2 What Is Development African Representations Africa Map June 27, 2008


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  • 2 What Is Development African Representations Africa Map June 27, 2008

    1. 1. What is Development? And Background on the geographical imaginaries of Africa 06/04/09
    2. 2. Today’s schedule <ul><li>Map Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>Africa News Presentation, Caitlin Alexander </li></ul><ul><li>What is Development? </li></ul><ul><li>Africa’s Map </li></ul><ul><li>Worldviews of Africa </li></ul>06/04/09
    3. 3. What is Development? <ul><li>Marxist roots </li></ul><ul><li>Rostow’s “Stages of Economic Growth”: Modernization </li></ul><ul><li>Rodney: “Underdevelopment” and development and dependency </li></ul><ul><li>Post Modern Development </li></ul><ul><li>Social Development </li></ul><ul><li>New categories of Development: MDG and human rights </li></ul>06/04/09
    4. 4. W.W. Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth <ul><li>Capitalist modernist answer to Marxist stages of development </li></ul><ul><li>Marxist Development(the tribal form->-primitive communism->-feudal or estate property->capitalism->socialism->Communism): http://www.cla.purdue.edu/academic/engl/theory/marxism/modules/marxstages.html </li></ul>06/04/09
    5. 5. W.W. Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth <ul><li>Rostow’s stages </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Society </li></ul><ul><li>Preconditions for Take-Off </li></ul><ul><li>Take off </li></ul><ul><li>Drive to Maturity </li></ul><ul><li>The Age of High Mass Consumption (1950s Suburbia) </li></ul>06/04/09
    6. 6. W.W. Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth <ul><li>Traditional Society </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembles early stages of Marx </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rooted in the past </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Food production most dominant economic and labor activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little societal change or social mobility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power resides with small “feudal landowners” </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    7. 7. W.W. Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth <ul><li>Preconditions for Take-Off </li></ul>06/04/09 <ul><ul><li>Build up of social overhead capital most important being transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural techno revolution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of imports financed by more efficient production and marketing expansion in imports where possible capital imports (foreign exchange) </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. W.W. Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth <ul><li>Take off </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid growth in specific sector where modern industrial techniques applied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Great Britain (19th century) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>textiles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USA, Canada, Russia </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Railroads </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>How does this apply to development in Africa? </li></ul>06/04/09
    9. 9. W.W. Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth <ul><li>Drive to Maturity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full range of modern technology applied to bulk of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different countries at different times </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    10. 10. W.W. Rostow: Stages of Economic Growth <ul><li>The Age of High Mass Consumption (1950s Suburbia) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More leisure among most people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Characterized by high per capita income </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ modernist utopia” </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    11. 11. Rostow’s Optimism Spurs African Development <ul><li>Global South including newly independent Africa advised to follow this model </li></ul><ul><li>Africa advised to move toward “take off” </li></ul><ul><li>Coupled with Marshal Plan Success in Europe, newly independent African states “invaded” by the “Peace Corp” and others in ’60s </li></ul><ul><li>But why didn’t Africa develop on this model? </li></ul>06/04/09
    12. 12. How Europe Underdeveloped Africa: Walter Rodney <ul><li>“ What is underdevelopment?” as opposed to development </li></ul><ul><li>Africa was on the path to development (Feudal Societies, developing surplus, concentrating wealth, and class development) </li></ul><ul><li>European directed slave trade under-develops Africa </li></ul><ul><li>European colonialism further underdeveloped Africa </li></ul><ul><li>But Rodney still follows “Development Model”. </li></ul>06/04/09
    13. 13. Rodney: Slave Trade under-develops Africa <ul><li>Labor needed for further development stolen from continent </li></ul><ul><li>Local industries destroyed by cheap imports from slave trade </li></ul><ul><li>Trade develops markets “Out of Africa” instead developing markets across Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Development destroyed through “slave raiding” conflicts spurring destruction rather than development </li></ul><ul><li>All profit (Capital) from slave trade reinvested in European metropoles for the Development of Europe and labor develops “Out of Africa” not in Africa </li></ul>06/04/09
    14. 14. Rodney: Colonialism as a system for underdeveloping Africa <ul><li>Africans restricted from certain industries by colonialism and forced to work as labor in primary extraction industries </li></ul><ul><li>Profits from colonialism reinvested in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial educational process fosters underdevelopment of Africa’s intellectual resources and indoctrinated Africans to work for European development at the expense of local development </li></ul><ul><li>Labor taken away from African development to be wasted on European extraction of wealth from continent </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial enterprises destroy local industries </li></ul>06/04/09
    15. 15. Rodney: continued <ul><li>Advocates socialist/Marxist development as remedy as Africa already part of capitalist economy (“Dependency theory”) </li></ul><ul><li>But still works in linear mode of “development” and </li></ul><ul><li>Compares Africa’s past development achievements to European development paths </li></ul><ul><li>Remains in realm of macro-theory </li></ul><ul><li>What about culture? </li></ul>06/04/09
    16. 16. Yapa: Development socially constructing scarcity <ul><li>Different answers to what causes hunger and ill-health than what causes poverty? </li></ul><ul><li>Critique of Economism- “people are poor because they do not have enough money to command a market basket of goods, a situation that can be corrected through investment growth, job creation, and education.” limiting model that marginalizes other options </li></ul>06/04/09
    17. 17. Yapa: continuted <ul><li>Critique on concepts of scarcity- defining poverty as economic problem, as a lack of problem, fails to take into account other solutions </li></ul><ul><li>Critique of development as solution to “underdevelopment” </li></ul><ul><li>Non-poor/poor, non-problem/problem orientation of development </li></ul><ul><li>Nexus of relations and seeds example </li></ul>06/04/09
    18. 18. Redefining Development in new millennium <ul><li>Millennium Development Goals (MDG) (ICON SITE) and Human Rights approaches to development </li></ul><ul><li>What progress is Africa making in meeting the MDGs? </li></ul><ul><li>Are the MDGs the right goals? An urban bias? Other critiques? </li></ul><ul><li>What Suggestions are there to meeting the MDGs? </li></ul><ul><li>Have we seen this before? </li></ul>06/04/09
    19. 19. Human Development Index from other indicators <ul><li>No universal accepted measure of development </li></ul><ul><li>Most widely used Gross National Income (GNI) </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive Human Development Index (HDI)annually </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Life expectancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Per capita income </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But national aggregate measures perpetuate vision of development from bounded borders, neglect women’s work, and reflect Western cultural and economic bias </li></ul>06/04/09
    20. 20. Participatory Development <ul><li>Meant to reverse old development power dynamics by insisting that development be directed from local level with local communities making decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Past development often done by “outsiders” making decisions without local knowledge or concern for local community </li></ul><ul><li>In community development the question of who decides in that community remains: the rich or poor, men or women. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions of Human Rights arise </li></ul>06/04/09
    21. 21. Human Rights Approach to Development <ul><li>Promotion of economic/social and 3 rd generation development rights under taken by Care Int’l and Oxfam </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Human Rights NGOS like AI take on economic social and development rights 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>2000 UNDP included HR in human development report </li></ul><ul><li>Using ICCPR and ICESCR to inform and evaluate allocation of development resources for NGOs, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.ohchr.org/english/law/ccpr.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/a_cescr.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collaboration between rights and relief (world vision-conflict diamonds, Sierra Club-Ken Sara-Wiva) </li></ul><ul><li>Right to water in face of privatization </li></ul><ul><li>Role of Geography: Human->econ->environmental impact </li></ul>06/04/09
    22. 22. Map of Africa <ul><li>Western/American ignorance toward the continent </li></ul><ul><li>A Southern continent appears small on Mercator projection </li></ul><ul><li>“ Carved up” Fragmented political Geography ie Gambia </li></ul><ul><li>Spatially uneven Development p20, 23 </li></ul><ul><li>Landlocked states p21 </li></ul>06/04/09
    23. 23. Map of Africa <ul><li>Political Groupings (24-25) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All part of AU formerly OAU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All but Morocco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ECOWAS-econ community of west Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SADC –southern Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>East African Union </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>And now Rwanda and Burundi </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
    24. 24. Map of Africa <ul><li>Post/neo Colonial Groupings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonwealth of Nations (British) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>La Francophonie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lusophone Africa </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shared language but not a formal political grouping </li></ul></ul></ul>06/04/09
    25. 25. Regional Groupings <ul><li>West Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Sahel </li></ul><ul><li>Horn </li></ul><ul><li>East Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Africa </li></ul><ul><li>West Central Africa </li></ul>06/04/09
    26. 26. African Orientatlism: Unlearning Europe’s Geographical imagination <ul><li>Orientalism </li></ul><ul><li>European “Explorers” </li></ul><ul><li>Your exposure to Africa </li></ul><ul><li>White Man’s burden </li></ul><ul><li>Africa and Hollywood </li></ul><ul><li>Tragic Press coverage </li></ul>06/04/09
    27. 27. Orientalism <ul><li>Edward Said </li></ul><ul><li>Images of exotic, inferior, mysterious deviant and often dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of superiority instrumental to colonizing project </li></ul><ul><li>Solely from the perspective of western scholars, travelers and officials about the “orient”, colonilized south and east. </li></ul><ul><li>Occident vs. Orient </li></ul>06/04/09
    28. 28. What is your Africa view? 06/04/09
    29. 29. European “Explorers” <ul><li>“ Discoveries of Geographers such explorers such as Livingstone, Barth, and Stanely </li></ul><ul><li>Roosevelt’s Game hunting </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the wild, dangerous, primitive, exotic, diseased, native “dark continent” or focus on wildlife instead of people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.magicalkenya.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neglected to inform: rich interconnected complicated culture, the churches of Lalibela in Ethiopia or the Great Zimbabwe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.galenfrysinger.com/lalibela_ethiopia.htm </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    30. 30. White Man’s Burden <ul><li>European bringers of “Good News” and “Civilization” </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching discipline and work </li></ul><ul><li>Unclothed to clothed </li></ul><ul><li>Today popular image of passive African victims helped by active westerners in western popular imagination </li></ul><ul><li>“ Legacy of fundraising” </li></ul>06/04/09
    31. 31. Hollywood’s African Geography <ul><li>Exotic Animals with white main characters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>African Queen, Tarzan, “Out of Africa” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recently trend continues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Diamonds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Last King of Scotland </li></ul></ul>06/04/09
    32. 32. Tragic Africa: Media representation <ul><li>Your hear, see, and read about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Famine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>War </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genocide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>corruption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Presence of whites increases likelihood of story being told </li></ul>06/04/09
    33. 33. Tragic Africa: continued <ul><li>You don’t hear about success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Indigenous Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kenya and Uganda’s HIV decline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uganda’s economic recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Botswana's economic growth and recovery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Africa self-reliance, self sufficiency and role of Africa’s Diaspora in development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good things the exception not the norm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa’s successful reconciliation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Media and Africanist literature Afro-pessimism often with Africans as passive victims waiting for white saviors </li></ul>06/04/09
    34. 34. Afro-centrism <ul><li>Historic portrays of African sources in human civilization; looking at the world through a African-centered world instead of Eurocentric world </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on Nubian/Egyptian civilization, Great Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, ancient Ghana, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Panafrican view </li></ul><ul><li>Decolonizing the mind Ngugi wa Thiongo </li></ul><ul><li>What about culture in these representations? </li></ul>06/04/09
    35. 35. Discovering Indigenous Knowledge <ul><li>Previous research spoke out how to wipe out harmful traditional practices </li></ul><ul><li>There never was traditional only indigenous </li></ul><ul><li>New systems of IK working to build upon and preserve IK for development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Warren at IA state Kicards across the continent </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Shift in policy rhetoric from WB in IK publications for development </li></ul><ul><li>Who owns IK? And what about human rights? </li></ul>06/04/09