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4 Class #5 Africas Physical Geography And Development Impact


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4 Class #5 Africas Physical Geography And Development Impact

  1. 1. Africa's Physical Geography and Development impact 06/04/09
  2. 2. Physical Geography and Development <ul><li>Old theory of environmental determinism disputed but….environment matters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most people live in drier areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few natural harbors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Few navigable rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture is important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental challenges and change </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  3. 3. Africa’s Climate and Biogeography <ul><li>Dynamics of Climate </li></ul><ul><li>Climatic Regions </li></ul><ul><li>The relationship between climate and Africa’s People </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem and African Biomes </li></ul><ul><li>Ecological concerns </li></ul>06/04/09
  4. 4. Climate <ul><li>Altitude and Relief </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetation changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher elevation and settlement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spotty rains in some places </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Irrigation concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cloud cover and dust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust storms from the Sahara </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Varies by region </li></ul>06/04/09
  5. 5. Climate Regions (p 77) <ul><li>Equatorial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy rainfall, little dry season </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monrovia, Calabar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humid Tropical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slightly less rainfall, but hotter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kampala </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  6. 6. Climate Regions (p 77) <ul><li>Tropical wet and dry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lengthy rainy and dry seasons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Hemisphere rainy season May and September </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern Hemisphere rainy season: November and March </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tropical steppe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semi-arid zone </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  7. 7. Climate Regions (p 77) <ul><li>Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Mediterranean </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Winter rain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southern and northern tips </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  8. 8. The relationship between climate and Africa’s People <ul><li>Historical climate change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sahara not always a desert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expanding Sahel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New Climate change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa at more risk because of poverty, increased risk of vector born diseases like Malaria, and little resources for effective response </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Largely dry areas to become even hotter and drier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coastal areas to flood. </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  9. 9. The relationship between climate and Africa’s People <ul><li>Climate and Human Development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased vulnerability to subsistence farmers due to drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing climatic conditions mean high food prices for urban Africa and persistent poverty and underdevelopment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Are these predictions coming true? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other competing explanations </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  10. 10. Climate Change and armed conflict in Africa <ul><li>As the climate warns and dessert expands conflicts arise between groups in within Africa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudan’s conflicts, environmental degradation in the context of climate change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Links to resource extraction: oil might float on water, but each is extracted “out of Africa” straining Africa’s environment and people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bore holes depleting ground water and issues of oil extraction and deforestation </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  11. 11. Ecosystem and African Biomes <ul><li>Eco-System-“System” relationship of energy between biotic and abiotic, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mostly tropical in Africa </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  12. 12. Ecosystem and African Biomes <ul><li>Bionome- region where climate, vegetation, fauna, and soils characterized by uniformity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Characteristics generally correspond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not exact boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can change because of natural or human actions </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  13. 13. Africa’s Bionomes <ul><li>See Table, Map 6.1 86-87 </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical Rain forest </li></ul><ul><li>Moist woodland savanna </li></ul><ul><li>Dry parkland savanna </li></ul><ul><li>Semidesert </li></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Temperate grassland </li></ul><ul><li>Montane </li></ul>06/04/09
  14. 14. Africa’s tropical Rain forests <ul><li>West Africa; Cameroon through Sierra Leone, Congo basin and Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>Oxisols-> few nutrients in soil and little organic matter caused by heavy “soil leaching” through heavy rainfall </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting Cultivation main human use because of oxisoil and local people manage through IK </li></ul><ul><li>Despite poor soil, greatest diversity of animal life due to high biomass </li></ul>06/04/09
  15. 15. Moist woodland savanna <ul><li>Guinea savanna-central Africa north of Equator; Miombo south central Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Humid tropical climate; Miombo have wet and dry seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse soil type </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxisols and Ultisols leached in wetter regions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfisols with high aluminum and iron somewhat leached with greater organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agriculture limited to derived savannas of forest margins with set fires </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  16. 16. Dry parkland savanna (Sudan Savanna) <ul><li>“ Safari” animal landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Thin central African strip and east Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serengeti Plain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baobab tree </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ustalfs type of Alfisol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less leached </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often has higher organic content </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5-8 month dry season </li></ul>06/04/09
  17. 17. Semidesert (Sahel) <ul><li>Zone between Savanna and desert </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy erosion from wind and water </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification </li></ul>06/04/09
  18. 18. Desert <ul><li>Sahara in north, Kalahari and Namib in the south </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Namib plants depend on frequent fogs (remember air masses) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aridisols with low organic content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stalinization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>calcification </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  19. 19. Temperate grassland (Veldt) <ul><li>High Plateau of eastern South Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Iowa; dominated by grasses with tries only at rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Deep and fertile soils (Alfisols) </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of some of the planet’s most prosperous agriculture </li></ul>06/04/09
  20. 20. Mediterranean <ul><li>South African Cape and Mediterranean coast </li></ul><ul><li>Hot dry summers with cool moist winters </li></ul><ul><li>Xerophytic (drought resistant) vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Brownish colored soil with high natural fertility ((Alfisols(Xeeralfs)) </li></ul>06/04/09
  21. 21. Montane <ul><li>East African mountains and other isolated mountain areas </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation zoned vertically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Savanna -> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montane forest -> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bamboo forest -> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alpine tundra with ice at top </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soil quality varies on zone </li></ul>06/04/09
  22. 22. Ecological concerns and Sustainable Alternatives <ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul><ul><li>Desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Human implications of and for environmental change </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainable Alternatives </li></ul>06/04/09
  23. 23. De-forestation <ul><li>Connected to climate change when oxygen not produced and carbon not stored </li></ul><ul><li>Soil Erosion </li></ul><ul><li>Tropical forests of West Africa and Madagascar under threat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Development (roads, agriculture forestry endangers west African forests) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 million h/a lost or .8% of total lost each year </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  24. 24. De/Re-forestation: continued <ul><li>Good news on IK and forest builders in Guinea </li></ul><ul><li>Greenbelt Movement in Kenya: Wangari Maathai </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Started in Kenya for women’s empowerment and reforestation for better local environment (erosion prevention) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Development, HR, Feminism, Environment GIScience connection to reforestation, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Won 2004 Nobel Peace Prize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate, environment, development and conflict connection </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  25. 25. Desertification <ul><li>1970s Sahel drought and Desertification? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is it the process of land degradation or end result? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate or Social practice change? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Development and Desertification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya’s Rendille pastoral people pushed to cattle over goat, camel, and sheep by gov’t policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a result overgrazing near water for cattle and continued poverty for Rendille </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gov’t ignorance of IK and geography </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  26. 26. Human implications of and for environmental change in Development <ul><li>Dams, Development and Human Displacement in Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Akosombo-Ghana-84,000 people displaced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kossou- Ivory Coast 85,000 people displaced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kainji-Nigeria-50,000 displaced </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  27. 27. Africa’s human loss due to environmental dumping <ul><li>Cote I’vore’s toxic dumps, </li></ul><ul><li>Dandora Dumping Site, Nairobi </li></ul>06/04/09
  28. 28. Sustainable Alternatives <ul><li>Agro-forestry- tree farming </li></ul><ul><li>Alley cropping-planting crops between rows of leguminous shrubs </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing shelterbelts and help communities to undertake tree planting projects help address related problems of fuel wood and desertification </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Greenbelt movement </li></ul>06/04/09
  29. 29. Africa’s natural resources <ul><li>Extractive mineral resources </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa’s minerals and world economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraction: underdevelopment and conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Flora and Fauna as natural resources </li></ul>06/04/09
  30. 30. Africa’s mineral’s and the world economy <ul><li>Mining and mineral trading in pre-colonial Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iron, gold, copper, and tin mined for domestic utilitarian and ceremonial objects (see UI museum's Africa Art Collection) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Iron making in East Africa, Nubia, Nok (Nigeria) by 700 BC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tran-Saharan Trade of salt </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  31. 31. Africa’s mineral’s and the world economy: continued <ul><li>Colonial extraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South African Witwatersrand gold and Kimberley Diamonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Belgium Congo; Katanga copper, Congolese diamonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angola, Sierra Leone, South West Africa (Namibia): Diamonds </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  32. 32. Africa’s mineral’s and the world economy: continued <ul><li>Post colonial Extraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some new mining I.e. Diamonds in Botswana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Black Gold (Oil): Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea, and southern Sudan, maybe Ghana? </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  33. 33. Africa’s mineral’s and the world economy: continued <ul><li>What and Where (Map p330) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Metals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gold-South Africa’s Transvaal, Ghana, Zimbabwe, and DRC, Mali </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Copper: Zambia, DRC, Botswana, Zimbabwe </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managnese: Gabon and Ghana </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Iron Ore: South Africa, Mauritania, Algeria, Zimbabwe, Morocco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial minerals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diamonds: S.A., Botswana, Namibia, Angola, DRC, Tanzania, CAR, Ghana, and Sierra Leone </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
  34. 34. Black Gold and other mineral fuels <ul><li>Black Gold-Nigeria, Angola, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Sudan now Chad too. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ghana? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Natural Gas where there is oil, but high development costs and cheap Russian competition inhibit African natural gas industry </li></ul><ul><li>Coal- South Africa </li></ul>06/04/09
  35. 35. Africa’s Minerals and the World Economy: Continued <ul><li>$50 billion in minerals extracted each year with most of it exported </li></ul><ul><li>Extraction wealth in Nigeria, South Africa, Botswana, Gabon, and Equatorial Guinea </li></ul><ul><li>Africa losing market share because of accessibility of former USSR in ’90s and recent instability in countries of extraction, but still has large amounts of mineral wealth </li></ul>06/04/09
  36. 36. Mining and Underdevelopment <ul><li>Dependency on exporting primary commodities except industrialized South Africa where processing is done </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But South Africa’s industrialization propped up by Apartheid's low wages </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Profits from extraction invested “out of Africa” with no value added in Africa </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only low skill/low pay employment gained </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health (HIV, enviro-health), environmental, and community costs greater than gain for community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mineral Looting and “Conflict Diamonds” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angola, Sierra Leone, Liberia, DRC </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  37. 37. Mining and Underdevelopment: continued <ul><li>Mineral Looting and “Conflict Diamonds” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Angola, Sierra Leone, Liberia, DRC </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social and Health effects of migrant labor in extraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken families </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>HIV/AIDS </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  38. 38. Africa’s Water Resources <ul><li>Quenching Africa’s human thirst </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely used for transport (few navigable rivers) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy resources from hydro-electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Akosombo in Ghana </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kariba on Zambia/Zimbabwe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inga in DRC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabora Bassa- Mozambique </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Irrigation </li></ul>06/04/09
  39. 39. Africa’s water resources: continued <ul><li>Fisheries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lake Victoria ecosystem destabilization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Domestic and Industrial Use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ water, water, everywhere, but not in the pipes” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water resource and Gender disparities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor pay more than rich who get piped water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water given toward industrial uses rather than for personal consumption </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  40. 40. Africa’s Water Challenges <ul><li>Water Scarcity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cross border water disputes in arid areas, potential downstream conflicts over Nile, and Senegal rivers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trade offs between industrial and consumer use </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Water pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural and mining runoff including phosphate nitrogen discharge creating plant growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Niger Delta’s oil pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw sewage in drinking water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Eco-system degradation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dam flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species loss; ie Lake Nukuru </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
  41. 41. Flora and Fauna as economic resources <ul><li>Timber Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetation in domestic local economies and IK </li></ul><ul><li>Fuelwood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>¾ of Africa’s engery needs in both fire wood and charcoal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributes to deforestation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solution in Greenbelt </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fuana as Game meat </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna as extractive products (Ivory Trade) </li></ul><ul><li>Fauna and Tourism and connection to both conservation and colonial displacement practices </li></ul>06/04/09
  42. 42. Indigenous people vs. Game reserve policies <ul><li>Wild life parks at expense of local people </li></ul><ul><li>Continuation of displacement from land from colonialism </li></ul><ul><li>Denies IK and early practices of living with environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Wildlife co-management, but who has power? </li></ul><ul><li>Do conservation practices further alienate Africans from their land and reinforce colonial power dynamics for western tourists? </li></ul><ul><li>See map 362 </li></ul>06/04/09