Grammar book


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Grammar book

  1. 1. Grammar BookBy: Tabitha Cruickshank
  2. 2. Table of Contents• Present tense• Stem changers• Irregular ‘yo’• Saber vs. conocer• Reflexives• ‘Se’ impersonal• Verbs like ‘gustar’• -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/-gir• Imperfect – Irregular – Trigger words• Preterite – Irregular car/gar/zar; spock; cucaracha; snake/snakey – Trigger• Comparatives/superlatives• Future – Irregular – Trigger words
  3. 3. PresentARYo oTu as ER/IREl, ella, ud. a Yo oNosotros amos Tu esVosotros aís El, ella, ud. eEllos, ellas, uds. an Nosotros emos/imos Vosotros éis/ís Ellos, ellas, uds. en
  4. 4. Stem ChangersStem changers are verbs that change in every form EXCEPT the nosotros and vosotros forms. O > UE E>I Contar Repetir Cuento Repito Cuentas Repites Cuenta Repite Contamos Repetimos Contáis Repetís Cuentan Repiten E > IE O > UE Cerrar Dormir Cierro Duermo Cierras Duermes Cierra Duerme Cerramos Dormimos Cerráis Dormís Cierran Duermen
  5. 5. Irregular “yo”Irregular “yo” verbs are verbs that change in the yo form such as go, zco, and other verbs like ser and ir. -go verbs Other verbs Poner – to put Ser – to be Pongo SoyDecir (e<i) – to say -zco verbs Estar – to be Digo Conocer - Estoy Tener – to have Conozco Ir – to go Tengo Producir Voy Traer – to bring Produzco Ver – to see Traigo Conducir Hacer – to do Conduzco Saber – to know Hago Se Oir – to hear Dar - Oigo Doy
  6. 6. Saber vs. ConocerTo know “Saber” is used to express knowledge about a fact or different information. Juan sabe donde está María. Juan knows where Maria is. “Conocer” is used to say if a person is acquainted with another. Yo no conozco a María. I dont know (am not acquainted with) Maria.
  7. 7. ReflexivesIn Spanish, when you talk about an action being performed on yourself, you show the reflexive nature of the action with a reflexive verb.Reflexive verbs indicate that the subject of the sentence has performedan action on itself. In other words, in a reflexive sentence the subject is the same as the object. If a verb is reflexive, it ends in „se‟. Lavarse – to wash oneself Rascarse – to scratch oneself Llamarse – to call oneselfWhen conjugating, move the „se‟ to the front of the verb and change itto the corresponding pronoun: me, te, se, nos, or se. Then conjugate the verb. Me lavo Se lava Os laváis Te lavas Nos lavamos Se lavan
  8. 8. Se impersonal We use the se impersonal verbs when making a general assumptionabout people in general. Se is placed in front of the verb in impersonal and use the singular verb.How does one say ¿Cómo se dice "icecream" in "helado" en italiano? Italian? Plural impersonal does not use se in front of the verb. They say that Dicen que la pizzavegetarian pizza is vegetariana es healthy. saludosa.
  9. 9. Verbs like gustarThese verbs are taken and congugated into either the „el/ella/usted‟form or the „ellos/ellas/ustedes‟ form along with the correct pronoun. Me gustan los libros. Pronouns --The books are Me pleasing to me Te Or Se --I like the books Nos Se Parecer – to appear to be Doler – to be painful Aburrir – to bore Picar – to itch Fascinar – to be fascinating too Encantar – to love something Bastar – to be sufficient Quedar – to be left over Importar – to be important to Faltar – to be lacking something Molestar – to be a bother to Discutar – to hate something
  10. 10. -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir, -ger/gir-uir/-guir AtribuirConcluirConstruirContribuir -ger/-gir Destruir *Change the G>J in the yo form. In theDistribuir other forms, use G. Excluir Coger – to catch Exigir – to demand Incluir Cojo Exijo Instruir Coges Exiges -cer/-cir Coge Exige Atribuir Cogemos ExigemosConcluir Cogéis ExigisConstruir Cogen ExigenContribuir DestruirDistribuir Excluir Incluir Instruir
  11. 11. ImperfectImperfect tense is used to represent things that happened in the past that occurred repeatedly or occurred over a period of time. It‟s like a movie in the past. AR HABLAR ER/IR VIVIR aba hablaba ía vivía abas hablabas ías vivías aba hablaba ía vivíaábamos hablábamos íamos vivíamos abais hablabais IR íais vivíais aban hablaban iba ían vivían ibas VER iba SERveía veíamos íbamos era éramosveías veíais ibais eras eraisveía veían iban era eran a menudo, a veces, cada día, cada año, con frecuencia, de vezcuando, en aquella época, frecuentemente, generalmente, muchasveces, mucho, nunca, por un rato, siempre, tantas veces, todas las semanas, todos los dias, todo el tiempo, and varias veces
  12. 12. Preterite The preterite tense Trigger Word Translation allows you to refer to Ayer Yesterday specific past actions Anteayer The day before yesterday performed (1) at a Anoche Last nightfixed point in time, (2) a specific number of La Semana Pasada Last week times, (3) during an El Mes Pasado Last month enclosed amount of El Año Pasado Last year time. El Fin De Semana Pasado Last weekend Form Ending for –ar Form Ending for –erElla trabajó por dos verbs and –ir verbs horas. Yo -é Yo -íShe worked for two Tú -aste Tú -iste hours. Ella/Él/Ud. -ó Ella/El/Ud. -ió Nosotros -amos Nosotros -imosEllos vendieron el Vosotros -asteis Vosotros -isteis coche. Ellos/Ellas/ -aron Ellos/Ellas/ -ieronThey sold the car. Uds. Uds.
  13. 13. -car, -gar, -zar There are three spelling changes in Spanish whichaffect verbs in the preterite as Verb Translation Preterite Yo Formwell as in other tenses. In the Pagar To pay (for) Yo pagué preterite , these changes To water (a plant) Regar Yo regué occur only in the first person singular yo form. Jugar To play (a game) Yo jugué Verbs ending in –car: the c Buscar To look for; Yo busqué changes to qu before the search letter e Ex: Yo practiqué. (I Aparcar To park Yo aparqué practiced.) Tocar To touch; play Yo toquéVerbs ending in –gar: Insert a (an instrument) u before the e Ex: Yo llegué. (I arrived.) Organizar To organize Yo organicé Verbs ending in –zar: the z Simbolizar To symbolize Yo simbolicéchanges to c before the letter Autorizar To authorize Yo autoricé e Ex: Yo empecé. (I began.)
  14. 14. Spock Ir: To go Ex: Ser Ser: To be Fui al cine.Dar: To give I went to the movies.Ver: To see Ella dio un regalo a Hacer: To su abuela. do; make She gave a gift to her grandmother. Ir Ser Dar Ver Hacer Yo Fui Fui Di Vi Hice Tú Fuiste Fuiste Diste Viste Hiciste Ella/Él/Ud. Fue Fue Dio Vio Hizo Nosotros Fuimos Fuimos Dimos Vimos Hicimos Ellos/Ellas/ Fueron Fueron Dieron Vieron Hicieron Uds.
  15. 15. CucarachaVerbs Stem Change Form EndingAndar Anduv- Yo -eEstar Estuv- Tú -istePoder Pud- Ella/Él/Ud. -oPoner Pus- Nosotros -imosQuerer Quis- Vosotros -isteisSaber Sup- Ellos/Ellas/Uds. -ieronTener Tuv-Venir Vin-Form Ending Verbs Stem ChangeYo -e Decir Dij-Tú -iste Traer Traj-Ella/Él/Ud. -oNosotros -imos Conducir Conduj-Vosotros -isteis Producir Produj-Ellos/Ellas/ -eronUds. Traducir Traduj-
  16. 16. Snake/snakey Snakey verbs are verbs that are irregular in the preterite tense that change –yendo and –yeron.Form Ending Form Ending Form EndingYo Oí Yo Leí Yo CayíTú Oíste Tú Leíste Tú CaísteElla/Él/Ud. Oyó Ella/Él/Ud. Leyó Ella/Él/Ud. CayóNosotros Oímos Nosotros Leímos Nosotros CaímosEllos/Ellas/Uds. Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Leyeron Ellos/Ellas/Uds. Cayeron Oyeron
  17. 17. Comparatives/superlatives Comparatives are Superlatives are usedused to compare two when you want to things. You can use compare two or more the word “than” or things. There is onlysometimes the word one superlative, so the “but”. word used is “the”. You are taller than You are taller than everyone in your she. class.Tu eres más alto que Tu eres el más alto en ella. tus clase.
  18. 18. Future tense Form Ending The future tense is Yo -é used to tell what "will"happen, or what "shall" Tú -ás happen. Ella/Él/Ud. -á However, the future Nosotros -emos tense is NOT used to Ellos/Ellas/Uds -án express a willingness . to do something.Verb Stem Verb Stem Change Change Ex: Using the verb hablar, to speak.Decir Dir- Venir Vendr- Yo  HabléHacer Har- Poder Podr- Tu  HablásPoner Pondr- Querer Querr- Ella  Hablá Nosotros  HablemosSalir Saldr- Saber Sabr- Ellos  HablánTener Tendr- Valer Valdr-