1. introduction


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1. introduction

  2. 2. Marks distributions Theory (60 marks) Midterm exam =18 marks Final term exam=36 marks Assignment/ Quiz = 06 marks Practical (20 marks) Daily evaluation =10 marks Final written = 05 marks Final Viva +copy = 05 marks 2
  3. 3. Books Recommended  Robbins Basic Pathology 7th edition by Kumar, V. ; Cotran, R.S.; Robbins, S.L.  Veterinary Pathology by 6 th edition by Jones, T.C.; Hunt, R.D.; King, N.W.  Introduction to Veterinary Pathology, 3rd Edition - by Norman F. Cheville  Mechanisms of Disease: A Textbook of Comparative General Pathology by David O. Slauson
  4. 4. Course aims & objectives  The course aims to introduce students with common pathological terms and pathogens  Get familiarized to gross and microscopic lesions of animal tissue  Mechanism of disease development  Interpretation of lesions to help clinician in diagnosis  Postmortem examination  Histopathological examination
  5. 5. Pathology Subjects in DVM degree 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. General Veterinary Pathology (PATH-201) Systemic Veterinary Pathology (PATH-202) Necropsy practices (PATH-301) Clinical Pathology (PATH-401) Meat inspection (PATH-403) Poultry Pathology (PATH-501) Livestock Health Hazards management (PATH-503)
  6. 6. What is Pathology?  Pathology is a combination of two words patho=disease logos =study  The scientific Study of disease is called pathology  The study of disease except treatment is called pathology  The scientific study of the nature of disease and its causes, processes, development, and consequences
  7. 7. What is Pathology?    1. 2. The study of structure and function of the body in disease condition is called Pathology. The study of molecular, biochemical, structural and functional changes in the cells of the body is called pathology. Pathology deals with the following questions? What is wrong with the normal? Why and how the wrong has happened?
  8. 8. Disease Dis-ease which mean uneasiness or condition in which individual show deviation from normal even though all the nutritional and environmental condition provided adequately. Health It is a state in which an individual live in complete harmony. In human medicine it is state of complete physical, mental, social well being State of more economical live stock production maximum production at minimum cost from livestock then animal in health.
  9. 9. Why we study pathology?  To understand the causation and mechanism of disease development.  What is a pathologist?  A person trained in the mechanisms, morphological alterations and diagnosis of disease.
  10. 10. Objectives of a Pathologist.  The objectives of a pathologist are to find out the lesions, names and interpret them to make a diagnosis  His/her main purpose is to help the clinician in arriving at a correct conclusion for the diagnosis of the disease.
  11. 11. Branches of Pathology General pathology It is concerned with the study of basic reactions of cells and tissue as a result of disease. e.g. Fatty change, Necrosis etc  Systemic pathology: Systemic Pathology deals with alterations in tissues/ organs of a particular system. e.g. Respiratory system, Genital system etc.  Clinical pathology It includes certain laboratory methods which helps in making the diagnosis using animal excretions/secretions/ blood/ skin scrapings/ biopsy etc. e.g. Urine examination, Blood examination. 
  12. 12. Experimental pathology: It is the study of produced under experimental diseases conditions. Toxopathology: Toxopathology or Toxic Pathology deals with the study of tissue/ organ alterations due to toxins/ poisons Poultry pathology: it deals with the pathology of poultry (birds) diseases
  13. 13.  Humoral Pathology: Humoral Pathology is the study of alterations in fluids like antibodies in serum.  Chemical Pathology: Chemical Pathology is the study of chemical alterations of body fluids/ tissues. e.g. Enzymes in tissue.  Physiological Pathology: Physiological Pathology deals with alteration in the functions of organ / system. It is also known as Pathophysiology. e.g. Indigestion, Diarrhoea, Abortion.
  14. 14.      Nutritional Pathology: Nutritional Pathology is the study of diseases occurred due to deficiency or excess of nutrients. e.g. Vit.-A deficiency induced nutritional roup, rickets due to calcium deficiency Forensic Pathology: Forensic Pathology includes careful examination and recording of pathological lesions in case of veterolegal cases. Oncology: Oncology is the study of cancer/ tumor/ neoplasms. Immunopathology: Immunopathology deals with the study of diseases mediated by immune reactions. It includes Immunodeficiency diseases, autoimmunity and hypersensitivity reactions. Cytopathology: Cytopathology is the study of cells shed off from the lesions for diagnosis.
  15. 15. Terminology used in pathology  Etiology it refers to the cause of disease. It is of two types (1)intrinsic (inside) (2) extrinsic (outside)  Pathogen: is the micro organism that causes disease  Symptom. is that which is described by a person not observed (in human only)  Clinical sign. which is observed not described by a person (in animals only)  Lesion. is a pathological alteration in structure/ function that can be detectable..(Gross and microscopic)  Pathognomonic lesions: Those which definitely or directly point toward specific disease
  16. 16.  Diagnosis: Diagnosis is an art of precisely knowing the cause of a particular disease (Dia= thorough, gnosis= knowledge).  Prognosis .It is the probable outcome of a disease.  Postmortem/autopsy/necropsy. examination of the body after death to observe the lesions for diagnosis.  Syndrome: A combination of symptoms caused by altered physiological process
  17. 17.  Biopsy.it is the removal and microscopic examination of tissues from the living body for diagnosis  Morbid changes. changes that develop before death.  Postmortem changes. changes that develop after death.  Morphological changes: The structural alterations in cells or tissue  Pathogenesis. It is the mechanism of disease development  Pathogenicity: Pathogenicity is the capability of an organism for producing a disease
  18. 18. Morbidity rate: Morbidity rate is the percentage/ proportions of affected animals out of total population in a particular disease outbreak.e.g. Out of 100 animals, 20 are suffering from diarrhoea. The morbidity rate of diarrhoea will be 20%. Mortality rate: Mortality rate is the percentage/ proportions of animals out of total population died due to disease in a particular disease outbreak. e.g. In a population of 100 animals, 20 falls sick and 5 died. The mortality rate will be 5%.