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9 Watu Wengi Population Growth And Population Mobility


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9 Watu Wengi Population Growth And Population Mobility

  1. 1. Challenges Facing African Development Watu Wengi: Demographic Changes, Human Displacement
  2. 2. Demographic Change <ul><li>Africa the fastest growing continent with 2.7% growth, yet AIDS deaths impact the continent’s demography </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns across the continent </li></ul><ul><li>Africa’s demographic transition </li></ul><ul><li>Population pyramid in the context of AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>“ Children are a Blessing”: culture and demographic changes </li></ul><ul><li>Population and Development </li></ul>
  3. 3. Population Growth Patterns <ul><li>Population distribution varies throughout the continent not in one state unit </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sparsely populated in all bionomes yet distribution uneven </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural factors, historical factors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High population found in Lake Victoria Belt, coastal Nigeria, then pockets in places like Nairobi hinterland, and urban S.A. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Yet growth remains the fastest in the world despite highest mortality rates (life expectancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of Migration? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Africa’s demographic transition Sahel’s early transition Ghana/Sudan’s accelerated transition
  5. 5. Population pyramid in the context of AIDS <ul><li>Interrupted Transitions, Reversed transitions, and “re-stablized” transitions? </li></ul><ul><li>What happens with population growth not accompanied by industrialization </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. Population pyramid in the context of AIDS <ul><li>Typical African Stair case, or holes in the center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What does this mean for the future? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What happens when most productive generation diminishes while least productive remain? </li></ul><ul><li>Will these patterns remain consistent within countries? </li></ul>
  7. 7. “ Children are a Blessing”: culture and demographic changes <ul><li>Strong cultural push for children </li></ul><ul><li>Practical concerns in Agriculture, high mortality, and extended family as social safety net </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in natural birth control </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural resistance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Birth control programs seen as outside intrusion and often racist (particularly S.A) and an attempt to destroy fertility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural taboos against condoms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masculine virility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New cultural determinants: Girls in school </li></ul>
  8. 8. “ Children are a Blessing”: culture and demographic changes <ul><li>Indigenous Knowledge and reduction of fertility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoidance of intercourse during breastfeeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But with destruction of indigenous culture and migration some traditions being lost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cultural Change toward fertility patterns? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infertility is a major problem in Africa as well (Inhorn, 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Outside cultural influences encouraging fertility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Churches and others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Economic influences on fertility </li></ul>
  9. 9. Population and Development: Is population control central to development <ul><li>Despite problems of development Africa’s population growth has the least environmental impact I=PAT </li></ul><ul><li>Scarcity thinking “With more people few resources to share” (remember Yapa’s social construction) </li></ul><ul><li>Neo-Malthus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hardin’s tragedy of commons and “life boat” ethics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ester Boserup </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More people means conservation innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the Greenbelt movement apply? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Displacement <ul><li>Migration a constant in African and World History </li></ul><ul><li>Labor Migration </li></ul><ul><li>Brain Drain or Brain Circulation? </li></ul><ul><li>Official Defined Refugees, IDPs, and repatriates </li></ul>
  11. 11. Migration a constant in African and World History <ul><li>Pre-colonial major group migrations </li></ul><ul><li>Pastoralism </li></ul><ul><li>Pilgrimages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>West Africans stuck in Sudan on the way to Mecca (Bascom, 1989) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ecological Migrants </li></ul><ul><li>Rural to Urban migration (bright lights effect) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Modern Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial West </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Labor Migration: Colonial Origins <ul><li>Colonial History of migration and labor reserves </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Uganda->Buganda land, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Western Kenya->central highlands, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahel in French West Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Forced labor migrations </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slave trade </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief induced labor recruitment to white farms and mines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Labor migration and South Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Witwatersrand Swazi labor 1915 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apartheid intra and international migration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Post Apartheid xenophobia toward migrants </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beginning of labor migrancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the hut tax </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Labor Migration: Post-colonial Africa <ul><li>Modern Labor Migration at a more global level, but local remains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Niger and IC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa and the Persian Gulf </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connections between France and Mali </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nigeria->Houston and Dublin (elite migration) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elite labor migration within Africa of educated migrants filling labor shortages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember Home Town Associations </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Brain Drain or Brain Circulation? <ul><li>Educated professionals leave Africa for better pay and lifestyle in west </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some perform same jobs in other countries for higher pay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intra-African elite migration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kenyans taking higher skilled jobs in other EAC countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nigerians are everywhere (Kenya airways flies to Lagos) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa and Botswana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Because of discrimination in host countries many “waste” skills in low skill work in the West, but might earn more doing menial work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Academic” Labor migrants and likelihood of return (Trice, Andrea; Yoo, Jin Eun, 2007) </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Brain Drain or Brain Circulation? <ul><li>Or is it circulation? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya’s post Moi-economic success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role of Diaspora </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of Africa online and MIT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does circulation occur only in better off African countries? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remittances in not just money, but technology, and information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences to African Health Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>40% Saskatchewan doctors are African </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yet all of African in profound medical human resource problem </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What will EU labor policies mean for African professionals working in Europe? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Official Defined Refugees, IDPs, and repatriates <ul><li>What is a refugee? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Defined as someone crossing an internationally recognized border fearing persecution based on their race, religion, nationality, membership in a particular social group, or political opinion by 1951 Refugee Convention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1974 OAU: Broader definition to include suffering due to “external aggression”, “foreign domination”, or “events disturbing public order in part of country” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa currently the largest source and host region of Refugees </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Internally Displaced Person (IDP) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internally Displaced People do not receive official assistance and make up large number of displaced people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember the Kenyan Rift Valley IDPs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IDPs might be larger than refugees e.g. Sudan and northern Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refoulement obligations and repatriation </li></ul>
  17. 17. Refoulement obligations and repatriation <ul><li>Refoulement: under international law a country cannot return a refugee where they might face persecution </li></ul><ul><li>Repatriation of refugees is common across Africa and poses problems of infrastructure in the country of origin and sometimes where children have acculturated in the host country’s culture </li></ul><ul><li>Issues of right to work, aid, intermarriage and support in law, but not indeed </li></ul>
  18. 18. Locations of Africa’s refugees <ul><li>Source Countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East/Central Africa: Sudan, DRC, Somalia, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Chad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West Africa: Liberia, Sierra Leone, Cote d’Ioire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Destination Countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East/Central Africa (map 188): Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some countries are both destination and source countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudan (Bascom, 1998) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resettlement also occurs in some richer countries </li></ul><ul><li>Asylum seekers and Asylees in the West </li></ul>
  19. 19. Burden on host country <ul><li>Often poorest countries host largest number of refugees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strains on health, education, food security </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What factors go into making a camp location? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kakuma, Dadaab </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malkki’s Purity and Exile </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Concerns of insecurity, disease, and basic cultural intrusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2007 shutting down of the Somali border </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Vulnerability to “refugees” <ul><li>Challenges of both self settled and camp refugees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunger </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refugees as scapegoats for national problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articles on Kenya and Tanzania </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refoulement common </li></ul><ul><li>Coerced repatriation </li></ul><ul><li>“ At risk refugees” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Camp insecurity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced enlistment by armies (SPLA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Police shakedowns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rape or “Food for sex” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asylum seekers frequently tortured </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Development and Refugees <ul><li>Refugee Populations and rural transformations in East Africa (Bascom, 1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eritrean refugees coming to eastern Sudan provide the surplus labor needed for the development of commercial agriculture in eastern Sudan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purity and Exile (Malkiki, 1995) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Political foundations of Burundi laid during Hutu exile in Tanzania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refugee resettlement and rural development in central Tz </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Development and Refugees <ul><li>Challenges and opportunities of return </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skills neglected in exile experience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure often destroyed through war and neglect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But in some cases returnees bring additional skills and experiences from abroad to rebuild home country (e.g. Liberia, Ellen Sirleaf) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenges and opportunities of local integration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Could take away jobs in already tight economy (Kenya, S.A. problems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arguments made that refugees contribute to economic growth in host society (Garrissa Lodge) </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Development and Migration Review <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sending area gets remittances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTAs and Rural Homes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Host society receives new skills, needed labor, and innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchange of ideas and knowledge in sending and receiving areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Underdevelopment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender inequality exacerbated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural depopulation and loss of agricultural productivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rootlessness, loss of IK, and local talent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Reserve” labor lowers wages for workers </li></ul></ul>