Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Seawater constituent

555 views

Published on

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Seawater constituent

  1. 1. Seawater Earth is an Ocean Planet
  2. 2. Topics • Origin of the Ocean and Atmosphere • Hydrologic Cycle • Biogeochemical Cycle • Seawater Salinity • Variations in Seawater Chemistry • Carbonic Acid System
  3. 3. Topics • Origin of the Ocean and Atmosphere • Hydrologic Cycle • Biogeochemical Cycle • Seawater Salinity • Variations in Seawater Chemistry • Carbonic Acid System
  4. 4. Seawater Salinity
  5. 5. Seawater Salinity Major Constituents, Minor Constituents,Trace Elements, and Gases
  6. 6. Seawater is 96.5% H2O (solvent)
  7. 7. Seawater is 96.5% H2O (solvent) 3.5% dissolved constituents (solutes)
  8. 8. Seawater Constituents
  9. 9. Seawater Constituents • Four categories of solutes:
  10. 10. Seawater Constituents • Four categories of solutes: 1. Major constituents
  11. 11. Seawater Constituents • Four categories of solutes: 1. Major constituents 2. Minor constituents
  12. 12. Seawater Constituents • Four categories of solutes: 1. Major constituents 2. Minor constituents 3. Trace elements
  13. 13. Seawater Constituents • Four categories of solutes: 1. Major constituents 2. Minor constituents 3. Trace elements 4. Gases
  14. 14. Salinity
  15. 15. Salinity • Salinity of seawater is relatively uniform
  16. 16. Salinity • Salinity of seawater is relatively uniform • Small changes are significant
  17. 17. Salinity • Salinity of seawater is relatively uniform • Small changes are significant • Examples: 3.40% 3.49%
  18. 18. Average Salinity
  19. 19. Average Salinity • 3.5%
  20. 20. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent
  21. 21. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred
  22. 22. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred • 35‰
  23. 23. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred • 35‰ • 35 per mil
  24. 24. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred • 35‰ • 35 per mil • 35 parts per thousand
  25. 25. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred • 35‰ • 35 per mil • 35 parts per thousand 35 ppt
  26. 26. Average Salinity • 3.5% • 3.5 per cent • 3.5 parts per hundred • 35‰ • 35 per mil • 35 parts per thousand 35 ppt 34.7 ppt
  27. 27. Major Constituents
  28. 28. Major Constituents • Most seawater constituents are ions
  29. 29. Major Constituents • Most seawater constituents are ions • e.g. Cl- and Na+
  30. 30. Major Constituents • Most seawater constituents are ions • e.g. Cl- and Na+ • Six major constituents
  31. 31. Major Constituents • Most seawater constituents are ions • e.g. Cl- and Na+ • Six major constituents • Constitute >99% of seawater salinity
  32. 32. Major Constituents • Most seawater constituents are ions • e.g. Cl- and Na+ • Six major constituents • Constitute >99% of seawater salinity • Concentrations of the major constituents determine the salinity of seawater
  33. 33. Major Constituents
  34. 34. Major Constituents 1. Cl-
  35. 35. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+
  36. 36. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+ 3. SO4 2-
  37. 37. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+ 3. SO4 2- 4. Mg2+
  38. 38. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+ 3. SO4 2- 4. Mg2+ 5. Ca2+
  39. 39. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+ 3. SO4 2- 4. Mg2+ 5. Ca2+ 6. K+
  40. 40. Major Constituents 1. Cl- 2. Na+ 3. SO4 2- 4. Mg2+ 5. Ca2+ 6. K+
  41. 41. Salinity of Seawater
  42. 42. Major Constituents
  43. 43. Major Constituents
  44. 44. NaCl 86%
  45. 45. Range of Salinity
  46. 46. Range of Salinity • Salinity is relatively uniform - 35 ppt
  47. 47. Range of Salinity • Salinity is relatively uniform - 35 ppt • Salinity varies (over a small range)
  48. 48. Range of Salinity • Salinity is relatively uniform - 35 ppt • Salinity varies (over a small range) • General range of variation in the open ocean is 33-37 ppt
  49. 49. Range of Salinity • Salinity is relatively uniform - 35 ppt • Salinity varies (over a small range) • General range of variation in the open ocean is 33-37 ppt 33 ppt - 37 ppt
  50. 50. Marcet’s Principle
  51. 51. Marcet’s Principle • Despite small variations in seawater salinity, the relative proportions of the major constituents are constant
  52. 52. Marcet’s Principle • Despite small variations in seawater salinity, the relative proportions of the major constituents are constant • Also called the principle of constant proportions
  53. 53. Marcet’s Principle Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  54. 54. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  55. 55. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  56. 56. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = x Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  57. 57. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = x • Mg/K = y Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  58. 58. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = x • Mg/K = y • Ca/SO4 = z Example of Marcet’s Principle:
  59. 59. Cl/Na
  60. 60. Cl/Na
  61. 61. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = y • Ca/SO4 = z
  62. 62. Mg/K
  63. 63. Mg/K
  64. 64. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = z
  65. 65. Ca/SO4
  66. 66. Ca/SO4
  67. 67. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15
  68. 68. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15
  69. 69. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15 • Station 2
  70. 70. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15 • Station 2 • Salinity - 36.3 ppt
  71. 71. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15 • Station 2 • Salinity - 36.3 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8
  72. 72. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15 • Station 2 • Salinity - 36.3 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4
  73. 73. Marcet’s Principle • Station 1 • Salinity - 33.9 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15 • Station 2 • Salinity - 36.3 ppt • Cl/Na = 1.8 • Mg/K = 3.4 • Ca/SO4 = 0.15
  74. 74. Marcet’s Principle
  75. 75. Marcet’s Principle • Despite small variations in seawater salinity, the relative proportions of the major constituents are constant
  76. 76. Marcet’s Principle • Despite small variations in seawater salinity, the relative proportions of the major constituents are constant • The principle of constant proportions
  77. 77. Determine Salinity
  78. 78. Determine Salinity • Station 3: salinity = x
  79. 79. Determine Salinity • Station 3: salinity = x • To determine the salinity at a location, oceanographers need to know the concentrations of the major constituents
  80. 80. Determine Salinity • Station 3: salinity = x • To determine the salinity at a location, oceanographers need to know the concentrations of the major constituents • Constitute >99% of seawater salinity
  81. 81. Determine Salinity • Station 3: salinity = x • To determine the salinity at a location, oceanographers need to know the concentrations of the major constituents • Constitute >99% of seawater salinity • Concentrations of the major constituents determine the salinity of seawater
  82. 82. Major Constituents
  83. 83. Question
  84. 84. Question • Considering Marcet’s principle -
  85. 85. Question • Considering Marcet’s principle - how many of the major constituents must be measured to determine the salinity of seawater?
  86. 86. Major Constituents
  87. 87. Determine Salinity
  88. 88. Determine Salinity • Only need to measure the concentration of one major constituent
  89. 89. Determine Salinity • Only need to measure the concentration of one major constituent • Use Marcet’s principle to calculate the concentrations of the other constituents
  90. 90. Determine Salinity • Only need to measure the concentration of one major constituent • Use Marcet’s principle to calculate the concentrations of the other constituents • Which major constituent generally is measured?
  91. 91. Determine Salinity • Only need to measure the concentration of one major constituent • Use Marcet’s principle to calculate the concentrations of the other constituents • Which major constituent generally is measured? • Cl-
  92. 92. Determine Salinity
  93. 93. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl-
  94. 94. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl- • Cl- = 19.35 ppt
  95. 95. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl- • Cl- = 19.35 ppt • Cl-/Na+ = 1.8
  96. 96. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl- • Cl- = 19.35 ppt • Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 • Na+/Cl- = 0.56
  97. 97. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl- • Cl- = 19.35 ppt • Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • 19.35 x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt
  98. 98. Determine Salinity • Measure the concentration of Cl- • Cl- = 19.35 ppt • Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • 19.35 x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt measure Cl- calculate Na+
  99. 99. Determine Salinity
  100. 100. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl-
  101. 101. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56
  102. 102. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14
  103. 103. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07
  104. 104. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02
  105. 105. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02
  106. 106. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt
  107. 107. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt
  108. 108. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.14 = 2.7 ppt
  109. 109. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.14 = 2.7 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.07 = 1.3 ppt
  110. 110. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.14 = 2.7 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.07 = 1.3 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.02 = 0.4 ppt
  111. 111. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.14 = 2.7 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.07 = 1.3 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.02 = 0.4 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.02 = 0.4 ppt
  112. 112. Determine Salinity • Measure Cl- • Na+/Cl- = 0.56 • SO4 2-/Cl- = 0.14 • Mg2+/Cl- = 0.07 • Ca2+/Cl- = 0.02 • K+/Cl- = 0.02 • 19.35 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.56 = 10.8 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.14 = 2.7 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.07 = 1.3 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.02 = 0.4 ppt • 19.35 ppt x 0.02 = 0.4 ppt 35.0 ppt
  113. 113. Determine Salinity
  114. 114. Determine Salinity • To determine salinity within 1%, need to know the concentrations of only the major constituents
  115. 115. Determine Salinity • To determine salinity within 1%, need to know the concentrations of only the major constituents • Major constituents are >99% of salinity
  116. 116. Determine Salinity • To determine salinity within 1%, need to know the concentrations of only the major constituents • Major constituents are >99% of salinity • Only have to measure one major constituents to determine salinity
  117. 117. Determine Salinity • To determine salinity within 1%, need to know the concentrations of only the major constituents • Major constituents are >99% of salinity • Only have to measure one major constituents to determine salinity • Measure one constituent and calculate the others using Marcet’s principle
  118. 118. Determine Salinity • To determine salinity within 1%, need to know the concentrations of only the major constituents • Major constituents are >99% of salinity • Only have to measure one major constituents to determine salinity • Measure one constituent and calculate the others using Marcet’s principle • Generally measure Cl-
  119. 119. Conservative Property
  120. 120. Conservative Property • Concentrations of the major constituents are conservative properties of seawater
  121. 121. Conservative Property • Concentrations of the major constituents are conservative properties of seawater • Conservative properties are
  122. 122. Conservative Property • Concentrations of the major constituents are conservative properties of seawater • Conservative properties are 1. altered primarily at the ocean’s surface
  123. 123. Conservative Property • Concentrations of the major constituents are conservative properties of seawater • Conservative properties are 1. altered primarily at the ocean’s surface 2. not significantly affected by biological activity
  124. 124. Change Salinity
  125. 125. • Salinity is altered primarily at the ocean’s surface by Change Salinity
  126. 126. • Salinity is altered primarily at the ocean’s surface by 1. addition of water (precipitation) Change Salinity
  127. 127. • Salinity is altered primarily at the ocean’s surface by 1. addition of water (precipitation) 2. removal of water (evaporation) Change Salinity
  128. 128. Explains Marcet’s Principle Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Despite small variations in seawater salinity, the relative proportions of the major constituents are constant
  129. 129. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Explains Marcet’s Principle
  130. 130. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Explains Marcet’s Principle
  131. 131. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Explains Marcet’s Principle
  132. 132. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Explains Marcet’s Principle
  133. 133. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Explains Marcet’s Principle
  134. 134. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Explains Marcet’s Principle
  135. 135. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 33 ppt Explains Marcet’s Principle
  136. 136. Na+ Cl- Cl- 35 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Na+ Cl- Cl- Na+ Cl- Cl- 37 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 33 ppt Cl-/Na+ = 1.8 Explains Marcet’s Principle
  137. 137. Uniformity of Salinity
  138. 138. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? Uniformity of Salinity
  139. 139. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? a small open ocean range of 33-37 ppt Uniformity of Salinity
  140. 140. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? a small open ocean range of 33-37 ppt • Uniform because the ocean is well mixed Uniformity of Salinity
  141. 141. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? a small open ocean range of 33-37 ppt • Uniform because the ocean is well mixed • To explain how the ocean became well mixed, oceanographers use the Uniformity of Salinity
  142. 142. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? a small open ocean range of 33-37 ppt • Uniform because the ocean is well mixed • To explain how the ocean became well mixed, oceanographers use the long residence times of the major constituents Uniformity of Salinity
  143. 143. • Why is salinity relatively uniform? a small open ocean range of 33-37 ppt • Uniform because the ocean is well mixed • To explain how the ocean became well mixed, oceanographers use the long residence times of the major constituents short mixing time of the ocean Uniformity of Salinity
  144. 144. All of the major constituents have residence times > 106 yr
  145. 145. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific
  146. 146. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific
  147. 147. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific
  148. 148. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific
  149. 149. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific
  150. 150. Ocean Mixing pattern Atlantic Indian Pacific Mixing time ≈ 1000 yr
  151. 151. Ocean Mixing pattern Mixing time ≈ 1000 yr
  152. 152. Ocean Is Well Mixed
  153. 153. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time
  154. 154. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time 1,000,000 yr >>> 1,000 yr
  155. 155. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time 1,000,000 yr >>> 1,000 yr 106 yr >>> 103 yr
  156. 156. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time 1,000,000 yr >>> 1,000 yr 106 yr >>> 103 yr • Residence time/mixing time = X
  157. 157. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time 1,000,000 yr >>> 1,000 yr 106 yr >>> 103 yr • Residence time/mixing time = X 106 yr/103 yr = 103
  158. 158. Ocean Is Well Mixed • Residence times of the major constituents are much, much longer than the mixing time 1,000,000 yr >>> 1,000 yr 106 yr >>> 103 yr • Residence time/mixing time = X 106 yr/103 yr = 103 • In 1,000,000 yr, the ocean mixes itself 1000x
  159. 159. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements
  160. 160. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm
  161. 161. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm • Trace elements measured in ppb or pptr
  162. 162. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm • Trace elements measured in ppb or pptr • In general,
  163. 163. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm • Trace elements measured in ppb or pptr • In general, Marcet’s principle does not apply
  164. 164. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm • Trace elements measured in ppb or pptr • In general, Marcet’s principle does not apply tend to be nonconservative
  165. 165. Minor Constituents and Trace Elements • Minor constituents measured in ppm • Trace elements measured in ppb or pptr • In general, Marcet’s principle does not apply tend to be nonconservative tend to have shorter residence times
  166. 166. Biolimiting Nutrients
  167. 167. Biolimiting Nutrients • Primary biolimiting nutrients are in trace concentrations: N, P, Si, Fe
  168. 168. Nutrient concentrations are low in the open ocean
  169. 169. Nutrient concentrations are low in the open ocean Water is clear
  170. 170. Atmospheric Gases
  171. 171. Gases
  172. 172. Gases • Atmospheric Gases
  173. 173. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78%
  174. 174. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21%
  175. 175. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21% CO2 - 0.035%
  176. 176. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21% CO2 - 0.035% • Oceanic Gases
  177. 177. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21% CO2 - 0.035% • Oceanic Gases N2 - 48%
  178. 178. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21% CO2 - 0.035% • Oceanic Gases N2 - 48% O2 - 36%
  179. 179. Gases • Atmospheric Gases N2 - 78% O2 - 21% CO2 - 0.035% • Oceanic Gases N2 - 48% O2 - 36% CO2 - 15%
  180. 180. Gases
  181. 181. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative?
  182. 182. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative? • N2 is conservative
  183. 183. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative? • N2 is conservative • O2 is nonconservative
  184. 184. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative? • N2 is conservative • O2 is nonconservative • CO2 is nonconservative
  185. 185. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative? • N2 is conservative • O2 is nonconservative • CO2 is nonconservative Both O2 and CO2 are strongly affected by biological activity
  186. 186. Gases • Are N2, O2, and CO2 conservative or nonconservative? • N2 is conservative • O2 is nonconservative • CO2 is nonconservative Both O2 and CO2 are strongly affected by biological activity The concentrations of O2 and CO2 are altered below the ocean’s surface
  187. 187. Banded Ironstone
  188. 188. Variations in Seawater Chemistry
  189. 189. Variations in Seawater Chemistry Next

×