Society. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch13 society


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From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO).

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Society. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch13 society

  1. 1. The Tainan City government hosts a mass wedding ceremony at Yizai Jincheng, or Eternal Fortress, overlooking Anping Harbor. Built in 1874, the fortress is deemed an auspicious site for the ceremony as the expression yizai—literally meaning “100 million years”— is regarded as symbolic of eternal love and devotion. (Liao Tai-ji)13六校(indexed).indd 176 2011/10/18 1:24:44 AM
  2. 2. 13 Society At a Glance • Taiwan a leader in gender equality • Pension schemes • Boosting workers’ rights T aiwan’s population of some 23 million is graying, and its fertility rate fell to 0.895 per woman in 2010, the lowest in the world. Policy measures have been enacted to encourage young people to marry and have children. Public pension schemes offer a measure of economic security for the elderly, while a variety of welfare services are provided to the disadvantaged. Laws are in place to strengthen protection of children, the disabled, low-income groups and workers, as well as to safeguard the rights of women in the workplace. Programs are being implemented to help low- income households recover from economic difficulties and become more prosperous through education and vocational training. And a new Cabinet-level agency tasked with promoting women’s rights is set to be- gin operations in 2012. Taiwan’s unemployment rate dropped to 4.27 percent as of the end of May 2011, down from a high of 6.13 percent in 2009, due to a strong re- bound from recession resulting from global economic turmoil. 17713六校(indexed).indd 177 2011/10/18 1:24:45 AM
  3. 3. 13 Society Human Rights Human Rights Day—President Ma es- tablished the Presidential Office Human Human rights and civil liberties in Rights Consultative Committee 總統府人權 Taiwan have advanced dramatically over 諮詢委員會, mandated to ensure that steady the last two-plus decades since the lifting progress is made in implementing the of martial law in July 1987. Under the terms of the covenants and in promoting Constitution of the Republic of China, respect for human rights in general. the nation’s citizens—numbering 23.16 Further underlining the importance million as of the end of 2010—enjoy the ROC places on advancing human freedom of speech, press, assembly, movement, residence and religious belief rights, in May 2011, the Legislative Yuan as well as the political rights shared by enacted the Enforcement Act for the Con- advanced democracies. vention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women 消除對 Although in 1971 the ROC lost its 婦女一切形式歧視公約施行法 to ensure that membership in the United Nations (of which it is a co-founder), it has striven the ROC’s gender equality regulations to embody the principles of various U.N. meet the highest standards. human rights conventions. On March 31, In 2010, Taiwan was rated “free” for 2009, the Legislative Yuan (Legislature) the 13th consecutive year in U.S.-based ratified the U.N. International Covenant Freedom House’s Freedom in the World on Civil and Political Rights and the U.N. survey, while its political rights rating International Covenant on Economic, So- moved up a notch in view of government cial and Cultural Rights. That same day, actions taken to combat corruption. The it passed legislation requiring all levels of U.S. State Department’s 2010 Country governmental institutions and agencies to Reports on Human Rights Practices also review laws, regulations, directives and recognizes that ROC citizens’ human administrative measures within their re- rights are respected by their government. spective spheres of authority with a view Social Welfare to bringing them into conformance with the covenants. The act was promulgated by President In 2010, central government expendi- Ma Ying-jeou on April 22, 2009 and came tures on public welfare amounted to about into force on December 10 of that year, NT$325.13 billion (US$10.28 billion). In even though the U.N. Secretariat had 2011, 19.6 percent, or NT$346.29 billion not accepted the instruments for deposit. (US$11.73 billion), of the central gov- On December 10, 2010—International ernment budget, is earmarked for social 2010 Social Indices Unit: ‰ unless otherwise indicated Crude Crude Crude Crude Life expectancy (years) Labor force b irth rate death rate marriage rate divorce rate Men Women participation rate* (%) 7.21 6.30 6.00 2.51 76.15 82.66 58.07 *Percentage of working-age (16-65) people in an economy who are employed or seeking employment. Sources: Ministry of the Interior; Council of Labor Affairs 17813六校(indexed).indd 178 2011/10/18 1:24:45 AM
  4. 4. welfare, up 6.51 percent over the previous Protecting the rights and welfare of year. The target groups may be summa- the nation’s children is the responsibil- rized as follows. ity of the Child Welfare Bureau (CWB) 兒童局 under the Ministry of the Interior (MOI), in coordination with local govern- Children ment departments. In 2010, NT$5.50 bil- Taiwan’s under-18 age group (referred lion (US$173.83 million) was budgeted to herein as “children”) has been shrink- for child welfare programs under the ing in recent years as birth rates have CWB, accounting for 7.53 percent of the declined. At the end of 2010, children ministry’s social welfare programs. accounted for 4.60 million or 19.85 per- Since 2007, an all-encompassing safety cent of the general population, with those program has been implemented to protect younger than 12 years of age making up children. The program covers protection 11.71 percent and those aged 12 to 17 from domestic violence and sexual abuse; constituting 8.14 percent. ensuring safe school environments free of To encourage child bearing and re- violence, drugs and gangs; enforcement of duce the burdens of child rearing, parents rating systems for print media, television with an annual pre-tax household income and Internet content; and ensuring the safety below NT$1.5 million (US$50,830) are of food, toys and transportation vehicles. entitled to a monthly child care subsidy A system for reporting and preventing for each child below two years of age. child abuse has been established in line All families, regardless of income, are with the Children and Youth Welfare Act eligible to receive the monthly stipend for 兒童及少年福利法, the Domestic Violence each child after the second. Prevention Act 家庭暴力防治法 and the Moreover, a 2009 amendment to the Sexual Assault Crime Prevention Act 性侵 Employment Insurance Act 就業保險法 害犯罪防治法. The Children and Youth Wel- entitles each parent of a newborn who is fare Act requires that persons and govern- covered by employment insurance and ment agencies that have responsibility for who elects to take unpaid parental leave children’s well-being must take immediate to receive a monthly Employment Insur- action to protect them upon discovering ance Fund 就業保險基金 allowance for up or being informed of any condition that to six months. The allowance amounts endangers their well-being. The system in- to 60 percent of one’s average insured cludes 24-hour hotlines, medical treatment monthly salary during the last six months and protective placement, and assistance before taking leave. by police and prosecutorial authorities. As Since January 1, 2009, subsidies have of 2010, there were about 115 public and been available for medical treatment of private placement institutions nationwide children under the age of 18 belonging to with the capacity to accommodate up to households in the low- and lower-middle- 4,500 children. income brackets (see “Disadvantaged Other legal protections for children Households” section for definitions). In can be found in the Criminal Code of the addition, children whose basic living needs Republic of China 中華民國刑法, which are jeopardized are entitled to receive requires lengthy prison sentences for emergency subsidies for up to six months adults who engage in sexual intercourse at a time, while mentally or physically with children under 16; the Child and challenged children can also receive aid Youth Sexual Transaction Prevention Act for early treatment and education. 兒童及少年性交易防制條例, which stipulates 17913六校(indexed).indd 179 2011/10/18 1:24:46 AM
  5. 5. 13 Society imprisonment, detention and fines for care for the elderly a pressing public policy issue. commercial transactions involving sexual exploitation of minors under the age of The Senior Citizens Welfare Act 老人福 18; and the Labor Standards Act 勞動基準 利法 addresses the rights and welfare of the 法, which stipulates that workers under 16 elderly, providing for an annuity system to years of age shall be considered as child safeguard the financial security of elderly workers and that no child worker shall people, as well as living subsidies and work over eight hours a day or be permitted special care allowances for financially dis- to do heavy or hazardous work. advantaged senior citizens, and requiring that a survey of their living conditions be conducted and published every five years. The Elderly The act stipulates that offspring or con- Taiwan became an aging society as tractual welfare institutions that mistreat, defined by the World Health Organiza- abuse or abandon elderly people are sub- tion when its elderly population (65 or ject to fines; that their names be published; older) crossed the 7-percent threshold in and that individual offenders attend family 1993. At the end of 2010, 10.74 percent education courses. of the population (or 2.49 million people) In 2007, the MOI initiated a long- were elderly, and the old-age dependency term care system with a budget of ratio—the ratio of elderly people to the US$2.47 billion to be spent over 10 years work force under 65—stood at 14.59 on providing round-the-clock nursing to percent. According to the Council for senior citizens (see Chapter 14, “Public Economic Planning and Development 行 Health”). Under the program, the MOI 政院經濟建設委員會, Taiwan’s elderly will allocates funds to local governments for amount to more than 40 percent of the the provision of day care and home care population by 2060, making long-term for the elderly and for setting up support Outdoor recreational activities help the elderly keep fit and enjoy peace of mind. In Taiwan, elders playing xiangqi, a traditional Chinese form of chess, is a common scene in the parks. 18013六校(indexed).indd 180 2011/10/18 1:24:48 AM
  6. 6. centers that teach nursing skills to family and access to public recreational and sce- members and professional caregivers. nic spots, subsidies for medical expenses Other services provided include free and social insurance premiums, prefer- health checkups and influenza vaccina- ential loans, and vocational guidance and tions; discounts on public transportation training. Disabled persons are entitled to and access to cultural and educational fa- an income-tax deduction of NT$104,000 cilities; day care and home care services; (US$3,524), while disabled students enjoy lifelong learning programs and social tuition reductions ranging from 40 to 100 activities; and free meal delivery. percent, depending on the severity of their As of the end of 2010, 1,462 publicly disabilities. They are exempt from tuitions and privately funded care centers with if the annual income of the household to a combined capacity of nearly 94,100 which they belong is less than NT$2.2 mil- people were providing institutional care lion (US$74,551). services to the elderly. Senior citizens in Other financial support for the disabled low-income and lower-middle-income includes monthly National Pension pay- households who are not receiving insti- ments (see “National Pension” section) tutional care are granted monthly living and, for those in low- and lower-middle- allowances of NT$6,000 (US$203) and income households, monthly living allow- NT$3,000 (US$102), respectively. A ances ranging from NT$3,000 (US$102) monthly average of 119,279 persons re- to NT$7,000 (US$237). In addition, those ceived such subsidies in 2010. who reside in caregiving facilities are In addition, local governments pro- subsidized up to NT$20,000 (US$678) vide a monthly special care allowance of per month, depending on their household NT$5,000 (US$169) to low- and lower- income and degree of disability. middle-income households taking care of The People with Disabilities Rights elderly persons unable to perform basic Protection Act 身心障礙者權益保障法 re- activities of daily living. In 2010, 7,862 quires that disabled persons constitute at households received such subsidies. They least 1 percent of the work force at private also received subsidies for hospital care enterprises with 67 or more employees, and denture implants. and at least 3 percent of the work force at government offices, public schools and state enterprises with 34 or more em- The Disabled ployees. Employers can receive monthly As of 2010, over 1.08 million people, or reimbursements of between NT$10,000 4.65 percent of Taiwan’s population, were (US$339) and NT$12,000 (US$407) for registered as disabled. A variety of public and each disabled person they employ who is private institutions serve people with specific referred by a public job placement center. disabilities, including vision, hearing and Persons with disabilities participating in speech impairments, autism, drug-resistant government-run or government-commissioned epilepsy, chronic psychosis and severe facial vocational training programs can receive damage. Services provided range from long- allowances equal to 60 percent of the term nursing care to training and develop- nation’s minimum monthly wage for up ment programs. As of 2010, there were 276 to one year. Disabled persons serving in- institutions licensed to provide caregiving ternships at government agencies, public services to nearly 23,500 disabled. enterprises and private companies receive The physically challenged enjoy tax ex- monthly subsidies of up to NT$8,000 emptions, free-of-charge public transportation (US$271) for up to six months. 18113六校(indexed).indd 181 2011/10/18 1:24:48 AM
  7. 7. 13 Society Indigenous Groups percent if they have passed an indigenous language proficiency test. The CIP has Needs and concerns of Taiwan’s in- digenous peoples (see Chapter 2, “People allocated 1,450 scholarship awards and and Language”), who constitute approxi- 1,894 work-study grants each semester mately 2 percent of the total popula- for indigenous college students based on tion, are addressed by the Cabinet-level their academic achievements, with no Council of Indigenous Peoples (CIP) 行 limit, however, on the number of work-study 政院原住民族委員會 and various local gov- grants available per semester for those ernment departments. The Indigenous belonging to low-income households. Ten Peoples Basic Act 原住民族基本法 obli- full scholarships are also awarded each gates the central government to provide year to indigenous students for overseas resources to help indigenous groups gov- studies, while a US$400 monthly liv- ern their own affairs, formulate policies ing stipend is provided to those studying to protect their basic rights, and promote abroad without government scholarships. the preservation and development of A special civil service examination is also their languages and cultures. held for indigenous citizens. The Indigenous Peoples Employment Rights Protection Act 原住民族工作權保 Farmers 障法 stipulates that indigenous peoples As of 2010, the Farmers’ Health Insur- should make up at least 1 percent of the ance (FHI) 農民健康保險 program covered work force at government agencies, pub- about 1.51 million farmers. Adminis- lic schools and state enterprises with 100 tered by the MOI and local government or more employees, and at least one-third agencies, it provides coverage to all peo- of the work force if these agencies are lo- ple 15 years of age or older who engage cated in indigenous communities. in agricultural work for more than 90 To boost indigenous peoples’ employ- days a year, or those who are members of ment opportunities, a monthly subsidy a farmers’ association. of NT$10,000 (US$339) is offered to The program includes cash benefits employers for each indigenous person for disability, maternity and funeral ex- employed; individuals may receive public penses. Farmers aged 65 and older are en- support for vocational training, legal as- titled to a monthly pension of NT$6,000 sistance in case of labor disputes and low- (US$203) so long as they have been in- interest loans for business start-ups. Other sured under the FHI for over six months services provided include living allowances and are not receiving pension payments for indigenous senior citizens; subsidies from other social insurance programs. for preschool day care and nursery care; emergency assistance; tuition subsidies, scholarships and work-study grants; in- Disadvantaged Households digenous community health services; and In accordance with the Public As- subsidies for National Health Insurance sistance Act 社會救助法, the MOI together premiums and medical treatment. with local government agencies imple- Low-interest housing loans and rent ments programs that provide assistance subsidies are provided to low- and lower- to disadvantaged households. Designed middle-income indigenous households. and administered for the most part The senior high school and university by local governments based on their entrance exam scores of indigenous stu- regional needs, these programs encom- dents are increased by 25 percent, or 35 pass a diversity of financial and practical 18213六校(indexed).indd 182 2011/10/18 1:24:48 AM
  8. 8. services addressing particular needs. Some average monthly disposable income in provide relatively long-term aid, while others the region. In 2011, the average ranged provide short-term aid in emergency situa- between a little over NT$7,900 (US$268) tions. An important goal of such programs for the Kinmen 金門 and Matsu 馬祖 is- is through education and other measures lands to nearly NT$14,800 (US$502) for helping recipients of public assistance be- Taipei City 臺北市. come financially independent. In accordance with amendments to Besides outlining the range of serv- the Public Assistance Act that came into ices that may be supported through force on July 1, 2011, lower-middle- central government funding and that local income households have also become eli- governments should strive to provide for gible for assistance. Such households are their constituencies, the Public Assistance defined as those which have a monthly Act stipulates the qualifications of public average per-member gross income of less assistance recipients. Only those with low than 1.5 times the monthly minimum and lower-middle income are eligible. living expense standard of the region in Low-income households are defined which they live. The MOI estimates that as those whose monthly average per- following this relaxation of restrictions, member gross income is less than the a total of 312,000 households compris- monthly “minimum living expense stand- ing 852,000 people, or 3.7 percent of the ard” of the region in which they reside, population, were eligible for assistance as calculated by the Directorate-General under the diverse programs that apply to of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, their individual circumstances. Executive Yuan (DGBAS) 行政院主計處 Launched in August 2008 in coordina- in cooperation with local governments. tion with local government social service The minimum living expense for a given providers, the MOI’s Immediate Assistance region is defined as 60 percent of the Program 馬上關懷急難救助 provides short-term With government assistance, disad- vantaged house- holds or groups, such as these indigenous Bunun people of Namaxia Township in Kaohsiung City, are able to start up culturally oriented businesses. 18313六校(indexed).indd 183 2011/10/18 1:24:54 AM
  9. 9. 13 Society 2010 Minimum Living Expenses Standard pursuing higher education may receive tuition subsidies of NT$10,000 (US$339) per semester and child care subsidies of Administrative Area NT$ up to NT$4,800 (US$163) per month. Taipei City 14,794 Single parents attending senior high Kaohsiung City 10,033 school may receive similar subsidies, New Taipei City 10,792 though with a lesser amount. Taichung City 9,945 A housing subsidy program effec- Tainan City 9,829 tive since February 2009 targets young Kinmen & Matsu 7,920 newlywed couples who rent or buy a Rest of Taiwan 9,829 residence. In 2010, the program provided some 15,000 qualifying couples with a Source: Ministry of the Interior rental subsidy of NT$3,600 (US$115) a month for up to two years, and 20,000 qualifying couples with home loans of emergency living subsidies and practical NT$2 million (US$63,210) that are inter- relief to low- and lower-middle-income est free for the first two years. Applicants households as well as to households whose for such subsidies or loans must be lower- well-being is threatened by the recent middle-income earners aged 20 to 40 death, disappearance, unemployment, se- who married within two years of the date vere injury or illness of their chief income of application. Married couples aged 20 earners. Emergency aid ranging between to 45 in the lower-middle-income bracket NT$10,000 (US$339) and NT$30,000 with children under 20 years of age are (US$1,017) is provided along with a variety also eligible for interest-free home loans. of welfare services. From the program’s inception through the end of 2010, a total of NT$1.52 billion (US$51.5 million) was Women expended on such emergency relief. At the central government level, the The Act for Assisting Families in Committee of Women’s Rights Promotion Hardship 特殊境遇家庭扶助條例 stipulates 婦女權益促進委員會 under the Executive that single parents of families whose basic Yuan and the MOI’s Domestic Violence needs are not being met due to extraordi- and Sexual Assault Prevention Committee nary contingencies shall be provided with 家庭暴力及性侵害防治委員會 have heretofore subsidies encompassing a wide variety of shared the main responsibility for promot- emergency conditions, including payments ing gender equality. The MOI-supported for daily living costs, health care, chil- Foundation of Women’s Rights Promotion dren’s education, legal expenses and inter- and Development 婦女權益促進發展基金會 est payments on business start-up loans. also plays a key role in advancing gender Under the act, a total of 20,879 households equality, with its Taiwan Women’s Center received funding amounting to NT$478.61 臺灣國家婦女館 promoting Taiwan’s par- million (US$16.22 million), up 17 percent ticipation in global discourse on gender over the previous year. equality. A Cabinet-level agency tasked Tuition and child care subsidies are with promoting gender equality and safe- provided to low- and lower-middle-income guarding women’s rights is to be estab- single parents with dependents under lished in 2012 as the executive branch of 18 years of age to help them advance the central government is restructured (see their knowledge and skills. Single parents Chapter 4, “Government”). 18413六校(indexed).indd 184 2011/10/18 1:24:55 AM
  10. 10. On March 7-8, 2011, the MOI con- In 2010, approximately 50 percent vened the first-ever National Women’s of working-age women were employed Forum in Taipei City, attended by repre- or actively seeking work. To ensure that sentatives of women’s rights organiza- they receive fair treatment, the Gender tions, academia, and central and local Equality in Employment Act 性別工作平等 governments. The conference focused on 法 was promulgated in 2002 and has been formulation of a comprehensive new set amended several times since then, most re- of guidelines for promoting gender equal- cently in January 2011. The act stipulates ity society-wide. It had been preceded by that all employees regardless of gender or 38 preliminary symposiums conducted sexual orientation shall enjoy equal rights around the country to publicize the proj- at their places of employment, and that the ect and solicit suggestions for the guide- principle of equal pay for equal work shall lines’ content. The draft version, which be respected. incorporates input from these earlier Further, the act forbids termination meetings, comprises seven chapters cov- of employment because of employees’ ering employment, health, medical care, pregnancy or marriage. It also stipulates marriage, political participation, welfare female employees’ right to take eight and prevention of domestic violence. weeks of paid maternity leave and five Though not a member of the United days to four weeks of paid leave in cases Nations, the Legislative Yuan on May 20, of miscarriage. Employers who commit 2011 passed legislation that makes the gender discrimination or fail to set up provisions of the U.N. Convention on the mechanisms to prevent sexual harassment Elimination of All Forms of Discrimina- in the workplace are subject to fines of up tion Against Women “law of the land” to NT$500,000 (US$16,943). in the ROC. Earlier, in January 2011, For women who wish to start a small the DGBAS released an assessment of business, the Council of Labor Affairs (CLA) Taiwan’s social development based on 行政院勞工委員會 provides start-up loans that analytical methodology employed in are interest-free for the first two years. the United Nations Development Pro- gramme’s (UNDP) Human Development Report published in November 2010, Labor including a Human Development Index (HDI) and a Gender Inequality Index Taiwan has a diversified work force (GII). The GII assesses gender inequality of around 11 million people. Accord- in three categories—reproductive health, ing to the 2010 Labor Force Evaluation empowerment and employment—and Measure report issued by U.S.-based features five statistical indicators con- Business Environment Risk Intelligence, cerning maternal mortality, adolescent Taiwan ranks third in the world for fertility, parliamentary representation, quality, next only to Singapore and the educational attainment at secondary and United States. The unemployment rate higher levels, and labor force participa- at the end of May 2011 stood at 4.27 tion. According to the DGBAS’s find- percent, compared with an average rate ings, had Taiwan been included in the of 5.21 percent in 2010. And the legally UNDP survey, it would have had the mandated minimum monthly wage was 18th-best HDI score and the 4th-best GII raised from NT$17,880 (US$606) to score. Among Asian countries, it would NT$18,780 (US$636) in September have had the best GII score. 2011, effective January 1, 2012. 18513六校(indexed).indd 185 2011/10/18 1:24:55 AM
  11. 11. 13 Society households and people between the ages of 45 and 65. According to CLA data, as of the end of 2010, nearly 380,000 foreign contract workers (virtually all nationals of South- east Asian countries) were employed in Taiwan as factory workers or caregivers. Like ROC nationals, they are protected by the Labor Standards Act, while amend- ments to the ESA allow foreign nationals to be hired as advisors or researchers by government agencies and their affiliated institutions without being required to ap- ply for a work permit. The same applies to lecturers or researchers of foreign na- tionality hired by colleges and universities for up to six months as well as foreigners married to ROC nationals. The Employment Insurance Act 就 業保險法 stipulates that involuntarily un- employed workers under 45 years of age can receive 60 percent of their average insured salary of the last six months of employment for up to six months. Re- To reduce cost, more and more firms in cent amendments to the act allow such Taiwan are outsourcing labor or using part-time workers or agency temps. Short- unemployment payments to be extended term employment is particularly common for up to 12 months during times of eco- in the construction business. nomic recession. Meanwhile, the National Health Insurance 全民健康保險 premiums of involuntarily unemployed workers and their dependents are paid by the CLA’s Workers’ Rights Bureau of Labor Insurance (BLI) 行政院勞 Among several laws designed to pro- 工委員會勞工保險局. tect workers, the Labor Standards Act The Labor Safety and Health Act 勞工安 delineates the rights and obligations of 全衛生法 prohibits women and those under employees and employers, prescribes the the age of 16 from working in hazardous minimum provisions of labor contracts, environments. It also requires companies and stipulates standards concerning wages, with more than 300 employees, or businesses work hours, leave and employment of with more than 100 workers engaged in po- women and persons under the age of 16. tentially hazardous operations, to maintain Meanwhile, the Employment Services an on-site medical clinic. Act (ESA) 就業服務法 demands equal ac- The Sexual Harassment Prevention cess to job opportunities and employment Act 性騷擾防治法 requires governments to services, regulates public and private establish sexual harassment prevention employment service agencies and encour- committees. Organizations with over 10 ages employment of people with disabili- employees are required to set up a chan- ties, indigenous peoples, female heads of nel for filing and dealing with complaints, 18613六校(indexed).indd 186 2011/10/18 1:25:02 AM
  12. 12. National Pension vs. Labor Insurance Annuity Category National Pension Labor Insurance Annuity Premium 6.5% - 12%; 7.5% - 13%; 7% in the third year with 7.5% for the first two years with annual increases of 0.5% every two years increases thereafter of 0.5% up to 10%; followed by biennial increases of 0.5% up to 13% Insured Fixed insured amount based on the Based on one’s insured salary: salary/amount nation’s minimum monthly wage From Grade 1 (NT$18,780)* to Grade 22 (NT$18,780)* (NT$43,900) Share of Insurant 60% Employer 70% contributions Government 40% Employee 20% Government 10% Insurance Monthly annuity payments for Payments for maternity, sickness and injury; benefits •• Disability; Monthly annuity or lump sum payments for •• Old-age pension; or •• Disability; •• Death benefits paid to qualifying •• Old-age pension; or survivors •• Death benefits paid to qualifying survivors Standards of Old-age pension: Old-age pension: payment Either Either Insured amount × number of Insured salary × number of insured years × insured years × 1.3% 1.55% or or Insured amount × number of in- Insured salary × number of insured years × sured years × 0.65% + NT$3,000 0.775% + NT$3,000 whichever is more favorable to whichever is more favorable to the insurant the insurant Disability pension: Disability pension: Insured amount × number of Insured salary × number of insured years × insured years × 1.3%; 1.55%; minimum NT$4,000 per month; minimum NT$4,000 per month an additional subsidy of 25% for each dependent, either a spouse or child, for a maximum of 50% Death benefits paid to qualifying Death benefits paid to qualifying survivors: survivors: Insured amount × number of insured years Either × 1.55%; minimum NT$3,000 per month Insured amount × number of insured years × 1.3% or 50% payment for survivors of old-age or disabled pensioners Death benefits (funeral subsidy): Death benefits (funeral subsidy): Monthly insured amount × 5 Monthly insured amount × 5 Age at start 65 (fixed) 60 (nominally) of payment Having worked for 15 years, a worker can choose to retire as early as age 55 or as late as age 65, incurring a 4-percent decrease or increase in payment, respectively, for each year before or after age 60 that retirement is chosen. *Effective January 1, 2012 18713六校(indexed).indd 187 2011/10/18 1:25:03 AM
  13. 13. 13 Society while those with more than 30 employees must implement measures against sexual receive monthly payments, but must with- draw their funds in one lump sum. harassment and ensure that employees are Under the revised Labor Insurance aware of them. Act 勞工保險條例, workers insured under The primary legal framework for the previous labor insurance scheme labor-management relations and dispute can choose to receive annuity payments settlement is provided by three laws: the monthly until they pass away or to collect Labor Union Act 工會法, the Collective a lump sum, while workers insured after Bargaining Agreement Act 團體協約法 and January 2009, when the Labor Insurance the Settlement of Labor-Management Annuity (LIA) scheme 勞保年金制度 was Disputes Act 勞資爭議處理法. These laws implemented, can only receive monthly protect the right of private-sector workers annuity payments. to form labor unions and to utilize a vari- The advantages of the monthly annu- ety of arbitration mechanisms to resolve ity system are that it facilitates lifelong labor-management disputes. They further financial security and avoids the risk call for provision of subsidies to cover that the value of a lump sum payment workers’ legal expenses in litigation aris- might be eroded by inflation. Retirees ing from work-related injuries or alleged are reminded that choosing to collect improper dismissals. Amendments to the monthly annuity payments would, over three laws that came into force simultane- eight years’ time, result in receiving ously on May 1, 2011 have expanded the an aggregate amount equivalent to the scope of labor union organization to allow lump sum. teacher participation, and have clarified Like the aforementioned Labor Pension the conditions for launching legal strikes. system, the LIA program is administered However, teachers are still not permitted to by the BLI. Labor insurance premiums strike in consideration of students’ right paid by employers and employees are to education. summarized in the table “National Pension vs. Labor Insurance Annuity.” Qualified Labor Pension beneficiaries can receive payments under both programs simultaneously. The Labor Pension Act 勞工退休金條例 allows workers to join the Labor Pension program administered by the BLI. The National Pension program features a portable individual retirement account into which succes- The National Pension Act 國民年金 sive employers pay monthly premiums 法, passed by the Legislative Yuan in July amounting to at least 6 percent of their 2007, stipulates that any citizen aged 25 employees’ monthly wages, while em- to 65 who is not covered by social in- ployees may elect to contribute up to 6 surance programs for laborers, farmers, percent of their salary to the fund. Per- members of the military, civil servants sons who reach the age of 60 after having and teachers shall be covered by the Na- participated in the program for at least tional Pension system. By covering the 15 years are eligible to begin receiving unemployed, non-working spouses and monthly labor pension payments even if freelancers, among others, the scheme they elect to continue working. People ensures that the vast majority of citizens who wish to receive pension payments af- receive regular, lifelong pension benefits. ter age 60 but having worked for less than The National Pension system went 15 years since joining the program cannot into effect in October 2008. As of the 18813六校(indexed).indd 188 2011/10/18 1:25:03 AM
  14. 14. end of 2010, 3.87 million people had of the program’s implementation are been covered by the program. Insurants exempt from paying premiums but re- reaching the age of 65 receive monthly ceive monthly payments of NT$3,000 pension payments for the rest of their (US$102) until death. Low-income and lives. The pension amount depends on severely disabled insured persons pay the amount of premiums paid over the no insurance premiums, while different years (see table “National Pension vs. levels of premium subsidy, ranging from Labor Insurance Annuity”). The el- 55 to 70 percent, are provided to less derly who were already 65 at the time disadvantaged individuals. l Ministry of the Interior: Related l Committee of Women’s Rights Promotion: Websites l Council of Indigenous Peoples: l Council of Labor Affairs: l National Immigration Agency: 18913六校(indexed).indd 189 2011/10/18 1:25:04 AM