School reform project vs2


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School reform project vs2

  1. 1. School Reform Project<br />Critical Analysis of Schools <br />and Educational Practice<br />ESED 9132<br />Spring 2010<br />Cathy Griffin<br />
  2. 2. Three Major Issues<br />Closing the Achievement Gap & No Child Left Behind Act <br />Accountability<br />Standardized Testing<br />
  3. 3. Where’s the Gap?<br />Between white and minority children.<br />
  4. 4. NCLB Truths and Consequences<br />
  5. 5. Is NCLB Legislation the Solution?<br />Key Factors of Concern Regarding NCLB Legislation<br /><ul><li> The goal has been set that by the year 2014 the achievement gap will no longer exist
  6. 6. High-stakes standardized testing has been implemented to monitor student achievement
  7. 7. Free tutoring must be offered by schools that do not meet NCLB standards.
  8. 8. Federal funding will be provided to support research-based teaching strategies
  9. 9. More choices for parents will be offered for students who attend schools that do not meet NCLB standards</li></ul>(No Child Left Behind Act of 2001, 2001) <br />
  10. 10. Pros, Cons & Alternatives of NCLB?<br />Pros:<br /><ul><li> Improved test scores since implementation
  11. 11. Decreases in achievement gap
  12. 12. Increases in highly qualified teachers
  13. 13. Additional testing has helped to identify low-performing students
  14. 14. Increases in the number of schools attaining AYP status.</li></ul>(Ramsay, 2008), (No Child Left Behind's 5th Anniversary, 2007), (Jehlen, 2007)<br />
  15. 15. Pros, Cons & Alternatives of NCLB?<br />Cons:<br /><ul><li> Program funding is lacking each year
  16. 16. Multiple choice testing is the only measure of student performance
  17. 17. Since math and reading are the target areas, other subject areas are being neglected
  18. 18. Teachers are being forced to tech to the test
  19. 19. Educators are punished for working in high-risk schools
  20. 20. All students regardless of their native language or ability level are held to the same standards</li></ul>(Ramsay, 2008), (No Child Left Behind's 5th Anniversary, 2007), (Jehlen, 2007)<br />
  21. 21. Pros, Cons & Alternatives of NCLB?<br />Alternatives:<br /><ul><li> Provide multiple assessment criteria to allow students to show mastery and achievement
  22. 22. Smaller class sizes
  23. 23. Support programs that encourage parental and community involvement
  24. 24. Acknowledge educators who show significant gains in student achievement</li></ul>(Ramsay, 2008), (No Child Left Behind's 5th Anniversary, 2007), (Jehlen, 2007)<br />
  25. 25. Who Should Be Held Accountable?<br />According to NCLB, schools are held accountable for making adequate yearly progress (AYP) based on guidelines created, and implemented by each individual state (Carey, 2007). <br />
  26. 26. Pros, Cons & Alternatives ~ Accountability<br />Pros: <br /><ul><li> Disaggregation of data by subgroups helps schools to center attention on problem areas
  27. 27. School systems are being forced to take a closer look at their low-performing students and design new programs to assist with closing the achievement gap
  28. 28. School systems are required to publish their accountability reports which keeps the community informed</li></ul>(Carey, 2007)<br />
  29. 29. Pros, Cons & Alternatives ~ Accountability<br />Cons: <br /><ul><li> Each state dictates what their standards should look like. If you live in Alabama versus Georgia, you have widely differing levels of student achievement criteria
  30. 30. Goals for student achievement are unrealistic given such a short time span
  31. 31. Schools showing huge gains may still be labeled as not making AYP
  32. 32. A small subgroup of students could possibly cause an entire school to not make AYP</li></ul>(Carey, 2007)<br />
  33. 33. Pros, Cons & Alternatives ~ Accountability<br />Alternatives: <br /><ul><li> Instead of tracking students from one grade to the next longitudinally, a successive comparison. For example comparing 6th grade students from 2009 to 6th grade students from 2010 would be more informative (Linn, 2005).
  34. 34. Standardize minimum requirements for state standards
  35. 35. Create attainable goals
  36. 36. Create accountability measures that include achievement gains.</li></ul>(Carey, 2007)<br />
  37. 37. Standardized Testing as the ONLY Determining Factor in Student Achievement.<br />Definition: “Standardized Test – a form of measure that has been normed against a specific population” <br />(A Glossary of Measurement Terms, ERIC Digest, 1989)<br />
  38. 38. Pros, Cons & Alternatives ~ <br />Standardized Testing<br />Pros: <br /><ul><li>Great tool for teachers to use to guide their instruction
  39. 39. Comparisons can be made across groups to help track student performance
  40. 40. Can help analyze the effectiveness of new programs</li></ul>(Neill & Peterson, 1999)<br />
  41. 41. Pros, Cons & Alternatives ~ <br />Standardized Testing<br />Cons:<br /><ul><li> As the definition suggests, standardized testing has been “normed against a specific population” (A Glossary of Measurement Terms, ERIC Digest, 1989). Where does that leave our minority populations?
  42. 42. “…parents are often the first to understand that the complexity of their child cannot be captured by a test score”(Neill & Peterson, 1999).
  43. 43. One snapshot, on one day, out of 180 days of learning does not give an accurate picture of student achievement</li></li></ul><li>Pros, Cons & Alternatives ~ <br />Standardized Testing<br />Alternatives:<br /><ul><li> Use a variety of assessment tools to generate a more holistic view of student performance
  44. 44. Student performance portfolios collecting work samples and data throughout the year will give a much clearer picture of overall student achievement
  45. 45. Performance task based assessments where students are able to “show what they know”</li></ul>(Neill & Peterson, 1999)<br />
  46. 46. Closing the Achievement Gap, Accountability and Standardized Testing<br />What is the Impact on our <br />Teaching Professionals?<br />
  47. 47. The Impact on Teaching Professionals<br />Pros:<br /><ul><li> Teachers are more cognizant of and willing to try new, research-based teaching strategies
  48. 48. Teachers are learning to use student dada to drive their instruction, rather than the chapter number in a textbook
  49. 49. Teachers are receiving more high-quality professional development to help enhance instruction and student engagement
  50. 50. High standards are set for teacher qualifications
  51. 51. School report cards keep the community informed of what is taking place in their local schools </li></ul>(White, 2010).<br />
  52. 52. The Impact on <br />Teaching Professionals<br />Cons:<br /><ul><li> High-stakes testing is creating a teaching profession that is being forced to teach to the test
  53. 53. Proper funding has not been made available to comply with all of the NCLB requirements
  54. 54. High standards set for teacher qualifications are causing a shortage of teachers in lower income schools
  55. 55. There is a failure to address many issues that affect low achievement including: “class size, old and damaged school buildings, hunger and homelessness, and lack of health care: (White, 2010).</li></li></ul><li>Continued: The Impact on Teaching Professionals<br /><ul><li> Educators are more frustrated than ever at their lack of autonomy in their own classrooms coupled with feelings of insignificance when it comes to determining what is best for their students
  56. 56. Subjects other than math and reading are taking a back seat
  57. 57. Educators are no longer considered the experts in the field of education</li></li></ul><li>What is the Impact on Students?<br />
  58. 58. What is the Impact on Students?<br />Pros:<br /><ul><li> Student achievement has never been more closely monitored due in part to data driven instruction; therefore much needed differentiation of instruction is easier to identify
  59. 59. Students who attend a school that is not making AYP has the option to transfer to another school
  60. 60. Students who attend a school that is not making AYP are given tutoring opportunities </li></ul>(Staff, 2008)<br />
  61. 61. What is the Impact on Students?<br />Cons:<br /><ul><li>Students are bombarded with so many tests throughout the year that they lose sight of why they are in school
  62. 62. Our special education students are often being held to standards that are not attainable based on their particular disability; this can be devastating for the child
  63. 63. Our limited English proficiency students are required to take the standardized test in a language that they have yet to master which results in merely a test of their English language skills rather than their achievement within the content areas
  64. 64. Students no longer see the relevance in what they are learning other than to pass a test</li></ul>(Harper, 2005)<br />
  65. 65. What is the Impact on Society?<br />
  66. 66. What is the Impact on Society?<br />Pros:<br /><ul><li> Society has access to more specific details about their local schools and schools across the country
  67. 67. More attention is being paid to exactly what is taught in our public schools
  68. 68. Greater emphasis is being paid to low-performing schools
  69. 69. Teacher qualifications are being raised in the hopes of acquiring a quality teaching force in each school
  70. 70. Test scores in math and reading have improved</li></ul>(Jennings & Rentner, 2006)<br />
  71. 71. What is the Impact on Society?<br />Cons:<br /><ul><li> Little evidence has been shown that parents are taking advantage of school choice or that this component is helping to raise student achievement
  72. 72. Testing of our special education and limited English proficiency student populations have come under much scrutiny
  73. 73. Lack of Federal funding to promote many of the required school programs is creating a burden on local schools, PTA’s, parents and teachers</li></ul>(Jennings & Rentner, 2006)<br />
  74. 74. One Middle School Math Teacher’s Perspective on NCLB, Standardized Testing and Accountability as it Relates to My Teaching, My Students, My School and the Community.<br />
  75. 75. Where Do I Stand?<br />Pros:<br /><ul><li> I am enjoying much more quality staff development from our county which helps me keep my teaching current and relevant
  76. 76. Learning how to use data to drive my instruction has benefitted my teaching and subsequently my student’s learning
  77. 77. Since the implementation of NCLB legislation and becoming a Title I school, we have put into action many new programs to help our struggling students and get parents and community members involved
  78. 78. Math test scores are rising slightly every year</li></li></ul><li>Where Do I Stand?<br />Cons:<br /><ul><li> I fear that the time I spend teaching my students how to take the standardized test is taking away from precious time and energy better spent on meaningful learning
  79. 79. There is no time in the curriculum calendar for students to explore math conceptually
  80. 80. Students no loner find value in what they learn other than attaining a good test score
  81. 81. Lack of autonomy causes me great frustration when it comes to planning and implementing my lessons</li></li></ul><li>Continued: Where Do I Stand?<br />Cons:<br /><ul><li> We are encouraged to differentiate instruction however the standardized test does not account for this much needed differentiation
  82. 82. My special education students are left feeling like failures when they often don’t pass the state test; even though they may have shown tremendous growth
  83. 83. There is no room in the curriculum calendar for “teachable moments”
  84. 84. The community looks unfavorably on our school due to its low SES and the fact that we are a Title I school
  85. 85. Although accountability should occur at all levels of education, ultimately the teachers take the brunt of the “blame”</li></li></ul><li>My Plan For Change<br />In a Perfect World, What Would My School Look Like?<br />
  86. 86. My Plan For Change<br /><ul><li> Smaller class sizes to assist with our students varying learning styles and offer more one-on-one instruction.
  87. 87. Introduce a curriculum that has a much narrower focus allowing for delving deeper into each standard.
  88. 88. Create strong relationships with parents and community members; get them involved
  89. 89. Allow for some “breathing room” when it comes to the requirements and standards for each content area. Permitting more “teachable moments” to be discovered and explored
  90. 90. Leave room for more creativity and critical thinking in the classroom
  91. 91. Consent to offer students more opportunities to study humanities and the arts.
  92. 92. Incorporate time in the school day to explore new technology</li></li></ul><li>What Can I Do Right Now?<br /><ul><li> Continue to speak out and get involved in the decision-making at my local school and in the community
  93. 93. Continue to share with and encourage my colleagues to use best practices in their classrooms
  94. 94. Create more opportunities for parents to get involved in the school and their child’s education
  95. 95. Stay abreast of and give input into curriculum decisions being made within our county
  96. 96. Continue to advocate for smaller class sizes
  97. 97. Continue to research strategies and implement activities that foster creativity and critical thinking while still teaching the required standards
  98. 98. Voice my opinion with regard to education whenever the opportunity arises, no matter how small and inconsequential my vote may seem!</li></li></ul><li>What Are My Possible Challenges or Roadblocks?<br /><ul><li> Based on previous years’ experience, parental involvement has been the biggest roadblock to much of what we would like to accomplish at our school
  99. 99. The biggest impact on student achievement could be made if we could overcome this one obstacle
  100. 100. Fear. Change and going against the norm is often obstructed by fear of the unknown and fear of failure.</li></li></ul><li>What Resources and Support Will I Need?<br /><ul><li> Parental support will be crucial - I am in contact with parents not only through the students that I teach but also through initiatives put in place through Title I
  101. 101. Community support - I am in regular contact with many community leaders already through initiatives put in place for Title I
  102. 102. Teacher buy-in - I am in a position to assist and inspire teachers through my position as a math coach
  103. 103. Student buy-in – I believe this will come naturally as students see teachers, administrators, parents and community members working together for their school</li></li></ul><li>What Will It Take To Keep the Momentum Going?<br />Community<br />Teachers<br />Students<br />Parents<br />Administration<br />Elected Officials<br />Working Together<br />
  104. 104. Click Once and then Be Patient! <br />"Every hour spent on such exam preparation is an hour not spent helping students to become critical, creative, curious learners." Alfie Kohn<br />"Would a child who spent every day doing basketball drills without ever having the joy of playing a game of basketball enjoy basketball enough to become good at it?" Lalia Kerr <br />"If more testing were the answer to the problems in our schools, testing would have solved them a long time ago." Bill Goodling, chair of House Education Committee <br />"'Teaching to the test' [is] a practice likened to memorizing an eye chart. With enough drill and rote work, even a person with 20/150 vision can rattle off 'E-F-P-T-O-Z'. Of course this doesn't mean that person can truly see." Meredith Scrivner<br />"In America, no child should be left behind. Every child should be educated to his or her own full potential." President George W. Bush <br />"If I were to compare the agendas of teachers and the agendas of test publishers, the bottom line for teachers is always kids. For test publishers it's money. For politicians, it is votes. Who do you want to trust your child's learning to? George Bush, Prentice Hall, STAR test, or a teacher with a strong sense of commitment to the welfare of children?" Nancy Haas <br />"I'm thinking about letting us have a scream day sometime in March, when we just go outside and scream," anonymous Louisiana teacher <br />"Education ceases to be learning when the 3 R's are read, remember, and regurgitate." "Boston Public" character of student protester <br />"Education is not a preparation for is life itself". John Dewey <br />"Anyone can confirm how little the grading that results from examinations corresponds to the final useful work of people in life." Jean Piaget <br />"Believing we can improve schooling with more tests is like believing you can make yourself grow taller by measuring your height." Robert Schaeffer of FairTest<br />"What we want is to see the child in pursuit of knowledge and not knowledge in pursuit of the child." George Bernard Shaw <br />"Not everything that counts can be counted and not everything that can be counted counts." Albert Einstein <br />
  105. 105. Works Cited<br />A Glossary of Measurement Terms. ERIC Digest. (1989). Retrieved April 6, 2010, from Clearinghouse on Assessment and Evaluation:<br />Carey, K. (2007, November 13). The Pangloss Index: How States Game the No Child Left Behind Ac. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from Education Sector:<br />Harper, L. (2005, August 21). No Child Left Behind's Impact on Specialized Education. Retrieved April 6, 2010, f rom PBS News Hour:<br />Jehlen, A. (2007, February). NCLB: The Sequel. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from National Education Association:<br />Jennings, J., & Rentner, D. S. (2006, November). Ten Big Affects of the No Child Left Behind Act on Public Schools. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from Center on Education Policy:<br />Linn, R. L. (2005, Summer). Fixing the NCLB Accountability System. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from CRESST National Center for Research:<br />Neill, M., & Peterson, B. (1999, Spring). Alternatives to Standardized Tests. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from Rethinking Schools Online:<br />No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. (2001). Retrieved April 6, 2010, from<br />No Child Left Behind's 5th Anniversary. (2007, January). Retrieved April 6, 2010, from US Department of Education:<br />Ramsay, J. (2008). The Controversy: Has NCLB Been Successful or Has It Failed? Retrieved April 6, 2010, from Care To Vote 08': Getting Smart About Getting Smart:<br />Staff, G. S. (2008). What the No Child Left Behind Law Means for Your Child. Retrieved April 9, 2010, from Great Schools:<br />Test Quotes. (2010). Retrieved April 10, 2010, from Students Against Testing: es/yodirectory.html&usg=__mfhfZ4C8MEMTy3sRYy_RNackRLk=&h=350&w=475&sz=64&hl=en<br />White, D. (2010). Pros and Cons of No Child Left Behind Act. Retrieved April 6, 2010, from US Liberal Politics:<br />