Science & Technology. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch09 science and technology


Published on

From the last edition of the ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook that used to be published by the disbanded Government Information Office (GIO).

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Science & Technology. ROC (Taiwan) Yearbook 2011 Ch09 science and technology

  1. 1. Taiwan is the world’s No. 1 producer of made-to-order chips. Shown here is a scene inside TSMC’s facility, Fab 12, which produces 12-inch IC wafers. (Courtesy of Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co.)09四校OK.indd 118 2011/10/18 12:36:56 AM
  2. 2. 9 Science and Technology At a Glance •• Profiles of publicly supported S&T organizations and programs •• Nanotechnology playing a critical role across the board •• Pushing innovation through interdisciplinary and international collaboration •• Transforming Taiwan into a global cloud-computing nerve center G lobal surveys give Taiwan high scores for its science and technology (S&T) environment and innovation. Still, its S&T community, including government-supported institutions, universities and private enterprises, are striving to embrace creativity as the primary force that will enable them to remain dynamic and competitive. Collaboration between these sectors is producing valuable fruits. They range from powerful next-generation computer processors and nano-scale computer memory units to pharmaceutical and radiological therapies for cancer, and from satellites that boost the accuracy of mete- orological and climatic analyses to advances in wireless and broadband Internet communications that greatly expand vistas for e-learning and access to valuable software resources. A critical factor in Taiwan’s fast-paced evolution over the past six decades, from an impoverished agrarian economy to a prosperous knowledge-based economy, has been government development programs. This chapter focuses on the contributions of such programs to Taiwan’s maturing research and development capabilities. 11909四校OK.indd 119 2011/10/18 12:36:58 AM
  3. 3. 9 Science and Technology The Rise of a The 1990s saw the launch of a series of National Science and Technology Pro- High-tech Powerhouse grams (NSTPs) 國家型科技計畫 to address The Republic of China government’s developmental needs ranging from tele- first comprehensive set of science and communications to disaster prevention. technology (S&T) policies, the Guide- Meanwhile, the Fundamental Science and lines for the Long-range Development of Technology Act 科學技術基本法 of 1999 Science 國家長期發展科學計畫綱領, were provided a sounder legal framework for formulated in 1959. The same year saw government promotion of S&T develop- the establishment of the Cabinet-level Na- ment. And in that same year, with the tional Science Council (NSC) 行政院國家科 launch of the FORMOSAT-1 satellite 福爾 學委員會, mandated to play a leading role 摩沙衛星一號 the ROC joined the ranks of in planning and promoting S&T develop- space-exploring nations. ment. Since the late 1960s, a number of The ROC central government bud- publicly supported R&D institutions (see get for S&T came to NT$94.19 billion section so named) have been established (US$2.98 billion) in 2010 and NT$92.55 under the NSC, the Department of Indus- billion (US$3.14 billion) in 2011. The trial Technology (DoIT) of the Ministry gross domestic expenditure on R&D was of Economic Affairs (MOEA) 經濟部技術 NT$367.17 billion (US$11.11 billion) 處 and the Cabinet-level Atomic Energy in 2009. Of that amount, 29 percent was Council (AEC) 行政院原子能委員會. And be- funded by the public sector, 71 percent by ginning in 1980, numerous highly produc- the private sector. tive science parks have been established Global surveys have consistently given under NSC supervision. Taiwan high scores in their S&T-related in- In the private sector, meanwhile, dices. It is in sixth place in the category of high-tech, capital-intensive firms such technological infrastructure among the 59 as Taiwan Semiconductor Manufactur- top economies surveyed in the 2011 World ing Co. 台灣積體電路製造股份有限公司 and Competitiveness Yearbook, compiled by United Microelectronics Corp. 聯華電子 the International Institute for Management 股份有限公司 pioneered—and have con- Development. And among the 139 econo- tinued to dominate—the global market mies surveyed in the World Economic for custom-designed integrated circuit Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report (IC) chips for use in computers and a vast 2010-2011, it is ranked No. 1 in the sub- variety of other products. Further, ever index of new utility patents per million since the 1990s, Taiwanese manufactur- population, No. 6 in quality of math and ers have produced most of the world’s science education, No. 8 in availability of personal computers and hold large shares scientists and engineers, No. 8 in Internet of the global market for other consumer access in schools, and No. 9 in company electronics products. They are also major spending on R&D. suppliers of high-end components used For many years, Taiwan has ranked in the manufacture of the products of among the top five countries for the num- internationally famous companies such ber of patents issued by the U.S. Patent as Apple, Microsoft, Intel, HP and Sony. and Trademark Office. It was the No. 4 Among the most important of such com- recipient of all types of U.S. patents over ponents are IC chips and flat-panel dis- the period 1986 to 2010. In terms of out- plays, of which Taiwan has long been the put of scientific papers, Taiwan ranked world’s No. 1 or No. 2 producer. 16th worldwide in 2009 for the number 12009四校OK.indd 120 2011/10/18 12:36:58 AM
  4. 4. of papers published in journals tracked of the National Applied Research Labora- in Thomson Reuters’ Science Citation tories (NARL) 國家實驗研究院. In addition, Index, and ninth for those published in it supervises the development and opera- journals tracked in the organization’s En- tions of the nation’s science parks. gineering Index. The NSC annually reviews the S&T development plans of government orga- S&T-related nizations for the coming year in order to ensure effective execution of government Government Agencies policies, avoid overlaps and enhance co- ordination and integration of programs. Among government agencies that have The NARL’s primary missions are been crucial players in building the na- to establish platforms for cooperation tion’s S&T infrastructure and launching in cutting-edge R&D, provide technical high-tech Taiwanese firms are the NSC, support for academic research and foster the DoIT and the AEC. Another agency S&T talents. Currently, the NARL com- that has made valuable contributions to prises 12 divisions focusing on five broad S&T development is the Cabinet-level De- categories: nanoelectronics, space tech- partment of Health (DOH) 行政院衛生署. nology, S&T informatics, environmental Research organizations overseen by disaster prevention and biotechnology. these government agencies undertake a vast array of R&D projects, often in col- laboration with each other and researchers MOEA Department of in academia and the private sector. The Industrial Technology development and application of nano- The DoIT is mandated to boost the scale materials, for example, has become private sector’s technological sophis- of such paramount importance in virtually tication and help create vibrant new every field of science and manufacturing enterprises. Both goals are powerfully that projects involving nanotechnologies advanced through R&D and start-up are common to all R&D institutions. incubation services performed by re- Owing to the overwhelming impor- searchers and other specialists at the tance of science and technology to the DoIT-administered Industrial Technology nation’s development, S&T-related gov- Research Institute (ITRI) 工業技術研究院 ernment agencies are being revamped to and Institute for Information Industry (III) spur a greater momentum for innovation. 資訊工業策進會, as well as at university In 2012, the NSC will merge with the laboratories and NARL facilities. AEC to form the new Ministry of Sci- With DoIT financial backing in the ence and Technology. form of Technology Development Pro- gram (TDP) 科技研究發展專案計畫 grants, these institutional experts collaborate National Science Council with private enterprises to develop and The NSC is vested with the primary bring to market new high-value products responsibility of drawing up long-range and services. Since 2005, total TDP fund- national S&T development policies and ing has grown at an annual average rate of activities, including planning for the around 5 percent. In 2010, TDP projects NSTPs. It provides guidance and fund- were budgeted at over US$628 million, ing to academic researchers and oversees representing an increase of 6.74 percent NSTP projects as well as R&D activities over the previous year. 12109四校OK.indd 121 2011/10/18 12:36:59 AM
  5. 5. 9 Science and Technology TDP-supported institutional-sector projects currently focus on fields such As for TDP-backed academic-sector projects, by June 2010, 21 participating as optoelectronics, cloud computing, universities had established 56 special- electric vehicles, robotics and green en- ized R&D centers, some of them serving ergy. In connection with such projects, as business start-up incubators. As of that more than 1,000 patents are granted an- date, 576 commissioned projects had been nually to public R&D institutions, while completed, involving 98 instances of coop- their revenues from patent royalties and eration between multiple academic, public technology transfers to the private sec- and private organizations as well as 240 tor amounted to over US$240 million instances of international collaboration. In between 2005 and 2010. the process, 539 patents were generated and From the launching of industrial- 429 technology transfers were carried out. sector TDP grants in 1999 until the end of December 2010, funding for a total of 687 R&D projects was approved, involv- Atomic Energy Council ing nearly 15,000 S&T professionals at The AEC oversees the nation’s various 1,135 enterprises. Over the period, TDP nuclear-related affairs. As the country’s grants totaling US$540 million, matched nuclear safety regulator, the AEC’s major by US$1.23 billion in private investment, tasks include: generated a production value 11.3 times •• oversight of construction and operation greater than the investment. of nuclear power plants; Taiwan’s World-leading High-tech Industries in 2010 Ranked No. 1 Production Value Global Share Category (US$ million) (%) Mask ROM 279 97.9 IC testing 3,947 71.2 Custom IC fabrication 17,612 65.6 Optical discs 1,031 53.8 IC packaging 8,516 46.5 Electro-deposited copper foil 851 36.7 Ranked No. 2 Personal navigation devices 1,887 38.0 Large-sized TFT-LCD panels 25,976 32.2 Organic LED panels 249 26.1 IC substrates 1,803 23.2 IC design 12,955 21.7 Small and medium-sized TFT-LCD panels 3,933 19.4 Note: This table excludes overseas production by Taiwanese companies. Source: Industry and Technology Intelligence Service, Ministry of Economic Affairs 12209四校OK.indd 122 2011/10/18 12:36:59 AM
  6. 6. •• control of ionizing radiation in medical, difficult-to-manage radioactive fluids. agricultural, academic and industrial They can also be used to treat wastewater applications; generated by electroplating processes or •• formulation and enforcement of regula- from water polluted by laundry detergents tions concerning handling, treatment, and other chemicals. storage and disposal of radioactive The INER’s R&D efforts in the area waste and nuclear materials; of green energy technology include de- •• planning of and preparation for nuclear velopment of solid oxide fuel cells, cel- emergency response; and lulosic ethanol production methods, high •• monitoring of environmental radiation concentration photovoltaic systems and in air, water and foodstuffs, including wind power generation systems. operation of a real-time gamma radia- In the field of medicine, meanwhile, tion monitoring system. the INER has completed development of The AEC is also charged with foster- intravenously administered nano-scale ing the development and utilization of liposomes that deliver rhenium-188 ra- nuclear technology, primarily through dioisotope atoms to cancerous tumors. R&D conducted by its associated Institute Among the advantages of this approach to of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) 行政 cancer therapy is the fact that the half-life 院原子能委員會核能研究所. of Re-188 is short, reducing the damage its radiation may cause to normal cells as well as side effects associated with con- Publicly Supported ventional chemotherapy. R&D Institutions AEC management and INER re- searchers have maintained close ties with Institute of Nuclear their foreign counterparts. An important Energy Research aspect of such interaction is routine visits by their respective personnel to each oth- Founded under the AEC in 1968, the er’s R&D and power-generation facilities INER conducts a wide range of R&D and participation in international confer- on energy technologies, nuclear safety ences and seminars. technologies and radiation applications. It also provides extensive technical support to the AEC’s regulatory efforts in areas National Nano Device such as comprehensive safety assessments Laboratories of and technological upgrades for the The National Nano Device Laborato- three plants currently in service, power ries (NDL) 國家實驗研究院奈米元件實驗室 plant license renewals, and construction is one of the NARL’s 12 research centers. of a new nuclear power plant. The NDL’s leadership in the field of micro- In the field of nuclear safety, a major electronics was demonstrated at the annual focus of the INER’s activities has been International Electron Devices Meeting in the development of methods for treat- December 2010 in San Francisco, where ment and disposal of radioactive waste it unveiled the world’s smallest functional materials. Among other accomplishments resistive random-access memory (RRAM) in this area, it has developed relatively cell with a diameter of only 9 nanome- inexpensive materials that absorb various ters. The event organizer, the Institute of types of radionuclides from the cool- Electrical and Electronic Engineers, gave ant water of nuclear reactors and other the NDL report top billing while major 12309四校OK.indd 123 2011/10/18 12:36:59 AM
  7. 7. 9 Science and Technology specialized media, including Low Power Engineering Community and Nihon Keizai Shimbun, characterized the nano device as an important breakthrough. This new nano RRAM has 20 times more storage capacity than current flash memory yet requires only 0.5 percent of the power consumed by flash memory, thus opening up new frontiers for min- iaturization of electronic information devices. The NDL anticipates that this new technology can be brought to market within the next few years. To that end, it is planning to organize a consortium of industrial, academic and public-sector researchers to accelerate development of applications of memory devices that em- ploy nanotechnology and CMOS (com- plementary metal oxide semiconductor) materials such as tungsten oxide, as well as cultivation of expertise in the semicon- ductor industry. Satellites jointly developed by Taiwan and the United States, including the highly reputed FORMOSAT-2 and National Space Organization FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC satellites, Established by the NSC in 1991, the are monitored at the NSPO’s National Space Organization (NSPO) 國 Satellite Operations Control Center in Hsinchu. 家實驗研究院太空中心 became a division of the NARL in 2003. The NSPO’s mission is to advance Taiwan’s space-related R&D capabilities, oversee its various space measurement of ionospheric phenomena programs, and make Taiwan a significant and testing of Ka-band radio communica- player in the global space community. tions technology. While NSPO programs are diverse, Launched in May 2004, FORMOSAT-2 a major focus of its activities has been is a high-resolution remote-sensing satel- satellite-based scientific research. As of lite with the unique capability of monitor- 2010, the NSPO had undertaken three ing virtually all locales on the planet on highly successful satellite missions— a daily basis. It has received international FORMOSAT-1, FORMOSAT-2 and recognition as a valuable tool for assessing FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC—the latter two conditions in natural disaster areas as well still operational as of mid-2011. as changes in environmental conditions. In 2010, the NSPO supplied FORMOSAT-2 FORMOSAT-1 and FORMOSAT-2 images to foreign organizations requir- Jointly developed with U.S.-based ing the latest information on the massive TRW Corp. and launched in January volcanic activity in Iceland and the oil 1999, the FORMOSAT-1 satellite’s func- spill in the Gulf of Mexico, and provided tions included imaging of ocean color, images to ROC government agencies in 12409四校OK.indd 124 2011/10/18 12:37:04 AM
  8. 8. connection with national land planning as FORMOSAT-7. Planning is also un- and environmental monitoring. derway to launch a new high-resolution remote sensing satellite, FORMOSAT-5. FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC is a col- Industrial Technology laborative effort of several institutions Research Institute led by the NSPO and the United States’ University Corporation for Atmosphere Established in 1973, the ITRI is inter- nationally renowned for its diverse R&D Research, whose affiliated university re- capabilities, its voluminous output of searchers contributed the name COSMIC, innovative technologies and its success an acronym for Constellation Observing in incubating vibrant new enterprises. In System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and addition to its numerous research divi- Climate. In contrast with the two previ- sions, the ITRI operates the OpenLab ous FORMOSAT programs, the mission business incubation unit and the ITRI involves not just a single satellite but a College, which enables professionals in constellation of six microsatellites carried high-tech fields to catch up with cutting- into space by a single launch vehicle in edge technologies. The ITRI also ad- March 2006. They constitute an integrat- ministers the highly reputed industrial ed system that collects atmospheric data intelligence-gathering Industrial Eco- for multiple purposes concerning meteo- nomics and Knowledge Center (IEK) 產 rology, climate change, ionospheric con- 業經濟與趨勢研究中心. ditions, space weather and geodesy. It is In June 2011, the ITRI won U.S.-based the first-ever such system to employ GPS R&D Magazine’s “R&D 100” awards for radio occultation (RO), which utilizes two of its new technologies—the fourth radio signals from the Global Positioning year in a row that it had been so honored. System constellation of satellites. One of them, i2R e-Paper is a type of re- Over its first five years, the mission writable paper-substitute plastic that holds generated an average of 1,500 to 2,000 static images without consuming electric- RO data profiles daily and accumulated ity and has a relatively high resolution of over 2.56 million atmospheric and 2.64 300 dpi (dots per inch), or 90,000 dots million ionospheric data profiles. As per square inch. To change the image, the of April 2011, there were over 1,500 e-paper is fed through a thermal printing registered users of the FORMOSAT-3/ device that removes the old image and COSMIC data in 55 countries, and the prints a new one in a single step. Among weather bureaus of more than a dozen na- its applications are digital posters and tions had incorporated it as an integral part bulletin boards. of their routine forecasting operations. The other R&D 100 award winner is a new type of polarizer protective film named Future Projects HyTAC, made from a mixture of organic In view of the universally acclaimed and inorganic nano-materials. Manufactured value of the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC using a low-toxicity, eco-friendly process, mission, the NSPO has signed an agree- the highly transparent optical film is likely ment with the U.S. National Oceanic and to replace the expensive TAC film currently Atmospheric Administration to jointly used in liquid crystal displays. It is expected develop a next-generation RO system of to give Taiwan’s flat-panel display industry 12 sister satellites, designated in Taiwan another competitive edge. 12509四校OK.indd 125 2011/10/18 12:37:04 AM
  9. 9. 9 Science and Technology National Science and non-volatile RRAM cells (see “National Nano Device Laboratories” section), highly Technology Programs stable lithium-ion batteries, and window film In 1998, the ROC government began that can guide light and reduce pollution. implementing a series of NSTPs aimed Through public-private collaboration and at enhancing the nation’s S&T capabili- technology transfers, the program is expect- ties in pursuit of overlapping economic, ed to help nanotech manufacturers generate social, cultural and health-related ben- US$4 billion in production value by 2012, efits. Over the years, funding of these and as much as US$10 billion by 2015. programs has accounted for 12 to 19 per- The annual Taiwan Nano Exhibition cent of the central government’s annual 台灣奈米科技展 trade show, held for the S&T-related spending. With a view to ninth time in October 2011, is organized expediting commercialization of newly under the NPNT. developed applications, the programs include provision of legal assistance and business-related consultation. Typ- Intelligent Electronics ically, the programs also encompass Taiwan’s semiconductor industry is research on policymaking and regula- a mainstay of Taiwan’s economy. While tory environments. the IC design segment of the industry has been prosperous, it needs to develop its technological sophistication in order to Nanoscience and maintain its global competitiveness. Nanotechnology Approved by the NSC in 2009 and The National Science and Tech- launched in 2011, the National Program nology Program for Nanoscience and for Intelligent Electronics (NPIE) 智慧電子 Nanotechnology 奈米國家型科技計畫 was 國家型科技計畫 is successor to the program launched in 2003. Building on its ac- for system-on-chips (2003-2010). The complishments, in 2008 the NSC ap- main goal of the NPIE is to develop tech- proved a phase II continuation of the nologies for applications in MG+4C (med- program, named the National Program ical, green, computer, communications, on Nanotechnology (NPNT). consumer and car) electronics. It is aimed Key focuses of the NPNT include at promoting exploration of other emerg- advanced research in nanoscience and ing application markets for electronic nanotechnology, nano-scale electronics and technologies, cultivation of interdisciplin- optoelectronics, hardware development, ma- ary talents and integration of the strengths terials and conventional manufacturing, and of IC chip and IC system design houses. government policymaking. The program also gives attention to education projects, and applications in medicine, agriculture, Networked Communications energy and environmental protection. The Networked Communications Research projects under the NPNT Program (NCP) 網路通訊國家型科技計畫 and its precursor program have produced was formed in 2009 and focuses on the a variety of substantive results. These in- four major areas of access technology, clude oral drugs for treatment of diabetes, communications software and platform a rapid diagnostic test for tuberculosis technology, application services technol- and imaging of gene expression patterns. ogy, and research in the communications Also included are the above-mentioned regulatory environment. 12609四校OK.indd 126 2011/10/18 12:37:04 AM
  10. 10. Thanks in part to NCP promotion, the the NSC, the DOH and the MOEA. The output value of WiMAX (worldwide in- overall aim of the program is to exploit teroperability for microwave access) prod- knowledge about human and pathogen ucts and services exceeded NT$15 billion genomes to develop technologies and (US$474 million) in 2010 and is expected applications for disease prevention, diag- to reach NT$60 billion (roughly US$2 nostics and therapeutics, as well as “drug billion) in 2013. The production value of target discovery.” Toward that end, the Taiwan-made communications equipment program supports fundamental research in and components reached NT$1.1 trillion such disciplines as genomics, proteomics (US$35.77 billion) in 2010. and structural biology in conjunction with The NCP also vigorously promotes animal studies followed by translational domestic fiber optic network deployment. and clinical studies. By the end of 2010, there were nearly Many significant research achievements 5 million wired broadband subscribers, have resulted from the program, including: including 1.86 million optical fiber sub- •• identification of genetic markers for scribers in Taiwan. Taiwan’s optical fiber Stevens Johnson Syndrome caused by penetration rate of about 30 percent ranks carbamazepine and allopurinol (Na- fourth in the world. ture, 2004); Under the program, technology ex- •• identification of a gene for inherited changes between Taiwan and mainland osteonecrosis of the femoral head (New China have been undertaken through England Journal of Medicine, 2005); a “bridging project,” by joint promo- •• identification of a 5-microRNA sig- tion of a wireless city pilot project, and nature for the prediction of treatment by exploring business opportunities in outcome of non-small-cell lung can- mainland China’s radio and TV triple cer (New England Journal of Medi- play market. The NCP has also set up cine, 2007); a TD-LTE (Time Division Long-Term •• discovery of a cholesterol biosynthesis Evolution) network test lab and suc- inhibitor that can block Staphylococcus cessfully demonstrated videoconferencing aureus virulence (Science, 2008); capabilities using the TD-LTE com- munications standard (developed by •• identification of a receptor that is criti- China Mobile) during the World Expo cal for dengue-virus-induced lethal dis- in Shanghai. eases (Nature, 2008); and Commercial targets of the program in- •• development of a method for estimating clude getting 10 Taiwan-made networked warfarin dosage using clinical and communications products into top ranks of pharmacogenetic data (New England the global market and boosting the output Journal of Medicine, 2009). value of Taiwan-made communications Further, the NRPGM program of- equipment and components to more than fice joined the RNAi Consortium at the NT$1.5 trillion (US$50 billion) in 2013. Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 2004. This resulted in Taiwan’s establish- ment of the National RNAi Core Facility Genomic Medicine 國家型干擾性核醣核酸核心設施, which offers The National Research Program for cutting-edge RNAi reagents and services Genomic Medicine (NRPGM) 基因體醫 to domestic researchers. 學國家型科技計畫 was launched in 2002 As for the NRPGM’s practical fruits, through a cooperative arrangement between many technologies have been licensed to 12709四校OK.indd 127 2011/10/18 12:37:05 AM
  11. 11. 9 Science and Technology companies for commercialization. A licensing agreement with Pharmigene, as well as numerous universities, medical institutions and private enterprises. Ltd. 世基生物醫學股份有限公司, for exam- ple, has led to the development of DNA detection kits that have been patented e-Learning and Digital Archives in the United States, Europe, Australia, The Taiwan e-Learning and Digital Singapore and Taiwan. Archives Program (TELDAP) 數位典藏與 數位學習國家型科技計畫 is the combined ex- tension of the national programs for digi- Biopharmaceuticals tal archives (2002-2006) and e-learning In 2010 the NSC approved the estab- (2003-2007). The mission of the former lishment of the National Research Pro- was to establish well-networked archives gram for Biopharmaceuticals (NRPB) 生 of digital records, including all manner of 技醫藥國家型科技計畫, to be implemented physical objects, people, and documents from 2011 to 2016. Building on the solid of cultural, historical and intellectual foundation laid by the NRPGM and an value. The mission of the latter was to earlier program for biotechnology and advance the utilization of information pharmaceuticals, the NRPB will con- technology—especially Internet commu- tinue the work of facilitating the con- nications technology—to develop educa- solidation of research infrastructures and tional platforms and models (see Chapter the development of a strong biomedical 16, “Education”). industry in Taiwan. Initiatives undertaken by the two In particular, the NRPB is mandated predecessor programs were highly fruit- to advance the following goals: ful and have contributed greatly to the •• discover and develop new medicines, TELDAP, enabling participating institu- biomedical devices and therapies and tions and organizations to accumulate strengthen R&D processes; abundant digitization experience and •• concentrate and deepen the knowledge materials. In the course of creating the and skills of domestic researchers in TELDAP Union Catalog from 2008 to related fields; and 2010, more than 6.6 million items were •• enhance academic and public research digitized, 2,421 e-learning courses (a to- institutions’ collaboration so as to achieve tal of 2,940 hours) were developed, and productive synergies. 598 databases concerning the humanities, This NRPB is composed of six major social sciences and natural sciences were groups: the Research Group, the Pre- created for public use. Millions of users clinical Development Group, the Clinical have benefitted from these free-of-charge Group, the Resource Centers, the Industrial courses and databases. Bridging and International Collaboration Group, and the Ethical, Legal and Social Issues Group. Collaborating umbrella Energy agencies include the NSC, the MOEA, the The National Science and Technology DOH and the AEC. Implementing agen- Program for Energy (NSTP-E) 能源國家型 cies include Academia Sinica 中央研究院, 科技計畫 was launched in August 2009 in the Development Center for Biotechnol- line with the nation’s energy policies (see ogy 生物技術開發中心, the National Health Chapter 11, “Environmental Protection”). Research Institutes 國家衛生研究院 and the Its general goals are to reduce the nation’s Center for Drug Evaluation 醫藥品查驗中心, reliance on imported fuels, cut greenhouse 12809四校OK.indd 128 2011/10/18 12:37:05 AM
  12. 12. gas emissions, increase energy efficiency, Cloud Computing boost development of the domestic green energy industry; and change the nation’s In October 2010, the Cloud Computing energy consumption structure. Association in Taiwan (CCAT) 台灣雲端運算 產業協會 was launched by some 100 top ICT With respect to R&D projects under the companies with participation by the ITRI NSTP-E, special attention is being given to and the III. By consolidating the resources the development of green energy technolo- of hardware and software producers, the gies with the aim of boosting the percentage consortium aims to make Taiwan a major of electric power generated from renewable exporter of cloud computing services. energy sources to 15 percent by 2030. By December 2010, a total of 218 projects had It is projected that from 2010 to 2014, been completed. It is anticipated that over over US$700 million in public funds will US$900 million in public funding will be be allocated for building cloud computing spent on R&D projects under the NSTP-E infrastructure, platforms and software. during its first five years. This is expected to have a strong multipli- er effect, stimulating private investment of five times that amount. According to the Priority Development IEK, worldwide sales of Taiwan’s cloud computing industry can reach US$30 bil- Targets lion per year by the year 2015, account- Beginning in 2009, the Cabinet desig- ing for nearly 20 percent of the projected nated a number of emerging industries as global market. priority targets for government-assisted An important aspect of the CCAT’s development and investment incentives. efforts is the creation of strategic interna- Several of them, such as solar energy tional alliances. In October 2010, ROC and electric cars, involve development of government agencies and CCAT members technologies that, until just a few years entered into multifaceted agreements with ago, had received little attention in com- U.S.-based Intel Corp. to form partner- mercial circles. ships aimed at advancing Taiwan’s efforts Taiwan’s fast-growing biotech industry enjoys the support of a variety of government- sponsored R&D development programs that facilitate collaboration between the private sector, academia and public research institutions. 12909四校OK.indd 129 2011/10/18 12:37:13 AM
  13. 13. 9 Science and Technology to capitalize on new growth opportunities in the computing industry. Intel will pro- vide technical support, including training workshops, to assist Taiwan’s ICT indus- try in transforming Taiwan into a major producer of cloud computing software, services and hardware. Intel will also team up with a university in Taiwan to establish a research center that will spur the development and commercialization of embedded computing solutions while helping students develop parallel comput- ing engineering skills. Biotechnology In 2009, the Cabinet launched the Taiwan Biotechnology Take-off Diamond Action Plan 臺灣生技鑽石起飛行動方案. It is expect- ed that with the plan’s encouragement, the biotech industry’s annual output value will double to NT$260 billion (US$8.7 billion) over the period 2009-2013. The action plan aims to strengthen research institutions’ translational re- search on pharmaceuticals and the de- As part of the biotech take-off plan, a velopment of medical device prototypes. Supra Incubation Center 生技整合育成中心 These institutes include the ITRI, the will be created to provide pharmaceutical Development Center for Biotechnology, firms and inventors with comprehensive the Metals Industries Research & Devel- consultative services, including technical opment Center 金屬工業研究發展中心 and and management support, fundraising and the Medical and Pharmaceutical Industry legal consultation. Technology and Development Center 醫 Science Parks 藥工業技術發展中心. This initiative will also help bring product R&D to the clinical trial stage, Taiwan’s science parks are designed thereby facilitating commercialization of and administered to provide ideal condi- inventions. Toward this end, the program tions for high-tech business operations. envisions the creation of a Biotechnology These include affordable leases, secure Venture Capital Fund 生技創投基金. Utiliz- supplies of water, power and materials, ing a mix of public and private capital and efficient shipping services. initially projected at NT$60 billion (about The parks also provide excellent envi- US$2 billion), the fund will back projects ronments for developing powerful syner- with high potential for profits both at gies with clusters of related enterprises, home and abroad, including ventures that some in nearby industrial parks, as well utilize innovative combinations of domes- as with public R&D institutions. Accord- tic and foreign know-how. ing to the Global Competitiveness Report 13009四校OK.indd 130 2011/10/18 12:37:14 AM
  14. 14. 2010-2011, Taiwan ranks third in its “state amounted to over 15 percent of Taiwan’s of cluster development” index. GDP in 2010. IC chip and flat-panel More than a dozen science parks in display manufacturers were the biggest Taiwan are organized into three geo- moneymakers in that year, accounting, graphic groups (see map titled “Science respectively, for 51.5 percent and 39.2 Parks”). As of the end of July 2011, percent of the total revenues of science 696 companies had taken up residence park enterprises. in the parks, while more than 100 ad- Newcomers to the science park sys- ditional companies’ applications had tem, either in the start-up or planning been approved. stage, include the Yilan Science Park 宜蘭 In 2010, the park’s resident enter- 科學園區 (home to solar cell manufactur- prises generated combined revenues of ers), the Hsinchu Biomedical Park 新竹 US$68.12 billion, representing a jump 生物醫學園區 and the Advanced Research of nearly 36 percent over 2009, when the P a r k 中興新村高等研究園區 i n N a n t o u global market was depressed from the County 南投縣. Expansion of a number of economic crisis that erupted in 2008. This other parks is also underway. l National Science Council: Related l Department of Industrial Development, Ministry of Economic Affairs: Websites l Atomic Energy Council: l National Applied Research Laboratories: l Industrial Technology Research Institute: l Hsinchu Science Park: l Southern Taiwan Science Park: l Central Taiwan Science Park: 13109四校OK.indd 131 2011/10/18 12:37:15 AM