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Global Adoption of Digital Publishing, EPUB 3, and the Open Web Platform

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Global Adoption of Digital Publishing, EPUB 3, and the Open Web Platform

  1. 1. Global Adoption of DigitalPublishing, EPUB 3, and the Open Web Platform Bill McCoy Executive DirectorInternational Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF)
  2. 2. • IDPF mission: foster an open, global ecosystem for digital publishing• Based on web standards
  3. 3. What is digital publishing?Digitally distributing premiumcontent (that includes words)
  4. 4. What is content?A combination of informationand experience
  5. 5. Why do people read books?To get a job done
  6. 6. “People don’t want to buy aquarter-inch drill, they want aquarter-inch hole”- Theodore Levitt
  7. 7. Newspapers help me…• Become well-informed• Unwind at the end of the day• Kill commuting time• Find my next car, or a job• Unload this stuff
  8. 8. Three levels in the architecture of a job• What is the fundamental job or problem the customer is facing? Includes functional, emotional and social dimensions• What are the experiences in purchase and use which, if all provided, would sum up to nailing the job perfectly?• What are the product attributes, technologies, features, etc. that are needed to deliver these experiences?
  9. 9. Three fundamental ways todeliver content experiencesfiles, apps, and websites
  10. 10. vs.
  11. 11. Options for content in 1993…FilesFiles Apps Websites
  12. 12. Options for content in 1997…FilesFiles Apps Websites
  13. 13. Today’s Landscape…Files Apps Websites
  14. 14. The Open Web PlatformFiles Apps Websites
  15. 15. The Open Web Platform Technology “Stack” Courtesy of W3C
  16. 16. Open Web Platform Specifications HTML 5  SVG 1.1  XMLHttpRequest CSS 2.1  WAI-ARIA 1.0  Selectors API CSS 3 Selectors  MathML 2.0  CSSOM View Module CSS 3 Media  ECMAScript 5 Queries  Cross-Origin  2D Context Resource Sharing CSS 3 Text  WebGL  File API CSS 3 Backgrounds  Web Storage and Borders  RDFa  Indexed Database CSS 3 Colors  Microdata  Web Workers CSS 3 2D  WOFF  Web Sockets Transformations  HTTP 1.1 part 1 to Protocol/API CSS 3 3D part 7  Geolocation Transformations  TLS 1.2 (updated) CSS 3 Transitions  Server-Sent Events  IRI (updated) CSS 3 Animations  Element Traversal  … CSS 3 Multi-  DOM Level 3 Columns Events CSS Namespaces  Media Fragments
  17. 17. EPUB 3 beyond HTML5• A road-map for using the Open Web Platform to reliably deliver structured, interoperable, offline-usable content• Specifies minimum required functionality for • Global language support • Accessibility • CSS layout and fonts • Core media types• Defines capabilities needed for portable documents • Packaging • Logical structure and navigation • Metadata (publication- and element-level) • Declarative event bindings • Extensible media type support via structured JavaScript • Fine-grained references to content fragments • Synchronization of media playback with content rendering
  18. 18. EPUB 3 Directly Includes… HTML 5  SVG 1.1  XMLHttpRequest CSS 2.1  WAI-ARIA 1.0  Selectors API CSS 3 Selectors  MathML 2.0  CSSOM View Module CSS 3 Media  ECMAScript 5 Queries  Cross-Origin  2D Context Resource Sharing CSS 3 Text  WebGL  File API CSS 3 Backgrounds  Web Storage and Borders  RDFa  Indexed Database CSS 3 Colors  Microdata  Web Workers CSS 3 2D  WOFF  Web Sockets Transformations  HTTP 1.1 Protocol/API CSS 3 3D  TLS 1.2  Geolocation Transformations  IRI CSS 3 Transitions  Server-Sent Events  Element Traversal  … CSS 3 Animations CSS 3 Multi-  DOM Level 3 Columns Events CSS Namespaces  Media Fragments
  19. 19. EPUB 3 vs. EPUB 2 in 5 bullets• Styling & layout improvements for reflow content • CSS 2.1 + Select CSS 3 Modules • Embedded fonts • Alternate stylesheets (day/night, etc) • MathML• Fixed-layout content • Including SVG as first-class citizen• Interactivity and rich media • Scripting support• Accessibility support• Global Language support
  20. 20. EPUB 3 Early Adoption Being Driven By Need for New Capabilities • Fixed-layout eBooks • Comics, manga, “coffee table” books • Enhanced eBooks • Children’s, e-textbooks • Japanese market
  21. 21. Categories of Digital Books Semantics Heavy Dictionaries Encyclopaedias Travel guides Management Textbooks Wine guides University, Cooking professionalContent Layoutdriven driven History books Practical, health Comics, Mangas Essays Graphic novels Novels, Romance Juvenile fiction Children « Beaux livres » Courtesy: Hachette-LIvre 25
  22. 22. EPUB 3 Will Be Universally Supported•Incremental improvements in styling & layout are broadly useful•Accessibility is necessary for many, and provides benefits for all •Semantic markup, equations, text-to-speech, …•Handling nuggets of fixed content within reflowable eBooks•Alignment with modern browsers & the Open Web Platform•Better specification of content & reading system conformance•Publishers need a single unified workflow for content production
  23. 23. But, We Aren’t Quite There Yet!•For novels and text-only linear non-fiction, in North America andEurope, EPUB 2 is “good enough”•EPUB 2 will get to Kindle and other platforms more easily for now•More EPUB 2 authoring & generation tools available•“Chicken and egg” syndrome thus lessens urgency for ReadingSystems to upgrade (a huge effort for Reading System developers) •Most used custom renderers not browser engine for EPUB 2•Flash and native mobile/tablet eBook apps not dead yet•Vendors still promoting proprietary “HTML5-based” alternatives •iBooks Author, Amazon Kindle KF8, Inkling Habitat, …
  24. 24. The Most Deceptive Three Words from a Proprietary Platform Vendor: “We’re HTML5 Based” •Innovations shouldn’t wait for standardization but there’s a fine line between nimble “innovating” and greedy “privatizing” •Vendors of proprietary solutions seek the cachet of openness and skill-set-transfer without actually being open or interoperable •Forks of Web Standards have generally failed or become niches •Mozilla XUL •OpenLaszlo •Adobe Flex & AIR •Adobe PDF XFA forms
  25. 25. Open Web Platform for Apps: The Landscape Is Still Messy•Widgets •Apple Dashboard •SmartTV (inc. Yahoo! Widgets) •Facebook 3rd-Party Web Apps•Full applications •Palm/HP WebOS •Windows 8 “Metro” apps •Chrome Installable Web Apps •Firefox OS (aka Boot-to-Gecko)•Native app frameworks wrapping web-standards-based content •PhoneGap (now Adobe PhoneGap Build and Apache Cordova) •Brightcove App Cloud •Appcelerator Titanium •W3C has just chartered a System Applications WG
  26. 26. Open Web Platform for Apps Headaches (With Implications for EPUB 3) •iOS UIWebView performance is disadvantaged by lack of Nitro JS •Currently restricted to Safari and iBooks for “security” reasons •HW acceleration support varies significantly by platform •Esp. for SVG, HW acceleration is critical to performance, but is not enabled on iOS Safari/UIWebView •Patent issues and browser vendor foot-dragging killed W3C Widgets WG •The browser vendors are also the OS platform vendors so have mixed motivations •HTML5/JS tools and frameworks far less mature than native app and Flash ecosystems, particularly for designers •The good news – competition between platforms and pressure from across the IT industry are combining to spur progress
  27. 27. Growing Industry Support for EPUB 3
  28. 28. IDPF Focus for 2013: Delivering on thePromise of EPUB 3 as Portable Documents for the Open Web Platform •Best practices documentation, samples, training, evangelism •Tools •Validator for content, preflight, test suite for reading systems •Open source implementation - Readium •Continuing to evolve EPUB to meet publishing industry requirements •Adaptive layout, dictionaries, indexes, advanced/hybrid fixed layout, lightweight content protection (DRM), annotations •Collaboration with other stakeholders •W3C, DAISY, BISG, EDItEUR, IMS Global Learning, … •EPUB to become an ISO-level International Standard
  29. 29. “The PC revolution … invited innovation by others. So too with theInternet. Both were generative: they were designed to accept anycontribution that followed a basic set of rules… Both overwhelmedtheir respective proprietary, non-generative competitors, such as… online services like CompuServe and AOL.”But our future could be “sterile appliances tethered to a network ofcontrol.”Jonathan Zittrain (The Future of the Internet – And How to Stop It)

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