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7 Class #9 Post Colonial Development Note


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7 Class #9 Post Colonial Development Note

  1. 1. Post/neo-colonial Challenges 06/04/09
  2. 2. Upcoming Events <ul><li>Quiz today </li></ul><ul><li>Sunday (speaking on Friday) Goshit; Guest Speaker on military rule in the post colonial Nigeria July 18 th </li></ul><ul><li>July 23 rd Quiz Canceled </li></ul><ul><li>July 28 th Final Paper due (note change) </li></ul><ul><li>July 30 th Take Home Final Distributed </li></ul><ul><li>August 1 Turn in Take Home final, in class assessment, and last day of class </li></ul>06/04/09
  3. 3. A Legacy of Development or Underdevelopment? <ul><li>Development </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure for extraction and settlers built and remained e.g.. S.A., Kenya </li></ul><ul><li>Colonialism as modernization and path to development </li></ul><ul><li>Western Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Western Education </li></ul><ul><li>Western business practices, natural and social sciences </li></ul><ul><li>Common languages across continent </li></ul><ul><li>Diminished Slave Trade </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity brings literacy in local languages </li></ul><ul><li>New systems of governance and administration </li></ul><ul><li>Underdevelopment </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of cash crops degrades Africa’s soil and environment </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial limitations on extraction industries destroys local industry </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous Knowledge destroyed </li></ul><ul><li>Societies divided across imposed boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Africans left with “foreign” institutions and separated from local ways </li></ul><ul><li>Imposition of Racism on Africa (Rhodesia, South Africa) </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction industries created dependency </li></ul>06/04/09
  4. 4. Post/Neo-Colonial Challenges <ul><li>Independence movements </li></ul><ul><li>Africa vs. Apartheid </li></ul><ul><li>Post/neo-Colonial governance </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred colonial borders </li></ul><ul><li>Development and post-colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Contemporary Africa’s Post colonial assessment </li></ul>06/04/09
  5. 5. Independence movements <ul><li>Origins. </li></ul><ul><li>Independence through political protest </li></ul><ul><li>Independence through cooperation and mutual expediency </li></ul><ul><li>Independence through armed rebellion in settler colonies and settler states </li></ul><ul><li>Independence through both International pressure and insurgency </li></ul><ul><li>Independence of Portuguese colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Succession from an independent African state </li></ul>06/04/09
  6. 6. Origins <ul><li>Pan-Africansim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africans in U.S. and Europe connect with U.S. civil rights leaders and West Indian Nationalists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenced by WEB Dubois and Marcus Garvey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Push from mission educated intellectuals </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of African Unity </li></ul><ul><li>Independence also came from uncoordinated resistance in each colony after WWII </li></ul><ul><li>Return of WWII veterans </li></ul>06/04/09
  7. 7. Origins: Pan-Africanist Leaders <ul><li>Kwame Nkrumah- in Gold Coast (Ghana) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal to create United States of Africa through OAU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Several attempts to unite from Casabblanca group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monrovia group wanted to preserve order and not unite </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nnamdi Azikiwe (Nigeria) </li></ul><ul><li>Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) </li></ul><ul><li>Julius Nyerere (Tankanyika->Tanzania) </li></ul><ul><li>OAU worked toward independence of all of Africa despite eventual failures and collapse </li></ul>06/04/09
  8. 8. Independence through political protest <ul><li>Gold Coast->Ghana </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Led by Kwame Nkrumah in 1947 after return from U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized UGCC (133) through non-violent passive resistance with goal of self govt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nkrumah imprisoned and formed CPP to orgnaize for self govt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1951 British grant Self Govt and full independence in 1957 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does Nigeria follow this model? </li></ul>06/04/09
  9. 9. Nigeria’s divided model of independence <ul><li>Independence pushed for by intellectuals from the Christian South while Islamic north indifferent partly due to indirect rule </li></ul><ul><li>After independence northerners dominate govt despite their inactivity in independence </li></ul><ul><li>Southerners benefited during colonialism from education and take most govt jobs and country divided after independence </li></ul>06/04/09
  10. 10. Independence through cooperation and mutual expediency <ul><li>After WWII European powers drained financially and could not afford colonization </li></ul><ul><li>France and Belgium unload its colonies maintaining economic not political control </li></ul><ul><li>Cote d’Ivoire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Elite IC push for early independence to not be grouped with the poorer Shaelian regions of French West Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France agrees to early independence but maintains economic interests </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  11. 11. Independence through armed rebellion in settler colonies and settler states <ul><li>Kenya </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gikuyu after losing best land form political then militant forms of resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Land and Freedom Army (Mau Mau) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insurrection fails, but British deem it too costly to maintain colony for settlers and Kenya granted independence afterwards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gikuyu loyalists not freedom fighters given land and govt power </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role of Kenyatta’s reconciliation? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some settlers given key positions in govt and today in business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roots of current political crisis in Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Displaced never get land and buy land where they squated on white owned farms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rift Valley land clashes, later politics of tribal division and alliances, neo colonialism with who gained power </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  12. 12. Independence through armed rebellion in settler colonies and settler states <ul><li>Rhodesia->Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mugabe’s ZANU PF defeat Smith’s white minority govt in 1980 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like Kenya land issues not addressed and at the root of current violence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Like Kenya settler violence extreme, but lasted longer and backed by settlers and not the British Empire. </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  13. 13. Independence through International pressure and insurgency <ul><li>After WW1 Namibia given “trust” territory status to S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>1949 S.A. annexed Namibia and implemented apartheid policies there </li></ul><ul><li>1966 SWAPO begins insurgency against S.A. occupation and UN declares occupation illegal </li></ul><ul><li>In 1989 combination of international pressure and insurgency S.A. agreed to hold election in Namibia and allow for independence </li></ul>06/04/09
  14. 14. Independence of Portuguese colonies <ul><li>Portugal: the first to gain and last to give up colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal a poor European country propped up its colonial holdings through S.A. support </li></ul><ul><li>Armed struggle in most cases and international embarrassment </li></ul><ul><li>As in apa </li></ul><ul><li>rtheid struggle, African Diaspora and OAU supported struggle </li></ul><ul><li>In Cape Verde struggle supported and financed exclusively from new Diaspora in U.S. </li></ul>06/04/09
  15. 15. Indigenous Africa vs. Apartheid <ul><li>While much of Africa achieved independence in 1960s southern Africa under white rule including South Africa’s Apartheid and Smith’s Rhodesia </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment of OAU, African Diaspora and govts like Tanzania to ANC’s fight against apartheid </li></ul><ul><li>1980 White ruled Rhodesia becomes Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><li>1989 Namibia declared independent and Mandela released </li></ul><ul><li>1994 multiracial elections and successful reconciliation in S.A. </li></ul><ul><li>Truth and Reconciliation commission </li></ul><ul><li>End of Apartheid's legacy trickles democracy into neighboring states except Zimbabwe and crime </li></ul>06/04/09
  16. 16. Sacred colonial borders even in independence <ul><li>Borders largely intact from Colonialism yet unnatural in terms of ethnicity, politics, and physical Geography </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders want to maintain power and fear letting part of a country go they lose their grip on power </li></ul><ul><li>Agreement from leaders not to touch African borders, because if one goes they all go </li></ul>06/04/09
  17. 17. Succession <ul><li>Succession has occurred along colonial boundaries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eritrea broke from Ethiopia under Italy’s colonial boundary in 1991, 1993 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unofficial Succession of Somaliland and Puntland from Somalia along Italian/British border </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Succession failed without colonial borders </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biafra from Nigeria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Katanga from Zaire (DRC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forced succession of S.A.’s Bantustans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Will Southern Sudan achieve succession </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPA promotes referendum vote on independence 2011 </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  18. 18. Unification <ul><li>Most Attempts at unification have failed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cape Verde and Guinea-Bissau </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OAU Casablanca group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continental unity a contested concept of OAU and “born again OAU”: AU </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tanganyika and Zanzibar did unite to form Tanzania </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zanzibar given autonomy, vice President, and its language became the official state language of country </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some problems remain in union with Zanzibar </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  19. 19. Unity and Division within the state <ul><li>Promote African unity within the state </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tanzania </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ujamaa </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unifying language </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Taking away Chieftain powers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ghana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>States and Majimboism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nigeria: State Creation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya: attempted Majimboism </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  20. 20. Post/neo-Colonial governance <ul><li>Newly independent states inherited laws, and institutions of colonial power with all of its imperfections </li></ul><ul><li>Western and Soviet backed neo-colonial rulers accumulate personal wealth at the expense of people </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-colonial resistance used as the excuse to do the same </li></ul><ul><li>Post-neo/colonial human rights challenges </li></ul>06/04/09
  21. 21. Inherited laws, and institutions of colonial power with all of its imperfections <ul><li>African governments run on former colonial state with state model suited toward taking from the people instead of providing for the people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In IC and Kenya settler businesses remain and some hold key positions in govt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Zaire independence features foreigners in officer corps </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Former colonizers often run the economic affairs of new state with puppet African leaders in power </li></ul>06/04/09
  22. 22. Neo-colonialism and Soviet imperialism <ul><li>Zaire (DRC)’s Mobutu and Kenya’s Moi propped up by former colonizer and USA during Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Ethiopia’s Dreg govt Mengestu supported by Soviet imperialism </li></ul><ul><li>Cold War fought in Africa over Mozambique, Angola, and Namibia </li></ul><ul><li>Present day neo-colonialism over economic control as well as war on terror </li></ul><ul><ul><li>British criticism over Kenya’s Anglo-Leasing Scandal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued French intervention in its former colonies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA’s previous support for Ethiopia’s Meles </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  23. 23. What about the colonizers and China? <ul><li>Good or Bad </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HR consequences where government is not responsive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Or autonomy and a chance for a fair shake? </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Anti-imperialist resistance causing HR Woes <ul><li>Sudan’s cry against imperialism as justification for restrictions on peace keepers in Darfur </li></ul><ul><li>Mugabe’s Zimbabwe as the anti-colonial state as it takes from the people </li></ul><ul><li>Africa’s Asian population as scapegoats </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Expulsion of Asians from Uganda under Amin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Riots against Indians, Lebanese, and Arabs throughout the continent </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  25. 25. Human Rights of “independent” Africa <ul><li>State designed to be served (extract wealth) rather than to serve </li></ul><ul><li>Police often designed to maintain established order rather than fight crime </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of military governments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes provide stability but others chaos </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Violations of first generation rights violated in various states through disappearances, arbitrary arrest ext and consolidation of civil institutions in authoritarian govts </li></ul><ul><li>Labor, Health, Indigenous peoples’ rights also at stake in post colonial Africa from state and economic forces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS as a HR issue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>More Democratization emerging after 1990s although economic democratization in reverse </li></ul>06/04/09
  26. 26. Is Human Rights itself the appropriate term? <ul><li>Justice or Human rights? </li></ul><ul><li>Duties </li></ul><ul><li>African Court of Human Rights </li></ul><ul><li>Human Rights coming from former colonizers perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Why has the ICC only gone after Africans? </li></ul>06/04/09
  27. 27. Development and post-colonialism <ul><li>Independence occurs in post Marshal Plan and Rostow optimism and the height of the Cold War </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalist Development Paths </li></ul><ul><li>Popular Socialist paths </li></ul><ul><li>Afro-Marxist paths </li></ul><ul><li>But SAPs of 1990s reordered development plans, lack of control over commodity prices, and inconsistent infrastructure limit post-colonial development </li></ul>06/04/09
  28. 28. Post-Colonial optimism <ul><li>Optimism from both East, West, and South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East (Warsaw pact) saw independent Africa as part of the master plan for Communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>West particularly USA excited because of new markets to be opened and spread its way of life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educational airlifts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-Peace Corps and macro-support from model based economic consultation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South (continent) to taste the fruits of Africa’s wealth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paid students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Educated elite guaranteed a job weather you work or not In some cases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Life is great for a while </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  29. 29. Capitalist Development Paths <ul><li>Economic mode prior to independence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most sectors controlled by Europeans although Indians, Arabs and some Africans allowed to participate in small capitalist ventures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commonly referred to as “liberal/free market” </li></ul><ul><li>After Independence pattern continued with foreign and domestic investment as development strategy in some countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cote’d’Ivoire </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In some cases capitalist ventures become part of state and other cases regulation inhibits business </li></ul>06/04/09
  30. 30. Popular Socialist paths <ul><li>Several countries believed that capitalism was incompatible with Africa’s communal lifestyle </li></ul><ul><li>Popular (African) socialism as alternative by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghana’s Pan Africanist socialism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tanzania’s Ujamaa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on rural development and eliminating disparities between classes </li></ul><ul><li>Ended due to coups, SAPS, and inability to finance itself </li></ul>06/04/09
  31. 31. Afro-Marxist paths <ul><li>With Support of Warsaw Pact massive state driven Marxist projects from a command and control economy </li></ul><ul><li>State Farms and Factories modeled on Soviet system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethiopia’s Mengistu Dreg govt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angola </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Propped up by Soviets and Warsaw pact </li></ul><ul><li>When Soviet Union collapsed, economic liberalization made a condition of aid and loans </li></ul>06/04/09
  32. 32. Limits to Africa’s post colonial development <ul><li>Vampire states failed economies in some cases </li></ul><ul><li>Investment misguided </li></ul><ul><li>SAPS had many negative effects </li></ul><ul><li>infrastructure not present or declined </li></ul><ul><li>Mismanagement of Swiss bank accounts enriches Europe not Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent support from West and East </li></ul><ul><li>No control of commodity prices </li></ul><ul><li>Unpredicted civil wars </li></ul>06/04/09
  33. 33. Assessment of post/neo-development era <ul><li>Advances </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing democratization and first gen. HR in Africa since 1990s </li></ul><ul><li>End of Apartheid and formal Colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Success of individual Africans primarily in new Diaspora </li></ul><ul><li>Success of African enterprises </li></ul><ul><li>Health advances (Polio) </li></ul><ul><li>Models conflict transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Rediscovery of IK </li></ul><ul><li>Strength of People’s creative survival strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Declines </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in civil wars (sl, Liberia, Somalia, Rwanda) </li></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Education and human capital </li></ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul><ul><li>Collapse of alternative development strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Increase indebtedness means a loss of economic independence </li></ul>06/04/09