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Maori counselling skills and tools


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Skills and tools relevant to Maori counselling practice.

Published in: Health & Medicine, Technology

Maori counselling skills and tools

  1. 1. A to E Process Compiled By David Waretini Karena
  2. 2. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Werewere Maaka </li></ul><ul><li>Taima Moeke-Pickering </li></ul><ul><li>Katarina Mataira </li></ul><ul><li>Fritz Perls </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Bruce Tuckman </li></ul><ul><li>Aaron T Beck </li></ul><ul><li>Urie Brofenbrenner </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Piajet </li></ul><ul><li>Mason Durie </li></ul>
  3. 3. Agenda: <ul><li>A Process: Establishing the relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Breaker </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Role & Responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Karakia </li></ul><ul><li>Whakawhanaungatanga </li></ul><ul><li>Thanking whanau for sharing </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing own Whanaungatanga </li></ul><ul><li>B Process: Identify the issue </li></ul><ul><li>C Process: Work towards an action plan </li></ul><ul><li>D Process: Implement an action plan </li></ul><ul><li>E Process: Effective Closure </li></ul>
  4. 4. Counselling tips:1 <ul><li>Do not Judge , your role is to assist to find a solution: </li></ul><ul><li>Do not interpret clients issue from counsellors personal perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Do not direct client to a strategy that the counsellor has determined </li></ul><ul><li>The Client / whanau needs to be able to deconstruct the issue from a objective viewpoint to see what is going on. </li></ul><ul><li>To interpret the issue dis-empowers the client / whanau in defining their own interpretation. </li></ul><ul><li>To direct the client/ whanau dis-empowers in creating their own strategies thus becoming empowered </li></ul>
  5. 5. Counselling tips 2 <ul><li>Role & Responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Your role is to empower clients / whanau to find a solution through their deconstructing and analyzing issues that are affecting them not by giving them answers, suggestions, or solutions but by supporting them to find their own solutions. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Counselling tips Roles & Responsibility example: <ul><li>Co-authoring is different to being an author </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t get caught up in answering the client/ whanau’s question for them. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize example of action plan </li></ul>.3 discuss strategies to Support finding information .4 Work towards actioning plan .2 Devise with them Areas they can look for support I need help with…. Tell me what would you do!! .1 Let client know This is their journey Refer 2 R&R Implement Action plan
  7. 7. Counselling tips: 3 <ul><li>Turn on Whaka-a-rongo </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize Cycle of Rongo </li></ul><ul><li>Utilize your senses to gage where this person is at </li></ul><ul><li>Cycle of Rongo will enable you to ascertain if this person is passive or aggressive and gage how to work with them </li></ul><ul><li>You could explain how cycle of Rongo works </li></ul>
  8. 8. Utilize Cycle of Rongo
  9. 9. Cycle of Rongo
  10. 10. Counselling tips: 4 <ul><li>Stay with the client at all times: </li></ul><ul><li>Do not bring into the equation information that the client has not suggested themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Where they are at is where they stay un-till they decide to move not when counsellor decides they move </li></ul><ul><li>If they haven’t moved means counsellors are not asking the right questions </li></ul>
  11. 11. Counselling tips: 5 <ul><li>Stay with the client at all times: </li></ul><ul><li>Listen intently to what is being shared instead of thinking about what questions to ask next </li></ul><ul><li>Become curious based in asking the client questions. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Counselling tips: 6 <ul><li>In your process continually check things out with them so you know you heard them correctly </li></ul><ul><li>I heard you say……. Is that right? </li></ul><ul><li>I heard you say……. What did you mean by that? </li></ul><ul><li>I heard you say… tell me more about that! </li></ul>
  13. 13. Counselling tips: 7 <ul><li>Use of external language: </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to the issue not the person </li></ul><ul><li>I.E. Since this issue of …..has come about how has it had an impact? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Counselling tips: 8 <ul><li>Focus outside-in </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t just focus on what your being told, but how your being told and what your not being told </li></ul><ul><li>When you focus on how you are being told what feelings is it bringing up? </li></ul><ul><li>What is their body language like? </li></ul><ul><li>Look behind and beyond the words!! </li></ul><ul><li>What is it your sensing? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it your hearing? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it your feeling? </li></ul><ul><li>What is it your seeing? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Counselling tips: 9 <ul><li>Attend </li></ul><ul><li>Definition: To apply the mind, or pay attention, with a view to perceive, understand, or comply; to pay regard; to heed; to listen; </li></ul><ul><li>To attend to the korero of the client/whanau so as to understand, perceive what is being shared </li></ul>
  16. 16. Counselling tips: 10 <ul><li>Reflect: </li></ul><ul><li>consider carefully and deeply; reflect upon; turn over in one's mind </li></ul><ul><li>To reflect the essence of what was shared to clarify that what was said, and what was heard was the same </li></ul>
  17. 17. Counselling tips: 11 <ul><li>Whaka-A-rongo </li></ul><ul><li>To listen with all your senses </li></ul><ul><li>What does that sound like? </li></ul><ul><li>What does that look like? </li></ul><ul><li>What does that feel like? </li></ul><ul><li>What does that taste like? </li></ul><ul><li>What does that smell like? </li></ul><ul><li>What does the Wairua tell you? </li></ul><ul><li>What do your guides tell you? </li></ul>
  18. 18. Counselling tips: 12 <ul><li>Open questions </li></ul><ul><li>Such questions usually begin with a how, what, when, where, and why (such as &quot;What factors you take into account when buying a vehicle?” or &quot;In your opinion , what is the reasonable price for this item?”) and provide qualitative instead of quantitative information . Open ended questions are asked generally during exploratory research and where statistical validity is not a prime objective . </li></ul><ul><li>Closed questions </li></ul><ul><li>That provides a set of answers from which the respondent must choose. Multiple choice questions are closed questions. </li></ul><ul><li>Most exploring questions are open questions the majority of questioning is open ended </li></ul><ul><li>There are also times when closed questions need to be used. </li></ul><ul><li>Closed questions can be used when client is not responding </li></ul>
  19. 19. Counselling tips: 13 <ul><li>Clarify & Definition </li></ul><ul><li>clar·i·fy  (kl r -f ) </li></ul><ul><li>v. clar·i·fied , clar·i·fy·ing , clar·i·fies </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>1. To make clear or easier to understand; elucidate: clarified her intentions. </li></ul><ul><li>2. To clear of confusion or uncertainty: clarify the mind. </li></ul><ul><li>elaborate , expatiate , expound , lucubrate , dilate , flesh out , exposit , enlarge , expand - add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way. </li></ul><ul><li>Always check things out so that counsellor is on track </li></ul>
  20. 20. A Process Establishing a Relationship <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Icebreaker </li></ul><ul><li>Roles & Responsibilities of a Maori Counsellor </li></ul><ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Whakawhanaungatanga </li></ul>
  21. 21. A Process Ice Breaker Continued:1 <ul><li>Introductions: </li></ul><ul><li>Ice Breaker: </li></ul><ul><li>Set Boundaries: </li></ul><ul><li>Kia ora welcome to our agency: </li></ul><ul><li>Did you find the place okay? </li></ul><ul><li>How did you come? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you like a cup of tea before you start? </li></ul>
  22. 22. A Process Ice Breaker continued 1 <ul><li>Boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate times and dates: </li></ul><ul><li>Is this a good time to meet with you now? </li></ul><ul><li>If we need to meet again is this same day & time good with you? </li></ul><ul><li>Our sessions go for an hour okay? </li></ul>
  23. 23. A Process Ice Breaker Roles & Responsibilities <ul><li>Roles & Responsibilities: </li></ul><ul><li>Maori Counsellors are co-authors </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about the role of a co-author </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about a counsellor? </li></ul><ul><li>A co-author walks with clien/whanau through their story supporting them to make sense of the issues going on. </li></ul>
  24. 24. A Process Ice Breaker Roles & Responsibilities: Facilitator <ul><li>What do you know about a counsellors role as a facilitator? </li></ul><ul><li>A counsellor facilitates the counselling session from issue to issue helping to make sense of it all & make sure the process is clear and runs smoothly. </li></ul>
  25. 25. A Process Ice Breaker Confidentiality <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>What do you know about confidentiality? </li></ul>
  26. 26. A Process Confidentiality continued <ul><li>Confidentiality </li></ul><ul><li>Begin session with a karakia </li></ul><ul><li>According to NZAC code of ethics and policies of the agency if a client/ whanau discloses they are about to harm themselves or others the counsellor is required to inform their supervisor. </li></ul><ul><li>Do you understand what this means? </li></ul><ul><li>Would you mind if we started our session with a karakia? </li></ul>
  27. 27. A Process: Whakawhanaungatanga <ul><li>Whakawhanaungatanga </li></ul><ul><li>Very important to role model the whanaungatanga process so client/ whanau know how to respond. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a casual process of establishing a relationship not so much a formal pepeha:- </li></ul><ul><li>Gage the client / whanau understanding of Maori whanaungatanga </li></ul><ul><li>If you have knowledge of their home area or people you know there speak to it. This is part of making connections </li></ul><ul><li>Nowhea koe? Where are you from? </li></ul><ul><li>Is that where your family originally come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me a little bit about that place you call home! </li></ul><ul><li>What is your iwi / hapu name there? </li></ul>
  28. 28. A Process: Whakawhanaungatanga: 2 <ul><li>Ask them questions about their parents & siblings: </li></ul><ul><li>How many brothers and sisters in your whanau </li></ul><ul><li>Where are you in terms of the oldest through to the youngest? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a whanau of your own? Partner? Children? </li></ul><ul><li>How many sons-daughters? </li></ul>
  29. 29. A Process: Whakawhanaungatanga: <ul><li>Reflection: </li></ul><ul><li>Share back with whanau the essence of what they shared with you so that you can clarify what they said & what you heard was correct. </li></ul><ul><li>When you get stuck always reflect back what was shared </li></ul><ul><li>So in reflecting back what has been shared I heard you say……. </li></ul><ul><li>Is that right? </li></ul>
  30. 30. A Process: Whakawhanaungatanga: 3 <ul><li>Thank client / whanau for sharing them selves with you ( Very important you do this as it is part of creating trust) </li></ul><ul><li>Share your own Whanaungatanga follow the same process </li></ul><ul><li>My whanau are from……. </li></ul><ul><li>(Expand on this at your discretion) </li></ul><ul><li>My parents are……….. </li></ul><ul><li>I have….. Brothers </li></ul><ul><li>I have……sisters </li></ul><ul><li>I have……partner </li></ul><ul><li>I have…… children </li></ul><ul><li>I have …… boys </li></ul><ul><li>I have…….girls </li></ul><ul><li>That is a little bit about me. </li></ul>
  31. 31. B Process Identify issue: <ul><li>Identify the issue </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me a little bit about what brought you here today! </li></ul><ul><li>So you have said an issue for you is…. Tell me more about it </li></ul>
  32. 32. B Process Identify issue: multiple issues <ul><li>What happens if there are more than one issue? </li></ul><ul><li>Get whanau to track issues till main issue surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Can we deal with one issue for this session? </li></ul><ul><li>How about an issue that has ties to all the others </li></ul><ul><li>What would be the main issue? </li></ul>
  33. 33. B Process Identify issue: multiple issues Issue 6 Issue 5 Issue 4 Issue 3 Issue 2 Main issue
  34. 34. B Process Identify issue: Length history <ul><li>Historical </li></ul><ul><li>When did this first happen/begin? </li></ul><ul><li>How long has this been going on? </li></ul>
  35. 35. B Process Identify issue: Length history: Timeline <ul><li>A timeline gives the counsellor an accurate assessment of the historical time frame and impacts </li></ul><ul><li>Purakau model is also a good model for historical reference </li></ul>2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 Timeline
  36. 36. B Process Identify issue: Length go beyond the layers <ul><li>Layer 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Layer 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Layer 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Layer 4 </li></ul><ul><li>Gestalt: Fritz Perls </li></ul>
  37. 37. B Process- Depth Iceberg scale of intensity <ul><li>Scale of intensity: </li></ul><ul><li>How has this issue impacted on you: </li></ul><ul><li>Sigmund freud: </li></ul><ul><li>Pycho-analysis </li></ul>Surface issues What is shared Underlying issues Depth
  38. 38. B Process- Depth <ul><li>Dig through the issues </li></ul><ul><li>Tell me more about this! </li></ul><ul><li>What caused this? </li></ul><ul><li>What were the underlying factors </li></ul>
  39. 39. B Process- Scope <ul><li>This will give you an idea of the impact of this issue </li></ul><ul><li>Whare Tapa Wha model can help gage how big the issue is </li></ul><ul><li>How big is the issue for you? </li></ul><ul><li>How is this impacted in terms of wairua-self esteem? </li></ul><ul><li>How has this issue impacted on the mind </li></ul><ul><li>How are you physically? </li></ul><ul><li>How has the issue affected your environment? </li></ul>
  40. 40. C Process-Work towards an action plan <ul><li>Interpret action </li></ul><ul><li>So when this issue happened </li></ul><ul><li>What did you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Interpret meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Why did you do that? </li></ul>
  41. 41. C Process-Work towards an action plan-Interpret action-Meaning Interpret action meaning 1 meaning 2 meaning 3 meaning 4 meaning 5 meaning 6 action 1 action 2 action 3 action 4 action 5 Interpret meaning action 6
  42. 42. C Process Control log <ul><li>Take each issue and deconstruct them </li></ul><ul><li>The control log is a good tool for doing this </li></ul><ul><li>Lets look at each issue one at a time so that sense can be made from them </li></ul>
  43. 43. C Process-Work Control Log
  44. 44. C Process Interpretation-Meaning-Intention <ul><li>This is another control log that enables the counsellor to identify miscommunication </li></ul><ul><li>What was the issue? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the interpretation of the issue? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the meaning behind the issue? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the intention behind it? </li></ul><ul><li>How was the issue received? </li></ul><ul><li>How was it interpreted? </li></ul><ul><li>What meaning was given to the interpretation? </li></ul><ul><li>What was the outcome? </li></ul>
  45. 45. C Process Interpretation-Meaning-Intention
  46. 46. C Process Impact: <ul><li>What type of impact has this issue had </li></ul><ul><li>Whare Tapa Wha Model </li></ul><ul><li>Tuakiri O Te Tangata Model </li></ul><ul><li>Are good assessment tools for impact </li></ul>
  47. 47. C Process Whare Tapa Wha <ul><li>Wairua </li></ul><ul><li>Do you feel valued as a person? </li></ul><ul><li>How has this impacted on your self esteem? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you feel content within yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>Hinengaro </li></ul><ul><li>Are you bothered by unwelcome thoughts and feelings? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think, feel and act in a positive manner </li></ul><ul><li>Does you mind feel content or stressed-scattered all over the place? </li></ul>
  48. 48. C Process Whare Tapa Wha <ul><li>Tinana </li></ul><ul><li>How is your health? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the issue doing to you physically? </li></ul><ul><li>Whanau </li></ul><ul><li>What is your environment like? </li></ul><ul><li>How are you in relation to those around you? </li></ul>
  49. 49. C Process Tuakiri O Te Tangata <ul><li>Tuakiri O Te Tangata is another model that will assess the impact on client / whanau hauora / wellbeing </li></ul>
  50. 50. C Process Tuakiri O Te Tangata <ul><li>Tuakiri O Te Tangata Model </li></ul><ul><li>Whaka-a-rongo is switched on: </li></ul><ul><li>Iho Matua </li></ul><ul><li>Mauri </li></ul><ul><li>Mana </li></ul><ul><li>Wehi </li></ul><ul><li>Ihi </li></ul><ul><li>Tuakiri applied to counselling </li></ul><ul><li>How connected are you feeling to self & world around you? </li></ul><ul><li>What meaning does your life essence have for you? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you see your quality as a person? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you see yourself in regards to others? </li></ul><ul><li>How would you describe your personality? </li></ul>
  51. 51. C Process Tuakiri O Te Tangata <ul><li>Tuakiri O Te Tangata Model </li></ul><ul><li>Tapu </li></ul><ul><li>Waihanga </li></ul><ul><li>Whatumanawa </li></ul><ul><li>Ngakau </li></ul><ul><li>Pumanawa </li></ul><ul><li>Hinengaro </li></ul><ul><li>Tuakiri applied to counselling </li></ul><ul><li>What is it you hold sacred? </li></ul><ul><li>How have your own skills been affected? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the centre of your universe? Essence of your life? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you interpret, negotiate counter act negative feelings? </li></ul><ul><li>What traits skills talents habits have you inherited genetically? </li></ul><ul><li>How do they gage information gathered to process feelings? </li></ul>
  52. 52. C Process Strategies-preferred Story <ul><li>Once impacts have been established discussion needs to take place about what is the preferred story </li></ul><ul><li>Once the preferred story is established strategies are discussed and negotiated to formulate the best strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Now we have established the impacts, what is it you want to do about this issue? </li></ul><ul><li>Now you know what it is you want how are you going to achieve it? </li></ul>
  53. 53. C Process Strategies-preferred Story <ul><li>Chess board is a good model for looking at options & consequences </li></ul>
  54. 54. C Process Strategies-preferred Story Negotiate options Negotiate consequences
  55. 55. D Process Implement action plan <ul><li>D Process is where options to implement action plans can be shared </li></ul><ul><li>Options can include </li></ul><ul><li>Empty chair technique </li></ul><ul><li>( Gestalt Methodology) </li></ul><ul><li>Writing letters </li></ul><ul><li>Waiata </li></ul><ul><li>Art therapy </li></ul><ul><li>Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>Options </li></ul>
  56. 56. E Process Effective Closure <ul><li>This process ties all the other processes together discovering new learning’s & evaluating session, </li></ul><ul><li>Examine </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect </li></ul><ul><li>Options </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><li>These are tools that support effective closure </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize an overview of the counselling session </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight the main-points that stuck out in the session </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the new discoveries that came out of the session </li></ul><ul><li>Link discoveries back to purpose of session </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the session How was it for the client/whanau? </li></ul><ul><li>Where to next? </li></ul><ul><li>Close with a karakia </li></ul>
  57. 57. E Process Examine <ul><li>ex·am·ine  ( g-z m n) </li></ul><ul><li>tr.v. ex·am·ined , ex·am·in·ing , ex·am·ines </li></ul><ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>a. To observe carefully or critically; inspect: examined the room for clues. </li></ul><ul><li>b. To study or analyze: examine a tissue sample under a microscope; examine the structure of a novel; examine one's own motives. </li></ul><ul><li>This process is only in terms of effective closure </li></ul><ul><li>Examine options and consequences as to get a thorough assessment of effective closure </li></ul>
  58. 58. E Process Analyse <ul><li>analyse or US -lyze [ an -nal-lize] Verb </li></ul><ul><li>[ -lysing , -lysed ] or -lyzing , -lyzed </li></ul><ul><li>1 . to examine (something) in detail in order to discover its meaning or essential features </li></ul><ul><li>2 . to break (something) down into its components </li></ul><ul><li>Pull options and consequences apart to gain in depth analysis </li></ul>
  59. 59. E Process Reflect <ul><li>Reflect: </li></ul><ul><li>consider carefully and deeply; reflect upon; turn over in one's mind </li></ul><ul><li>To reflect the essence of what was shared to clarify that what was said, and what was heard was the same </li></ul>
  60. 60. E Process Options <ul><li>option Noun </li></ul><ul><li>1 . the power or liberty to choose: we have no option other than to fully comply </li></ul><ul><li>2 . something that is or may be chosen: </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing options un-till best option surfaces </li></ul>
  61. 61. E Process Consequences <ul><li>consequences </li></ul><ul><li>noun </li></ul><ul><li>Something brought about by a cause: aftermath , corollary , effect , end product , event , fruit , harvest , issue , outcome , precipitate , ramification , result , resultant , sequel , sequence , sequent , upshot . See cause/effect . </li></ul><ul><li>The quality or state of being important: concern , concernment , import , importance , moment , significance , significancy , weight , weightiness . See important/unimportant . </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences enables client to define the best solutions </li></ul>
  62. 62. Relational Models <ul><li>Western Models </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Development Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Bruce Tuckman </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Behavioral Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>By Aaron T Beck </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Intellectual Development </li></ul><ul><li>By Jean Piajjet </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs motivational model </li></ul><ul><li>By Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>Gestalt </li></ul><ul><li>By Fritz Perls </li></ul><ul><li>Reality Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>By Dr William Glasser </li></ul><ul><li>Person Centred Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>By Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Maori Models </li></ul><ul><li>Whare TapaWha model </li></ul><ul><li>By Mason Durie </li></ul><ul><li>Tuakiri o Te Tangata Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Katarina Mataira </li></ul><ul><li>Paiheretia Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Mason Durie </li></ul>
  63. 63. bruce w. tuckman - forming, storming norming and performing in groups <ul><li>Forming: </li></ul><ul><li>Groups initially concern themselves with orientation accomplished primarily through testing. Such testing serves to identify the boundaries of both interpersonal and task behaviors. Coincident with testing in the interpersonal realm is the establishment of dependency relationships with leaders, other group members, or pre‑existing standards. It may be said that orientation, testing and dependence constitute the group process of forming . </li></ul><ul><li>Storming: </li></ul><ul><li>The second point in the sequence is characterized by conflict and polarization around interpersonal issues, with concomitant emotional responding in the task sphere. These behaviors serve as resistance to group influence and task requirements and may be labeled as storming. </li></ul><ul><li>Norming </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance is overcome in the third stage in which in-group feeling and cohesiveness develop, new standards evolve, and new roles are adopted. In the task realm, intimate, personal opinions are expressed. Thus, we have the stage of norming . </li></ul><ul><li>Perforning: </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, the group attains the fourth and final stage in which interpersonal structure becomes the tool of task activities. Roles become flexible and functional, and group energy is channeled into the task. Structural issues have been resolved, and structure can now become supportive of task performance. This stage can be labeled as performing . (Tuckman 1965 - page 78 in the 2001 reprint) </li></ul>
  64. 64. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy By Aaron T Beck <ul><li>How does it work? </li></ul><ul><li>CBT can help you to make sense of overwhelming problems by breaking them down into smaller parts. This makes it easier to see how they are connected and how they affect you. These parts are: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>A Situation - a problem, event or difficult situation From this can follow: </li></ul><ul><li>Thoughts </li></ul><ul><li>Emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Physical feelings </li></ul><ul><li>Actions </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Each of these areas can affect the others. How you think about a problem can affect how you feel physically and emotionally. It can also alter what you do about it. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>What is CBT? </li></ul><ul><li>It is a way of talking about: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>How you think about yourself, the world and other people </li></ul><ul><li>How what you do affects your thoughts and feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>CBT can help you to change how you think (&quot;Cognitive&quot;) and what you do (&quot;Behaviour)&quot;. These changes can help you to feel better. Unlike some of the other talking treatments, it focuses on the &quot;here and now&quot; problems and difficulties. Instead of focussing on the causes of your distress or symptoms in the past, it looks for ways to improve your state of mind now. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been found to be helpful in: </li></ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Panic </li></ul><ul><li>Agoraphobia and other phobias </li></ul><ul><li>Social phobia </li></ul><ul><li>Bulimia </li></ul><ul><li>Obsessive compulsive disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Post traumatic stress disorder </li></ul><ul><li>Schizophrenia </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  65. 65. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy By Aaron T Beck
  66. 66. Stages of Development Model <ul><li>Stages of Development Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Bruce Tuckman </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Intellectual Development </li></ul><ul><li>By Jean Piajjet </li></ul><ul><li>Poutama Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Paraire Huata </li></ul><ul><li>Purakau model </li></ul><ul><li>By Jacquelyn Elkington </li></ul><ul><li>Te Wheke Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Rose Pere </li></ul>
  67. 67. Stages of Intellectual Development By Jean Piajjet <ul><li>The stages of intellectual development formulated by Piaget appear to be related to major developments in brain growth.  The human brain is not fully developed until late adolescence or in the case of males sometimes early adulthood.  We often expect children to think like adults when they are not yet capable of doing so.  It is important that parents know what to expect from their child as they develop and to be sure that the expectations they may have for their child at a given age are realistic. </li></ul>
  68. 68. Stages of Intellectual Development By Jean Piajjet Reflexive Stage  (0-2 months) Simple reflex activity such as grasping, sucking.  Primary Circular Reactions (2-4 months) Reflexive behaviors occur in stereotyped repetition such as opening and closing fingers repetitively. Secondary Circular Reactions (4-8 months) Repetition of change actions to reproduce interesting consequences such as kicking one's feet to more a mobile suspended over the crib. Coordination of Secondary Reactions (8-12 months) Responses become coordinated into more complex sequences.  Actions take on an &quot;intentional&quot; character such as the infant reaches behind a screen to obtain a hidden object Tertiary Circular Reactions (12-18 months) Discovery of new ways to produce the same consequence or obtain the same goal such as the infant may pull a pillow toward him in an attempt to get a toy resting on it. Invention of New Means Through Mental Combination  (18-24 months) Evidence of an internal representational system.  Symbolizing the problem-solving sequence before actually responding.  Deferred imitation. 
  69. 69. Hierarchy of Needs motivational model By Abraham Maslow <ul><li>. maslow's hierarchy of needs - </li></ul><ul><li>Biological and Physiological needs - air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Safety needs - protection from elements, security, order, law, limits, stability, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Belongingness and Love needs - work group, family, affection, relationships, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Esteem needs - self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Self-Actualization needs - realising personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences. </li></ul>
  70. 70. The Bio-ecology of Human Development By Urie Brofenbrenner <ul><li>Microsystem: </li></ul><ul><li>as the setting within which the individual is behaving at a given moment in his life. It is “the complex of relations between the developing person and environment in an immediate setting containing the person” ( Brofenbrenner , 1977, p.515). </li></ul><ul><li>Mesosystem </li></ul><ul><li>is the set of microsystems constituting the individual’s developmental niche within a given period of development : it is “the interrelations among major settings containing the developing person at a particular point in time” </li></ul><ul><li>Exosystem: </li></ul><ul><li>is composed of contexts that, while not directly involving the developing person (e.g. the workplace of a child’s parent), have an influence on the person’s behavior and development </li></ul>Meso-system Micro-system Exo-system Meso-system
  71. 71. Gestalt By Fritz Perls <ul><li>Focus on unfinished business with others. Re-experience past feelings and how they are blocking current relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques + Confrontation + Dialog with polarities + Role playing + Staying with the feeling + Re-experiencing unfinished business + Dream work + No formal diagnosis + What and How questions + Empty Chair Applications + Crisis Intervention + Psychosomatic + Marriage and Family + Behavior of problem children + Group + Individual + Get clients in touch with present-centered experiences </li></ul>
  72. 72. Models: <ul><li>Western Models </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Development Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Bruce Tuckman </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Behavioral Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>By Aaron T Beck </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Intellectual Development </li></ul><ul><li>By Jean Piajjet </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchy of Needs motivational model </li></ul><ul><li>By Abraham Maslow </li></ul><ul><li>The Bio-ecology of Human Development </li></ul><ul><li>By Urie Brofenbrenner </li></ul><ul><li>Gestalt </li></ul><ul><li>By Fritz Perls </li></ul><ul><li>Reality Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>By Dr William Glasser </li></ul><ul><li>Person Centred Therapy </li></ul><ul><li>By Carl Rogers </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Validity Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Forest Tyler </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Models </li></ul><ul><li>Whare TapaWha model </li></ul><ul><li>By Mason Durie </li></ul><ul><li>Tuakiri o Te Tangata Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Katarina Mataira </li></ul><ul><li>Paiheretia Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Mason Durie </li></ul><ul><li>Poutama Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Paraire Huata </li></ul><ul><li>Purakau model </li></ul><ul><li>By Jacquelyn Elkington </li></ul><ul><li>Te Wheke Model </li></ul><ul><li>By Rose Pere </li></ul><ul><li>The Cycle of Rongo </li></ul><ul><li>By Taima Moeke-Pickering </li></ul>