Education. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch16 education


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From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO).

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Education. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch16 education

  1. 1. A structured-play event such as this in Taiwan fosters parental involvement from a child’s earliest years. (Chen Chih-hsiung)16六校-0926.indd 220 2011/10/18 1:47:07 AM
  2. 2. 16 Education At a Glance • Compulsory education extended • Development of world-class universities • e-Learning takes on a growing role A s the second decade of the 21st century begins, citizens of the Republic of China have a variety of quality education c ­ hoices. Nine years of compulsory education has been the norm for decades. Now, in the nation’s centennial year, 99.9 percent of children enter primary school, and nearly every child attends secondary education. Tertiary education has also become c ­ ommonplace. The illiteracy rate has fallen to 2.09 percent, while e ­ ducational expenditures have risen to 6.51 percent of GDP. In a ma- jor ­ evelopment, the Ministry of Education announced in early 2011 d that 12 years of national fundamental education would be the standard from 2014. e-Learning initiatives begun nearly a decade ago today benefit both ­ tudents and the general work force, and programs to make university- s level education and research world-class are entering their second stage. Foreign students can study Mandarin Chinese in Taiwan via c ­ ertified training programs in a culturally stimulating environment. 22116六校-0926.indd 221 2011/10/18 1:47:08 AM
  3. 3. 16 Education Mainstream Education mathematics, natural and life sciences, as ­ well as interdisciplinary activities. Each Preschool to Junior High School school has its own curriculum deve­opment l Education is strongly emphasized committee, which reviews teaching materials in Taiwan and many parents send their in light of the school’s particular approach children to preschool and kindergarten and the needs of students. for a head start in the highly competitive Languages constitute 20 to 30 percent education system. Some 183,900 children of the overall curricula, with the other six attended 3,283 registered kindergartens areas accounting for roughly equal shares in the 2010-2011 school year. In 2010, of the remainder. English is a compulso- 105,000 children benefited from a pro- ry subject from the third grade. Besides gram to subsidize preschool and daycare English and the official language, Man- for lower-middle-income families and darin, students from first through sixth kindergarten for indigenous children and grade are required to study one additional residents of offshore islands, at a cost of language spoken natively in Taiwan—- NT$1.83 billion (about US$58 million). Holo 河洛語, Hakka 客語 or an indigenous Beginning August 1, 2011, all 5-year- language (see Chapter 2, “People and olds attending public kindergarten are Language”). The Ministry of Education eligible for free tuition, while those at- (MOE) has included the study of indige- tending private kindergarten qualify for nous languages in school curricula, while tuition assistance of NT$15,000 (US$508) the Council of Indigenous Peoples 行政院 per school term. Both benefits are avail- 原住民族委員會 has established proficiency able regardless of the income levels of tests. Local language study is optional in the children’s families. However, parents junior high school. must still pay for incidental expenses. To proceed to senior high school, This will benefit 206,000 children. The ­unior high school students are required to j budget to pay for this has been set at take the Basic Competence Test 基本學力 NT$6.64 billion (US$225 million) for the 測驗, which covers five subjects: Chinese, first semester of the 2011-2012 academic English, mathematics, natural science and year, and NT$8.21 billion (US$278 mil- social science. Technical courses are of- lion) for the year as a whole. fered at the beginning of the third year of The National Education Act 國民教育 junior high school, and upon graduation, 法 stipulates that all children between the students may enroll in vocational schools. ages of 6 and 15 must attend six years In the 2010-2011 school year, 521 sec- of elementary school and three years of ondary schools, accounting for 97.12 per- junior high school. Exceptions to this rule cent of all senior high and senior vocational are children with special needs and those schools, participated in a pilot program to receiving alternative forms of education. admit a quota of students through applica- In the 2010-2011 school year, the net tion instead of entrance exams. Roughly enrollment rate of students eligible for 20 percent of eligible students, or 62,683 compulsory education was 97.95 percent. people, were admitted via this program. Class sizes at elementary schools have been gradually reduced since the mid- 1990s to 26 students per class. High School Education Elementary and junior high school Senior High School c ­ urricula address seven major areas of The three-year senior high school learning: languages, health and physi­­­ cal p ­ rogram prepares students aged 15 to education, social studies, arts and ­ umani­ies, ­ h t 18 for higher education. High school 22216六校-0926.indd 222 2011/10/18 1:47:09 AM
  4. 4. Teaching assistants such as these from Poland and Brazil enhance the exposure of Taiwan teenage students to other cultures. s ­ tudents are also encouraged to pursue elected to study Japanese, making it the extracurricular interests by participating most popular choice. in i nternational competitions, student ­ clubs and nongovernmental organiza- Senior Vocational School tions. Involvement in such activities is a Senior vocational schools equip stu- factor considered when they subsequently dents with skills that will be useful in seek admission to university. In 2010, particular professions. Schools generally about 95.6 percent of senior high school specialize in a given field, such as busi- graduates went on to tertiary education. ness, agriculture, nursing or advertising English is a required subject, and design. During the three-year program, to better prepare students to compete students are encouraged to take national in the global village, the MOE imple- examinations for technical or vocational mented second foreign language study licenses in preparation for entering the at senior high schools in 1996. In the work force. Some senior vocational 2010 school year, over 89,000 students school graduates seek employment or were enrolled in elective courses in start their own businesses, while others Japanese, French, German, Spanish, Ko- go on to further education (76.9 percent rean, Russian, Vietnamese, Indonesian ­ in 2010) at institutes of technology, junior or Latin. Over 66,000 of these students colleges, colleges and universities. Elementary and Secondary Education 2010-2011 Elementary Junior High Senior High Senior Vocational School School School School Schools 2,661 740 335 156 Students 1,519,456 919,805 400,642 362,514 Students per class 25.9 32.7 39.7 41.4 Source: Ministry of Education 22316六校-0926.indd 223 2011/10/18 1:47:12 AM
  5. 5. 16 Education Comprehensive High School Program subsidizes tuition for students engaged ­ in the study of ­ esignated technical sub- d A large number of senior high and senior vocational schools offer a compre- jects or learning professional skills of use ­ hensive program covering both vocational in particular industries. and academic curricula, enabling students to select from a wide range of courses Higher Education before deciding whether to continue In Taiwan, higher education is pro- on an academic or a vocational track. vided by colleges, universities, and gradu- In ­ ddition to general subjects, such a ate schools, while technical education is as ­ oreign languages, mathematics and f provided by junior colleges and colleges/ s ­ ocial sciences, various technical courses universities of science and technology. In are provided for students looking to enter 2010, the number of citizens with higher a trade or join the work force. A total of education degrees totaled 6.96 million, 89,088 students were enrolled in these representing 30 percent of the population. programs at 124 schools in the 2010-2011 school year. Admission to colleges and universities is through one of three ways. The first is Recent Reforms by recommendation and screening. Se- nior high school students take the General To facilitate equal access to education Scholastic Ability Test (GSAT) 大學學科能 and train up a work force well-equipped 力測驗, which assesses their competence to tackle the challenges of the 21st cen- tury, national fundamental education will in Chinese, English, mathematics and the be extended to 12 years from the cur- natural and social sciences. They then rent nine. When this plan is fully imple- seek recommendation from their school mented, students in Taiwan will be able or make their own applications to their in- to complete up to 12 years of education stitutions of choice. In 2010, a quarter of tuition-free. Moreover, in most cases, stu- the 147,000 students who took the GSAT dents will not have to sit for entrance ex- were accepted into college or university aminations to be admitted to senior high through this method. or senior vocational school. The MOE is The second way is by examination currently deciding upon the specifics of and placement. Those who have failed to this policy, which is slated to cover all gain admission to the institution of their secondary institutions by 2014. choice through the first method can take A pilot program concerning 12-­ eary a Department Required Test 大學入學指定 compulsory education has begun with 科目考試, depending on the requirements students from disadvantaged fami­ of the college or university. In some lies. Starting in 2010, tuition and fees cases, GSAT scores are also considered. for indigenous children at all levels of ­ In 2010, this was the means by which 63 e ducation are being fully subsidized. ­ percent of applicants gained college or The tuition of 277,093 senior high and ­ university admission. senior vocational school students from In 2006, a third option became avail- low- and lower-middle-income house- able when the MOE implemented the holds was paid by the MOE, at a cost “Stars Program” 大學繁星計畫, based on the of NT$3.48 billion (US$110 million). belief that excellent students could poten- In addition, some 153,900 students tially be found at any senior high school, from low-income households benefited and that top-tier universities should not in 2010 from a separate program that admit graduates of prestigious urban 22416六校-0926.indd 224 2011/10/18 1:47:12 AM
  6. 6. 22516六校-0926.indd 225 2011/10/18 1:47:15 AM
  7. 7. 16 Education high schools only. This program makes high school grades the principal criterion Higher Education for admission to university for students School Year School Year who have achieved a given score on their 2000-2001 2010-2011 GSAT. In 2010, admission was offered to 2,039 students by 33 universities under Junior colleges 19 15 this program, which will be incorporated Colleges and into the recommendation system in 2011. universities 135 148 Junior college Junior Colleges students 406,841 102,789 There are two types of junior college College and in Taiwan: two-year junior colleges and university students 677,171 1,021,636 five-year junior colleges. Two-year insti- Master’s degree tutions enroll students directly from vo- students 87,251 185,000 cational schools and comprehensive high schools, while also accepting individuals Doctoral students 15,962 34,178 with equivalent academic qualifications. Junior high school graduates or others Source: Ministry of Education with equivalent academic qualifications may enter five-year junior colleges. Asso- colleges, who are awarded bachelor’s ciate degrees are conferred on those who degrees upon course completion. ­ complete all courses of study. Students enrolled in a four-year pro- Different fields of study are open to gram must complete at least 128 credits, junior college students: industry, com- while those in two-year programs must merce, medicine and nursing, marine complete 72. Graduate students must technology, languages, home economics, complete required courses and submit a tourism and hospitality. Schools may plan thesis or present a dissertation. their curricula, but should follow a semes- ter and credit system. Students in a five- Universities, Colleges and Graduate year program must complete 220 credits, Schools while 80 credits are required for those at The last decade has seen a rapid two-year institutions. growth in the number of private univer­ sities and technical and vocational insti- Colleges and Universities of Science tutions, which has helped make higher and Technology education accessible to more people than Colleges and universities of science ever before. and technology have their basis in the There were a total of 148 universi- University Act 大學法. They may offer ties and colleges in 2010. The bulk of undergraduate, graduate and postgradu- programs at these institutions last four ate programs. Undergraduate programs years, while those for training teachers may be of two or four years. Internships and ­ rchitects require five. Medical (in- a are available to qualifying students. Such cluding dentistry) programs, meanwhile, institutions admit graduates of vocational require between six and seven years of schools, comprehensive high schools or study. Master’s programs take from one others with equivalent academic quali­ to four years, and doctoral programs from fications. Two-year programs take in two to seven. In the 2010-2011 school graduates from two- or five-year junior year, there were 44.1 undergraduate, 7.99 22616六校-0926.indd 226 2011/10/18 1:47:15 AM
  8. 8. m ­ aster’s and 1.48 doctoral students per great improvement in global rankings. 1,000 total population. National Taiwan University (NTU) 國立 To improve the quality of higher edu- 臺灣大學 climbed to 94th in the 2010 QS cation, apart from encouraging academic World University Rankings from 108th institutions to conduct self-evaluations, in 2006. In a separate ranking by British professional associations have also been newspaper The Times, National Tsing Hua commissioned to assess the performance University (NTHU) 國立清華大學, NTU, and teaching quality of Taiwan’s colleges National Chiao Tung University 國立交通 and universities. The Higher Education 大學 and National Sun Yat-sen University Evaluation and Accreditation Council of (NSYSU) 國立中山大學 all ranked among Taiwan 高等教育評鑑中心基金會, funded the world’s top 200 universities; NTHU by the MOE and higher education in- was ranked highest at 107th. stitutions, trains evaluation personnel, Special Education conducts evaluations of colleges and uni- versities, and engages in exchanges with evaluation agencies abroad. Special education programs are avail- able for individuals with special needs Encouraging Excellence in Higher due to handicaps or learning disabilities Education and for gifted children with superior Since 2006, the MOE has sponsored abilities in mathematics or the sciences, the Development Plan for World-class as well as talented students who excel in U niversities and Research Centers of ­ the fine arts, performing arts or sport. Excellence 發展國際一流大學及頂尖研究中 In accord with trends in other devel- 心計畫, providing 11 top universities and oped nations toward inclusive education, affiliated research centers with funding to a number of mainstream schools offer strengthen basic university education, re- classes to students having special talents cruit first-rate foreign professors and pro- or challenges, providing facilities to meet mote international academic collaboration. their needs from elementary through sec- In the five years the program has been in ondary school. Most disabled students at- place, Taiwan’s universities have seen a tend ordinary classes with other students Graduate students have access to modern equipment at National Tsing Hua University’s Graduate School of Life Sciences in Hsinchu. 22716六校-0926.indd 227 2011/10/18 1:47:19 AM
  9. 9. 16 Education Students in Taiwan identified with a gift for music undergo specialized training from a young age. while also utilizing resource rooms where The highest level of education in the they receive individualized instruction. public supplementary system is provided Schools for physically or mentally by National Open University 國立空中大學 challenged students run parallel to the and Open University of Kaohsiung 高雄市 mainstream education system. Largely 立空中大學. Some 6,712 students—nearly government-funded, they offer classes 40 percent of whom were aged between from preschool through senior vocational 35 and 44—were enrolled in the open uni- ­ school. In school year 2010-2011, a total versities in school year ­ 009-2010. 2 of 6,776 students attended such schools. Active Aging Learning Centers 樂齡 學習中心 have been set up around the na- tion to encourage people aged 55 years Supplementary Education and older to improve themselves through The MOE supports a number of education their whole life long, with 209 supplementary and continuing education centers open as of 2010. Attendance of programs. It also provides funding for over 880,000 was recorded for the 38,019 a range of institutions, such as cultural classes that were held. A further 2,320 centers, museums, libraries, zoos, opera people attended semester-long courses houses and concert halls as well as events with university students at 56 participat- of educational value. ing institutions. Public supplementary schools are affiliated with regular schools at their corresponding levels and take the form e-Learning of distance learning or night schools, While Taiwan’s people commonly use with weekend classes also being offered. the Internet for commerce, to find jobs or Supplementary education, meanwhile, to engage in social networking, only 30.4 provides courses for adults from the el- percent have taken a course online. Aim- ementary through the college level. After ing to prepare its citizens with the tools completing their courses and passing ex- and skills to compete in a digital world, ams, graduates from advanced programs the government has been developing and earn mainstream-equivalent diplomas. expanding e-learning programs for both 22816六校-0926.indd 228 2011/10/18 1:47:27 AM
  10. 10. children and adults. As of 2010, more than C ­ hinese seeking to gain or bolster 8,500 courses have been offered, while proficiency in the language. Receiving ­­ 168 Digital Opportunity Centers 數位機會 such training in Taiwan allows students to 中心 have been built in rural areas, provid- ­ experience traditional Chinese culture while ing students and residents with a place simultaneously enjoying the advantages of from which to explore the world online. a modern, developed society and Taiwan- The Digital Outreach Project 深耕數 ese hospitality. 位關懷方案, slated for implementation in In surveys sponsored by the MOE, 2012, will build on the accomplishments international students cited scholarship seen under the Equal Digital Opportuni- availability and quality of academic ties Initiative 公平數位機會 to expand use r ­ esources as major factors behind their of information technology among senior decision to study in Taiwan. Other ­ easons r citizens, low-income households and included Taiwan’s rich and ­ olorful cul- c women. The initiative increased the pro- ture as well as better job prospects when portion of women using the Internet from they return home. For information on 60.3 percent in 2005 to 69.2 percent and institutions and study programs, please that of indigenous people from 39.9 per- visit cent to 63.5 percent. In school year 2010-2011, the total TELDAP, or the Taiwan e-Learning and number of foreign students in Taiwan Digital Archives Program 數位典藏與數位學 reached 24,732. Aside from the 12,555 習國家型科技計畫, is digitizing the archives students attending Chinese language of the nation’s most prestigious research classes, 12,177 were studying for academ- institution—Academia Sinica 中央研究院,­ ic degrees or were on exchange programs. the National Palace Museum 國立故宮博物 A total of 31 Chinese language ­ en­­ c ters 院 and other public and private institutions are affiliated with universities and staffed ­­­ to foster access to them by a larger public. by professionally trained ­­­ TCSL (Teaching ­ The Digital Education and e-­­­­Learn­ng i Chinese as a Second Language) ­eachers.t Project 數位教育與網路學習計畫 being im­ The largest is the ­ andarin training ­ enter M c plemented under TELDAP seeks to at National Taiwan ­ ormal ­ niversity 國 N U develop a complete e-learning appli- 立臺灣­ 範大學, where more than 3,300 師 cation chain from primary and junior people from over 85 countries ­ eceive r high through high school (including training each ­ cademic quarter. a vocational high school), college and In 2010, around 54 percent of students lifelong learning education. It is foster- at language centers hailed from Asian ing the design of a large amount of digi- ­ countries, 25 percent from the Americas tal courses and websites that ­ ntegrate i and 16 percent from European countries. resources from the MOE, the Central In addition to language training, many Personnel Administration 行政院人事行政 ­ institutions offer cultural classes, for ex- 局, the Council of Labor Affairs 行政院 ample, in calligraphy, seal carving, tai chi, 勞工委員會 and the Council for Cultural and traditional arts and music. Affairs 行政院文化建設委員會. ­ Students who pass the Test of Chi- nese as a Foreign Language 華語文能力 International Exchanges 測驗 may enroll in degree programs. In academic year 2010-2011, 75 percent of Foreign Students in Taiwan foreign students studying for degrees in Taiwan has long been a fruitful cho­ Taiwan came from Asian countries and ice for non-native speakers of Manda­­­ ­ rin about 15 percent from the Americas. 22916六校-0926.indd 229 2011/10/18 1:47:28 AM
  11. 11. 16 Education Scholarships The first phase of the program will run from 2009 to 2012 on funding of 1.55 The MOE offers the Huayu Enrich- ment Scholarship 教育部華語文獎學金 to million (US$2.06 million). Of this total, support foreign students wishing to take the European Commission is providing Chinese language courses. This scholar- 1.1 million (US$1.46 million), while the ship provides qualifying students with a consortium will provide the balance. The monthly stipend of US$820 for one year. center is intended to enhance familiarity The MOE also subsidizes colleges and in Taiwan with the EU, encourage private- universities that offer Mandarin courses sector interaction between EU nations and and grant scholarships to foreign students. Taiwan and facilitate the transformation The MOE and the Ministry of For- of EU centers into a global network for eign Affairs jointly supervise the Taiwan doing research on the European Union. Scholarship Program 臺灣獎學金 to en- courage promising international students Taiwanese Studying Abroad to pursue undergraduate and graduate A total of 33,881 Taiwanese students degrees in Taiwan. Qualified students were granted visas for overseas study in receive a monthly stipend of between 2010. The United States was the country US$820 and US$980. of choice for over 46 percent of these Academia Sinica sponsors the Taiwan students, with the second-most popular International Graduate Program 臺灣國 choice being Australia, followed by the 際研究生學程, providing research grants United Kingdom, Japan and Canada. to eligible students involving a monthly The government offers scholarships to stipend of about US$1,000 for three years university graduates pursuing advanced to all fully matriculated students. Highly studies abroad or taking part in exchange specialized, interdisciplinary Ph.D. pro- programs, and loans are also provided for grams in life and physical sciences as overseas study. well as computational linguistics are To promote international exchanges o ­ ffered in collaboration with top universi- and give students a broader global perspec- ties in Taiwan. tive, several universities in Taiwan offer dual-degree programs in cooperation with Partnering with the European their foreign counterparts. For example, 11 of Taiwan’s leading universities have Union signed an agreement with Temple Univer- In cooperation with the European sity in the United States to establish a dual Commission, NTU opened the European bachelor’s-master’s degree program, under Union Center in Taiwan 臺灣歐洲聯盟中心 which Taiwanese students can study for a in 2009 to provide courses and organize graduate degree at Temple University after outreach programs on the European Union completing three years of study at their and Taiwan-EU relations. NTU signed a ­ home institution. Temple undergraduates, four-year agreement with the commis- likewise, may pursue further studies at a sion to host the center on its campus, while partner institution in Taiwan. affiliates are at National Chengchi Univer- sity 國立政治大學, National Chung Hsing University 國立中興大學, NSYSU, National International Olympiads Dong Hwa University 國立東華­ 學, Fu Jen 大­ Many of Taiwan’s high school stu- Catholic University 天主教輔仁大學 and dents participate in international academic Tamkang University 淡江大學. c ­ ompetitions and their performance is 23016六校-0926.indd 230 2011/10/18 1:47:28 AM
  12. 12. o ften impressive. In 2010, Taiwanese ­ and junior science. In addition, Taiwan contestants won gold at International hosted the International Geography Olympiads in mathematics, biology, chem- ­ Olympiad in August 2010 and the Inter- istry, earth science, informatics, physics national Biology Olympiad in July 2011. • Ministry of Education: Related • Taiwan Scholarship Program: (Click on “Scholarships”) Websites • Study in Taiwan: • Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Archives Program: • National Central Library: • National Taiwan Library: • National Taichung Library: 23116六校-0926.indd 231 2011/10/18 1:47:29 AM