dynasty nourished identities, the late 1980s saw the emer- by the cultures of Islam, Buddhism, ­ aoism T gence of Taiwan’s independent music—a and Confucianism over 1,000 years ago, richly creative music free of commercial Liu founded Tang Music and Dance 唐樂 manipulation. The most important pioneer 舞 in 2001. In 2010, the troupe staged an in this field is widely seen as Blacklist unprecedented arrangement of three grand Studio, whose songs tell stories through pieces of the era in a single performance. humorous or ironic dialogues. Seminal bands over the following two decades Cloud Gate Dance Theatre included 1976, LTK Commune 濁水溪公 社, The Chairman 董事長樂團, Ladybug At the same time that Liu was making 瓢蟲樂團 and Labor Exchange Band 交 her mark in the early 1970s, Lin Hwai- 工樂隊. Among emerging indie bands is min 林懷民 was forming the Cloud Gate Kou Chou Ching 拷秋勤, the first band Dance Theatre 雲門舞集, which has become from Taiwan to garner the Group of the T ­ aiwan’s premier dance company, gain- Year award at the Just Plain Folks Music ing a loyal domestic audience as well as Awards, billed as the world’s biggest in- international acclaim. After studying under die music awards. Martha Graham, Lin returned to Taiwan in 1973 and began combining modern tech- The two major annual events in niques with Chinese opera movements. ­ aiwan’s indie scene are Hohaiyan Rock T Cursive: A Trilogy 行草三部曲 is Lin’s mag- Festival 海洋音樂祭 in northeastern Taiwan num opus. It blends the aesthetics of Chinese and Spring Scream 春天吶喊 in the south. To encourage a new generation of pop mu- calligraphy and martial arts with elements sic talent, the Government Information Of- of Western ballet and modern dance. Water fice (GIO) 行政院新聞局 in November 2010 Stains on the Wall 屋漏痕 is the troupe’s held the first Golden Indie Music Awards latest offering. This 2010 production is a 金音獎, where 87 winners were selected fury of leaping, whirling dancers bringing from 1,817 contenders in rock, folk, hip- to life the penning of Chinese calligraphy. hop, electronica and other categories. Diverse Dance Styles Dance Taiwan’s dance troupes have mush- roomed since the late 1980s. Legend Matriarch of Modern Dance Lin Dance Theatre 無垢舞蹈劇場, founded The modern dance world in Taiwan to- by Lin Li-chen 林麗珍, is regarded as day is surprisingly diverse, considering that the pioneer of Taiwan’s “ritual theater,” it really got its start only in the late 1960s, which features a mixture of dance, nan- when American modern dance perfor- guan ­music and local religious rituals. mances were introduced to local dancers The troupe has made a name for itself and audiences. Liu Feng-shueh 劉鳳學 was worldwide with Mirrors of Life 醮, while ­ one of the first to introduce modern dance to Song of Pensive Beholding 觀 was the 24317-new-1014.indd 243 2011/10/18 2:43:19 AM
  11. 11. 17 Culture National Theater’s 國家戲劇院 flagship 國立中正文化中心 flagship production at production in 2010. the 2010 Taiwan International Festival of Tsai L i -hua’s 蔡麗華 Taipei Folk Arts 臺灣國際藝術節 (see box at page 285). Dance Theater 台北民族舞團 bills itself as The Formosa Aboriginal Song and Taiwan’s first professional ethnic dance ­ Dance Troupe 原舞者, founded in 1991 company. Founded in 1988, the group by young indigenous dancers, com- aims to preserve ethnic dances from piles ­ ative songs and dances and pres- n Taiwan and mainland China while cre- ents indigenous rituals, myths and life ating new dances based on folk dance e ­ xperiences on stage. At the 2010 Taipei techniques. Its 2010 production, The International Flora Expo 臺北國際花卉博 Blossoming Smile of Enlightenment 拈花 覽會, the group collaborated with Ping- II-拈花微笑, was inspired by the story of Fong Acting Troupe 屏風表演班 (see “Spo- the Buddha’s enlightenment some 2,500 ken Drama”) to put on The First Lily 百 years ago. 合戀, which featured interpretations of U-Theatre 優人神鼓 was founded in R ­ ukai myth, songs and dances. The show 1988 by Liu Ruo-yu 劉若瑀, a former a ­ ttracted nearly 300,000 person-times in leading actress with the Lan-ling Drama 196 performances. Workshop 蘭陵劇坊 (see “Spoken Dra- Drama ma”). The group has thrilled audiences with its complex, beautiful mixture of percussion, martial art and theater. The most common varieties of tra- Among the troupe’s most well-known ditional Chinese theater performed in works are Sound of the Ocean 聽海之 Taiwan today are Peking opera 平劇, Kun 心 and Meeting with Vajrasattva 金剛心. opera 崑劇 and Taiwanese opera. Though Its 1433—The Grand Voyage 鄭和1433, their theatrical or televised performances directed by Robert Wilson, was the Na- are no longer prevalent, opera schools, tional Chiang Kai-shek Cultural Center’s community theaters, temples, as well as The Kingdom of Desire, adapted from Shakespeare’s Macbeth, best manifests Contemporary Legend Theatre’s efforts and success at putting on innovative Peking operas. Wu Hsing-kuo (first right) and Wei Hai-ming (second right) play the ambitious and greedy General and Lady Ao Shu. 24417-new-1014.indd 244 2011/10/18 2:43:23 AM
  12. 12. the National Theater still offer traditional opera adaptations of Western classics such presentations and modern reinterpreta- as Shakespeare’s Macbeth, Euripides’ tions of the forms. Spoken drama has also Medea and Aeschylus’ Oresteia, as well flourished since the 1960s. as Chinese classical novel The Water Mar- gin 水滸傳, have been enthusiastically re- Peking Opera ceived by audiences worldwide. Wu was honored by the 2010 National Award for Peking opera, featuring a minimal- Arts for the creativity he has injected into ist stage setting, is a harmonious blend traditional Chinese drama. of musical and vocal performance, face painting, acrobatics and kung fu. Each role is defined by a range of gestures, Kun Opera makeup and stylized singing, while plots Compared with Peking opera, Kun are often adapted from Chinese history opera consists of more delicate and com- and classical literature. plex music, and players articulate more Taiwan’s major Peking opera troupes poetic language. The Lanting Kun Opera are the National Guo Guang Opera Co. Troupe 蘭庭崑劇團 has been ­ putting on 國立國光劇團 and the Peking Opera Troupe Kun opera performances since 2005. affiliated with the National ­ aiwan College T Aiming to create a neo-classical Kun of Performing Arts 國立臺灣戲曲學院附設京 opera, the troupe in 2010 performed 劇團. While adhering to traditional conven- Quest for the Garden Saunter and the tions, both troupes have experimented ex- Interrupted Dream 尋找遊園驚夢. In the tensively with modern theatrical concepts, adaptation, the original 55 scenes of the as seen in Guo Guang’s award-winning Kun opera classic Peony Pavilion 牡丹亭 creations Journey Through Hell 閻羅夢 and were restructured into a two-hour play, Three Persons and Two Lamps 三個人兒兩 in which the heroine wanders between 盞燈 and the Peking Opera Troupe’s August present and past, dream and reality. ­ Snow 八月雪, the first theatrical production The Taiwan Kunqu Opera Theatre 臺 灣崑劇團 established in 1999 has been written and directed by Nobel ­ iterature l laureate Gao Xingjian 高行健. involved in a wide variety of cultural Guo Guang’s Wei Hai-min 魏海敏 exchanges with groups from mainland has a reputation as an adventuresome China. Collaborative experiments have performer with both traditional and con- ­ led to the mounting of Kun opera revival temporary Peking opera. Her efforts in performances. Taiwanese author Kenneth recent years have included the ­ ne-woman ­ o Hsien-yung Pai 白先勇 has also cham- stage adaptation of Virginia Woolf ’s pioned a renaissance for this genre by semi-biography, ­ Orlando, ­ directed by staging adaptations of the classics Peony Robert Wilson; a scintillating interpreta- Pavilion (2006), The Jade Hairpin 玉簪記 tion of a poor woman’s moral degenera- (2009) and The Palace of Eternal Youth 長 生殿 (2010). tion after marrying into a Manchurian noble family in The Golden Cangue 金 鎖記; and the challenge of singing in Taiwanese Opera three completely different voices in The crucible for Taiwanese op­­­­ 2010’s Meng Xiaodong 孟小冬. era ­ Yilan County 宜蘭縣 in eastern is ­ The Contemporary Legend The- T ­ a i w a n , where, over a century ago, atre 當代傳奇劇場, led by accomplished musi­­ theater merged with folk songs, ­ cal ­ p ­ erformer Wu Hsing-kuo 吳興國, is a ­ ujian-style folk music and nanguan mu- F major theatrical innovator. Its Peking sic. Like Peking ­ pera, Taiwanese opera o 24517-new-1014.indd 245 2011/10/18 2:43:24 AM
  13. 13. 17 Culture has standard singing and stylized body movements, but is performed ­ ntirely in e from its facial paintings. The musical accompaniment is an amalgamation of the Holo language. beiguan and nanguan music, Peking The most celebrated actress in and Taiwanese opera, as well as Hakka T ­ aiwanese opera is Yang Li-hua 楊麗 tea-picking songs. 花, who, like many other actresses in Today, only a small number of es- the genre, made her reputation playing tablished troupes continue to stage such male roles. Yang became a hit when she performances. Key among them is I Wan appeared on television from the late Jan Puppet Theater 亦宛然掌中劇團, estab- 1960s through the 1980s. In her 2007 lished in 1931 by the late puppeteer Lee production A Life for the Master 丹心救 Tien-lu 李天祿, known for his innovative 主 presented at the National Theater, she martial arts sequences, acrobatic stunts delighted audiences by juggling the roles and mixing of modern slang with classi- of an emperor, a eunuch and a jester in cal Chinese dialogue. a single performance. Yang’s contem- porary Ye Qing 葉青 was also active in Televised Glove Puppetry televised Taiwanese operas from the late Huang Chun-hsiung 黃俊雄, son of 1960s through the 1990s. renowned puppeteer Huang Hai-tai 黃 The Ming Hwa Yuan Arts and Cul- 海岱, laid the groundwork for the jin- tural Group 明華園戲劇總團, established guang (golden light) 金光 puppetry in 1929, is the most prominent profes- approach used on television, which em- sional Taiwanese opera troupe on the is- ploys transformable three-dimensional land. Its productions combine the form’s sets, lighting effects, popular music, spe- traditional theater heritage with modern cial video effects and large puppets up to cinematic and theatrical techniques, par- three feet tall. ticularly in lighting and scenery, as seen In the 1990s, the Huang family re- in The Legend of the White Snake 白蛇傳. vived the genre by launching a cable The troupe’s Sun Tsui-feng 孫翠鳳 is one channel for glove puppet shows. Its 2000 of the most well-known contemporary film Legend of the Sacred Stone 聖石傳說, performers in the field. the first glove puppet movie ever made, broke a 15-year box-office record for do- Glove Puppetry mestic films. Traditional Glove Puppetry Combined with intriguing repertoire and a literary dialogue sprinkled with Before television arrived in Taiwan humor and slang, jinguang puppetry has in the early 1960s, performances of evolved into a style unique to Taiwan glove puppetry 布袋戲 were called for that appeals to both refined and popular on nearly every festive occasion. This tastes across generations. puppet show is traditionally performed in an ornamental wooden stage frame amid the clamor of gongs and drums. Spoken Drama The entire plot is presented by the pup- The beginnings of spoken theater can peteer, who manipulates palm-sized be ascribed to the Little Theater Move- puppets into performing complex ac- ment 小劇場運動 of the 1960s, includ- tions such as playing instruments and ing works by several rising dramatists fighting with weapons. Each puppet’s such as Li Man-kuei 李曼瑰 and Yao character or personality can be gleaned ­ i-wei 姚一葦. The latter’s Red Nose 紅 Y 24617-new-1014.indd 246 2011/10/18 2:43:24 AM
  14. 14. 鼻子 was the first stage play produced 1984 by Stan Lai 賴聲川, which developed p ­ rofessionally by a privately funded f ­ ull-length plays from crosstalk, a form troupe. The movement also heralded of rapid-fire, comedic banter between the proliferation of small, independent performers. Recent collaborations with theaters in the 1970s, when directors television producer Wang Wei-chung 王 began ­ xperimenting with staging tech- e 偉忠 have been well-received, including niques and imaginative interpretations of 2011’s Crosstalk Travelers 那一夜,在旅 local and Western plays. 途中說相聲, in which two globetrotters “crosstalk” their extreme experiences Early Innovators from past adventures. The Lan-ling Drama Workshop, The Ping-Fong Acting Troupe estab- founded in 1977 by Wu Jing-jyi 吳靜吉, lished in 1986 presents mainly comedies was the first theater group to recast a tra- directed by Hugh Lee 李國修. Many of ditional Chinese opera in modern collo- its productions are satirical commentary quial language. Its groundbreaking 1977 about contemporary Taiwanese society. production Ho-chu’s New Match 荷珠新配, The Underworld Code 王國密碼 of 2011 adapted from a well-known Peking op- is Ping-Fong’s 40th original work, a era story, was a social satire on Taiwan’s unique production of modern martial new middle class. arts theater that incorporates magic, Another pioneer in the theater world three-dimensional ink painting and a is the New Aspect Art Center 新象藝術中 floating stage. 心 founded in 1978. Its Wandering in the Fusions of spoken and musical the- Garden, Waking from a Dream 遊園驚夢 of ater can also be found in Taiwan, as with 1982 introduced a multimedia approach the Godot Theatre Co. 果陀劇場 founded associated with epic theater. by James Liang 梁志民 in 1988. The troupe frequently stages Taiwan-oriented Later Luminaries adaptations of classic foreign works such The efforts of early pioneers helped as Shakespeare’s Othello and The Glass set the stage for the establishment in the Menagerie by Tennessee Williams. The mid-1980s of what today are some of company’s 2010 comedy Last of the Red the nation’s leading theater companies. Hot Lovers 17年之癢 starring veteran Most prominent is the Performance actor Lee Li-chun 李立群 was adapted Workshop Theatre 表演工作坊 founded in from Neil Simon’s Broadway drama, Taiwan International Festival of Arts The Taiwan International Festival of Arts was launched in 2009 by the National Chiang Kai-shek Cultural Center as a way to showcase originality and bridge cultures by staging acclaimed performances from Taiwan and around the world. Four works from Taiwan were featured at the 2011 event: La dame aux Camélias 茶花女 directed by Suzuki Tadashi, a refreshing take on Alexandre Dumas’ classic novel infused with Taiwanese popular music; Crosstalk Travelers by Performance Workshop Theatre (see “Spoken Drama”); The Great Hero of Yun-zhou: Su Yam-bwen—The Ultimate Battle 雲州大儒俠之決戰時刻 by Huang Chun- hsiung TV Puppet Theatre 黃俊雄電視木偶劇團 (see “Glove Puppetry”); and Formosa—The Legendary Heaven 蓬萊仙島, a presentation of the Ming Hwa Yuan Arts and Cultural Group (see “Taiwanese Opera”). 24717-new-1014.indd 247 2011/10/18 2:43:24 AM
  15. 15. 17 r Culture depicting a man’s three extramarital ­ omances after 17 years of marriage. Its when the first 35-mm Holo-language film Hsueh Ping-kuei and Wang Pao- Tuesdays with Morrie 最後14堂星期二的課 chuan 薛平貴與王寶釧 became a hit. of 2011 is based on the popular novel by During the 1960s, Holo-language Mitch Albom. films based on traditional folk opera or modern melodramas found commercial Musicals success among domestic audiences. Taiwan’s first home-grown musical Around that same time, however, the was The Chess King 棋王 (1987), based state-owned Central Motion Picture Corp. on a novel by Chang Shi-Kuo 張系國 that 中央電影公司 began producing movies in was considered to be among the top 100 Mandarin, whose plots were mainly tales Chinese fictional works of the 20th cen- advocating civic virtue and morality in tury. The Godot Theatre Co.’s adaptation a rural setting. Notable works from this of Edmund Rostand’s Cyrano de Ber­ genre include Oyster Girl 蚵女 and At gerac in 1995 was the first full-scale Dawn 破曉時分. As these and other Man- musical production in Taiwan. darin movies came to prominence, Holo- Following the turn of the millen- language films dwindled in number. nium, the Godot Theatre Co. continued The 1970s was the golden age for presenting musicals such as The Angel domestic films as their popularity spread Never Sleeps 天使不夜城, Shanghai Love throughout Southeast Asia, and the in- Songs 情盡夜上海 and Running Angel 跑路 dustry was at one time the third-largest 天使, all of which featured Mandarin pop in the world. Romance movies based on diva Tsai Chin 蔡琴 and were performed Chiung Yao’s 瓊瑤 50 novels found great in the vein of popular songs. success with audiences between the mid- In recent years, All Music Theatre 音 1960s and early 1980s. This genre later 樂時代劇場 has been producing original faced strong competition from new- musicals in the Holo language reflecting school kung fu movies introduced from Taiwanese roots, as seen in its Taiwan Hong Kong. Meanwhile, patriotic mov- Musical Trilogy: April Rain 四月望雨, ies such as The Everlasting Glory 英烈 about the father of Holo ballads Deng 千秋 and Eight Hundred Heroes 八百壯 Yu-hsien; My Dear Next Door 隔壁親家, 士 were popular in the mid-1970s as the about two rural families embroiled in a country dealt with a series of diplomatic long-running feud; and The Impossible frustrations. At its peak, the industry put Times 渭水春風, about Chiang Wei-shui out 200 to 300 films per year, a number 蔣渭水, one of the most important figures that began to fall in the late 1970s. in Taiwan’s resistance against Japanese colonial rule. New Wave Cinema In the 1980s, some filmmakers be- Cinema gan to seek creative outlets beyond the mainstream film establishment. Their Early Cinema creations—later dubbed New Wave Cin- The turn of the 20th century saw the ema 臺灣新浪潮電影—were noteworthy for advent of cinema in Taiwan in the form blending innovative filming techniques of imported Japanese films. In the 1950s, with down-to-earth and sympathetic cinema was dominated by movies from portrayals of Taiwanese life. The move- Hong Kong and Shanghai until 1956, ment produced two world-class auteurs, 24817-new-1014.indd 248 2011/10/18 2:43:25 AM
  16. 16. E ­ dward Yang 楊德昌 and Hou Hsiao-hsien By 2008, about 40 films were being 侯孝賢. Yang’s movies, such as Taipei Sto- produced every year. That year’s heart- ry 青梅竹馬 and Confucian Confusion 獨立 warming comedic romance Cape No. 7 時代, reflect the clash of traditional values 海角七號 earned the highest box-office and modern materialism among young ur- gross ever for a domestically produced banites. Hou’s movies feature a warmer, film. This hit was followed by Orz Boyz pastoral exploration of generational shifts 囧男孩, Hear Me 聽說, No Puedo Vivir as seen in A Time to Live and a Time to Sin Ti 不能沒有你 and the gangster picture Die 童年往事 and A City of Sadness 悲情城 Monga 艋舺. 市. While winning praise for its political New Wave directors of both genera- and social commentary, New Wave Cin- tions continue to contribute to the indus- ema accounted for only a fraction of box- try’s resurgence with such award-winning office returns even at its peak. films as Yang’s A One and a Two 一一, In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a Tsai’s The Wayward Cloud 天邊一朵雲 and “Second New Wave” of films emerged Hou’s Le Voyage du Ballon Rouge 紅氣 that moved away from the nostalgic, 球之旅. Tsai’s 2009 production Visage 臉, historical approach and more toward filmed inside the Louvre Museum, was explorations of the pain and absurdity the first movie to be included in the mu- of contemporary life. Key figures in this seum’s permanent collection. In 2010, he movement included Ang Lee 李安 and Taiwan-based Tsai Ming-liang 蔡明亮. Lee’s acclaimed trilogy—Pushing Hands 推手, The Wedding Banquet 宴 and Eat Drink Man Woman 飲食男女—examines generational and cultural conflicts affect- ing the modern Taiwanese family. Lee has since become a world-renowned, Oscar-winning director. Tsai’s works of- ten take an existentialist look at the plight of urban youth on the margins of affluent society. His award-winning works include Vive l’ Amour 愛情萬歲, The River 河流 and The Hole 洞. 21st Century: Rejuvenation In the late 1990s, stiff competition from Hollywood blockbusters, foreign films and alternate forms of entertainment caused local film production to fall to about 20 movies per year. A resurgence began in the early 2000s with a number of surprise hits by young directors that explored top- ics such as sexual awakening and taboo When Love Comes portrays a polygamous family’s struggles with its matters, as in Blue Gate Crossing 藍色大門, ­ secrets and conflicts. (Courtesy of Chang Eternal Summer 盛夏光年, Spider Lilies 刺青 Tso-chi Film Studio) and Miao Miao 渺渺. 24917-new-1014.indd 249 2011/10/18 2:43:26 AM
  17. 17. 17 Culture 2010 Taipei Golden Horse Film Festival Winners Film Director Award When Love Comes Chang Tso-chi 張作驥 Best Feature Film The Fourth Portrait Chung Mong-hong 鍾孟宏 Best Director Outstanding Taiwanese Film of the Year Audience Choice Award Seven Days in Heaven Essay Liu 劉梓潔 Best Adapted Screenplay Wang Yu-lin 王育麟 Pinoy Sunday Ho Wi-ding 何蔚庭 Best New Director received the Asian Filmmaker of the Year featured 142 films from 40 countries. The award at the 15th Pusan International Taiwan Public Television Service Foun- Film Festival in South Korea. dation 公共電視文化事業基金會 and the GIO At the 2010 Taipei Golden Horse Film are other public-sector patrons that have Festival 2010台北金馬影展, highlights in- encouraged the field’s development. cluded When Love Comes 當愛來的時候, In recent years, documentaries have The Fourth Portrait 第四張畫, Seven Days seen both critical and commercial success in Heaven 父後七日 and Pinoy Sunday 台北 in works such as Life 生命, about the Sep- 星期天 (see the table “2010 Taipei Golden tember 21, 1999 earthquake that devas- Horse Film Festival Winners”). The year tated central Taiwan; Jump! Boys 翻滾吧! also saw Taiwan’s first Atayal-language 男孩, about elementary-school gymnasts; film, Everlasting Moments 靈魂的旅程, and Let It Be 無米樂, about the struggles of which explored indigenous cultural values farm life. The winner for Best Documen- and the plight of an aboriginal commu- tary at the 2010 Taipei Golden Horse Film nity in modern society. Festival was Hip-Hop Storm 街舞狂潮. Documentaries In the mid-1980s, Taiwan’s increas- Literature ingly free political atmosphere gave The Advent of Taiwanese New rise to independent documentaries that not only lent voice to the disadvantaged Literature and dissidents but also recorded defin- Taiwanese literature in the early ing moments in the history of the bur- 20th century was dominated by ­ lassical c geoning ­ democracy. The Council for Chinese literature, with a few works in- Cultural Affairs (CCA) 行政院文化建設委 spired by resistance to Japanese coloni- 員會 has ­ ffered training in this type of o zation. After ideas rooted in the ­ estern W filmmaking since the mid-1990s and e ­ nlightenment and ­ experimental writing s ­ ponsors the ­ iennial Taiwan International b were introduced to Taiwan’s ­ literary D ­ ocumentary ­ Festival 臺灣國際紀錄片雙年 world, the Taiwanese New Literature 展, which in 2010 received a record 1,500- Movement 臺灣新文學運動 arose in the plus submissions from 98 countries, and 1920s. The movement paralleled a push 25017-new-1014.indd 250 2011/10/18 2:43:26 AM
  18. 18. for literary ­ eform initiated in mainland r Such modernist works often focused on China as part of the May Fourth Move- philosophical introspection and the plight ment 五四運動, advocating use of vernacu- of traditional human relations in mod- lar Mandarin Chinese in place of classical ern society, as in Kenneth Hsien-yung Chinese. This, however, ignited further Pai’s Crystal Boys 孽子 telling of a young debate in the early 1930s, when some ar- man’s struggle in the 1960s to 1970s gued that vernacular Mandarin was not a when homosexuality was still a taboo familiar language to the people of ­ aiwan, T topic in Taiwan, and in Wang Wen-xing’s most of whom spoke Holo or Hakka (see 王文興 Family Catastrophe 家變, which Chapter 2, “People and Language”), and highlights stresses affecting families in that Taiwanese writers should use their contemporary Taiwan. native languages (mainly referring to The 1960s and early 1970s also saw Holo) to write about their homeland. A the emergence of a nativist movement as key figure in the movement was Lai He a number of intellectuals, criticizing what 賴和, whose novels—written in a mix- they saw as modernist writers’ ­endency t ture of vernacular Mandarin, Holo and toward blind admiration and slavish imita- Japanese—highlighted the excesses of the tion of Western cultural models, advocated Japanese colonial government. the penning of literature more true to its social roots. ­Representative works in- Mainland Émigré Literature cluded Wang Zhen-he’s 王禎和 An Oxcart Following the end of Japanese rule for a Dowry 嫁妝一牛車, in which poverty in 1945, émigré writers from mainland forces a ­ easant to share his wife with a p China came to dominate the literary merchant, and Huang Chun-ming’s 黃春明 ­ scene amid the political repression of His Son’s Big Doll 兒子的大玩偶, portraying local ­intellectuals and the enshrinement an ­ neducated man’s struggles to ­ upport u s of Mandarin as the official language. his family as a walking billboard in cos- This period saw a proliferation of anti- tume during Taiwan’s early industrial days. communist works, such as Wang Lan’s 王 藍 Blue and Black 藍與黑 about war-torn China between 1937 and 1950, as well as National Museum of Taiwan realistic fiction about life in the mainland, Literature such as Lin Hai-yin’s 林海音 Memories The National Museum of Taiwan of Peking: South Side Stories 城南舊事 Literature, established in 2003 in portraying Lin’s childhood ­ xperiences in e Tainan, is the first national museum Beijing in the 1930s. dedicated to the literary arts. The mu- seum collects, preserves and conducts Modernist Literature vs. research on Taiwan’s literary heritage Nativist Literature from early indigenous culture to mod- ern times. It also encourages literary The development of modernist po- creation by conferring the prestigious etry in the mid-1950s was followed Taiwan Literature Award. Winners of by a rejection of conventional ­ literary the 2010 award were novelist Tong Wei- techniques in the 1960s, when ­ odernist m ger 童偉格, essayist Chou Fen-ling 周芬 writers began calling for artistic ­ utonomy a 伶, playwright Chen Chien-cheng 陳建 and incorporated Western existentialism, 成 and newcomer to reportage literature stream-of-consciousness, surrealism Lisin Codat 李信.書達. and antinovel elements into its writings. 25117-new-1014.indd 251 2011/10/18 2:43:26 AM
  19. 19. 17 Culture Repurposing an abandoned winery, Huashan 1914 Creative Park today serves as a prime venue for cultural activities in Taipei. Pluralism, Multiculturalism and during this decade included Li Ang 李 Post-modernism 昂 and Huang Fan 黃凡, who offered cri- tiques of materialism, and Xiao Sa 蕭颯 With the rise of the democracy move- and Liao Hui-ying 廖輝英, who explored ment in the 1980s, nativist writing began the problems of extramarital relationships. to fade in significance. Rising levels Prominent poets in this period included of income and freedom, along with the increasing commercialization of ­iterature, ­ l Hsi Muren 席慕蓉, famous for her delicate engendered a shift in focus for a new gen- verse on life, nostalgia and love, as well as eration of writers, transforming the liter- Lo Men 羅門, who penned poetry on urban ary scene in terms of group identity and culture and cityscapes. multicultural ­ erspectives. p Young writers emerging in the 1990s A number of writers during the 1980s such as Luo Yi-chun 駱以軍 and Cheng and 1990s began to tell the stories of mil- Ying-shu 成英姝 were more playful in their itary personnel and veterans who came writings on the fantasies and frustrations to Taiwan from mainland China between of their generation. In 2010, Luo’s Hotel 1949 and 1950 in the closing chapter of Xixia 西夏旅館 was accorded The Dream conflict between the ROC government of the Red Chamber Award 紅樓夢獎 pre- and communist rebels (see Chapter sented by Hong Kong Baptist University 3, “History”); of the writers’ personal for the year’s most distinguished Chinese- e ­ xperiences as children of these new- language novel—the first time a Taiwan- comers; and of the dissolution of their ese writer had been so recognized. tight-knit communities. ­ Notable writ- The proliferation of information ers of this genre include Chu ­ ien-hsin T technology in the 2000s has led to a 朱天心, Chang Ta-chuen 張大春 and Su b ­ urgeoning of new literary vehicles. Ev- W ­ ei-zhen 蘇偉貞. erything from online forums and blogs to Other writers in the 1980s were con- e-mail and e-publications has diversified cerned with the sundry problems afflicting the means by which literary works are cir- Taiwan’s middle-class. Writers emerging culated. Interactive writing and the use of 25217-new-1014.indd 252 2011/10/18 2:43:30 AM
  20. 20. animation, multimedia and hyperlinks con- writers. As of 2010, over 260 volumes tinue to expand the boundaries of literary of prose, poetry and scholarly works had creativity. Giddens Ko 九把刀 and Tsai Jih- been translated into seven languages un- heng 蔡智恆 are examples of young fiction der CCA-sponsored programs. Several writers who first gained a following online. have won critical praise and one, Three- Legged Horse 三腳馬 by Cheng Ching-wen Indigenous Literature 鄭清文, ­ eceived a major U.S. book award. r In 2010, Lai He Fiction, the first In the 1980s, indigenous intellectuals English translation of a collection of 21 became increasingly active in ­ recording short stories by noted author Lai He (see their peoples’ oral traditions. A large body “The Advent of Taiwanese New Lit- of oral narratives including creation myths erature” section), was published by the and stories about tribal heroes have thus Central News Agency 中央通訊社. been transcribed and published. Indigenous writing chronicles the traditionally close-to-nature lives of Policy indigenous people—an experience of Taiwan not reflected in mainstream lit- Eyeing the potential of the cultural and erature. The genre is also noteworthy for creative sector, the government in mid- its innovations with Mandarin and liter- 2008 marked it as one of the nation’s six ary style. Established indigenous writers key emerging industries. Approximately include literary award winner Tuobasi US$90 million has been allocated over Tamapima 田雅各 of the Bunun. 2009 to 2013 on the Creative Taiwan—- Cultural and Creative Industries Develop- ment Plan 創意臺灣—文化創意產業發展方案 Taiwanese Literature in to develop television, film, popular music, Translation craftwork, design and digital content. In In 1996, the CCA began a project with 2012, Ministry of Culture will be cre- Columbia University Press to publish ated by combining the CCA with the English translations of works by leading culture-related ­ epartments of the GIO d novelists from Taiwan. Seventeen novels and the Ministry of Education to better and collections of short stories have been focus efforts to promote the sector. published so far, including a collection of The government is turning abandoned works by Taiwan’s established indigenous warehouses, wineries and unused public Huashan Living Arts Festival The first Huashan Living Arts ­ estival 華山藝術生活節, held at ­ aipei’s Huashan Cultural F T and Creative Industries Park 華山文化創意產業園區 (known as Huashan 1914 Creative Park) October 2 to 31, 2010, featured over a hundred performances of music, contemporary and traditional drama and acrobatics, as well as workshops, cultural forums and a market for creative goods. Highlights included four experimental dramas: Diving in the Moment 潛水 中, presented by the Mobius Strip Theatre 莫比斯圓環創作公社; a Chinese opera adaptation of French dramatist Jean Genet’s play Les Bonnes 女僕 put on by Showcase Studio 戲點子工作坊; the solo operetta A Voyage to the Island 島語錄 performed by the Playbox Ensemble Theatre 戲盒劇團; and The Dying Fish 魚 staged by Flying Group Theatre 飛人集社劇團. The festival will be held annually through 2013 to ­ romote the work of local artists. p 25317-new-1014.indd 253 2011/10/18 2:43:31 AM
  21. 21. 17 Culture buildings around the island into cultural Amis harvest festival, the Saisiyat 賽夏 centers. Among these are five cultural ­ as-ta-ai ­ eremony, pasted-paper ­ culpture, P c s and creative industries parks: Taipei’s beiguan music, glove puppetry, Taiwanese ­ park is dedicated to cross-field art and opera, and the worship of Wang Ye 王爺 and ­ life aesthetics; Hualien’s park focuses Ma Zu 媽祖. (See Chapter 2, “People and on the combination of art and tourism; Language” and Chapter 20, ­ Religion.”) “ Taichung’s park serves as a center for The CCA also plans to establish the architecture, design and art; Tainan’s park first Taiwan Academy 臺灣書院 in October is a development center for creative life 2011 in the United States. The institute will industries; and Chiayi’s park promotes in- promote Mandarin Chinese instruction, novation in traditional arts. encourage ­ Taiwan studies and Sinology, To promote Taiwan’s culture worldwide, and introduce ­ aiwan’s manifold cultures. T the CCA is urging the UNESCO World An online Taiwan Academy, “e-Learning Heritage Committee to recognize 10 items Portal for Chinese Education,” was from Taiwan as intangible cultural ­ eritage. h launched in December 2010 to offer inter- The items include the Atayal origin myth, active courses on Mandarin speaking and Bunun polyharmonic choral singing, the traditional Chinese character writing. • Council for Cultural Affairs: Related • Council of Indigenous Peoples: Websites • Council for Hakka Affairs: • Taiwan Culture Portal: • Taiwan Cinema: • National Theater and Concert Hall: • National Museum of Taiwan Literature: • Taiwan Academy: 25417-new-1014.indd 254 2011/10/18 2:43:31 AM