Environmental Regulation in
Energy Sector
Part-2
Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,
Professor of Law
 Sources of Energy
 Energy Market and Technologies in India
 Electricity from Natural Gas and its Impact on Environment...
 Indian Energy Sector Vision of Some Eminent Experts
 Energy Potential – Shape of Things to Come
 Power Generation Cost...
o The energy sector is the totality of all of the industries
involved in the production and sale of energy,
including fuel...
Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in
| 5
There are five major primary energy sources
in the world
36%
27%
23%
7%
...
Industry comprises:
 Petroleum industry-
 including oil companies, petroleum refiners, fuel transport and end-
user sale...
 Electrical power industry-
 including electricity generation, electric power distribution and sales
 Coal industry
 N...
 Electricity generation is a significant source of air emissions in the
world today.
 Fossil fuel-fired power plants are...
 Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of buried plants and animals
are exposed to intense heat and pressure ov...
 Power plants use several methods to convert gas to
electricity.
 One method is to burn the gas in a boiler to produce s...
 Environmental Impacts
 Although power plants are regulated by federal and state laws to protect
human health and the en...
 The average emissions rates from natural gas-fired generation
are:
 1135 lbs/MWh (pounds per megawatt-hour) of carbon d...
 Water Resource Use
 The burning of natural gas in combustion turbines requires very little water. However,
natural gas-...
 Coal is a fossil fuel formed from the decomposition of organic materials that have been
subjected to geologic heat and p...
 Air Emissions
 When coal is burned, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides,
and mercury compounds are released...
 Water Resource Use
 Large quantities of water are frequently needed to remove impurities from coal
at the mine.
 In ad...
 Solid Waste Generation
 The burning of coal creates solid waste, called ash, which is composed
primarily of metal oxide...
 Nuclear energy originates from the splitting of uranium atoms in a process called fission.
 Fission releases energy tha...
 Environmental Impacts
 Although power plants are regulated by central and
state laws to protect human health and the
en...
 Air Emissions
 Nuclear power plants do not emit carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen oxides as
part of the power...
 Spent Fuel
 Every 18 to 24 months, nuclear power plants must shut down to
remove and replace the "spent" uranium fuel.
...
 Radioactive Waste Generation
 Enrichment of uranium ore into fuel and the operation of nuclear
power plants generate wa...
 Municipal solid waste (MSW) refers to the stream of garbage collected through
community sanitation services.
 Medical w...
 At the power plant, MSW is unloaded from collection trucks and shredded
or processed to ease handling.
 Recyclable mate...
 Air Emissions Impacts
 Burning MSW produces nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide as well as trace
amounts of toxic pollut...
 The variation in the composition of MSW affects the emissions impact.
 For example, if MSW containing batteries and tir...
 Water Discharges
 Similar to fossil fuel power plants, MSW power plants discharge used water.
Pollutants build up in th...
 Hazardous ash must be managed and disposed of as
hazardous waste. Depending on state and local
restrictions, non-hazardo...
 The movement of water as it flows downstream creates kinetic energy
that can be converted into electricity. A hydroelect...
 Environmental Impacts
 Although hydropower has no air quality impacts, construction and
operation of hydropower dams ca...
 Air Emissions
 Hydropower's air emissions are negligible because no fuels are burned.
However, if a large amount of veg...
 Water Discharges
 Hydroelectric power plants release water back into rivers after it
passes through turbines. This wate...
 Hydroelectric power plants affect various fish populations in
different ways. Most notably, certain salmon populations i...
 Non-hydroelectric renewable energy refers to electricity
supplied from the following renewable sources of power: solar,
...
 The sources discussed below are considered to be
renewable because they are continuously being
replenished. They are als...
 About This Technology
 Solar energy is a renewable resource because it is continuously supplied to the
earth by the sun...
 Environmental Impacts
Air Emissions
 Emissions associated with generating electricity from solar
technologies are negli...
 Water Discharges
 Solar technologies do not discharge any water while creating electricity.
 Solid Waste Generation
 ...
 About This Technology
 Geothermal energy is continuously created beneath the Earth's surface from the extreme
heat cont...
 Water Resource Use
 Geothermal power plants usually re-inject the hot water that they remove from
the ground back into ...
 About This Technology
 The term "biomass" can describe many different fuel types from such
sources as trees; constructi...
 Biomass is sometimes burned in combination with coal in boilers at power
plants.
 This process, called co-firing, is ty...
 Environmental Impacts
 Air Emissions
 Biomass power plants emit nitrogen oxides and a small amount
of sulfur dioxide.
...
 Biomass contains much less sulfur and nitrogen than coal; therefore,
when biomass is co-fired with coal, sulfur dioxide ...
 Water Discharges
 As is the case with fossil fuel power plants, biomass power plants have
pollutant build-up in the wat...
 Land Resource Use
 Generating electricity from biomass can affect land resources in
different ways. Biomass power plant...
 About This Technology
 Landfill gas is created when microorganisms cause organic waste,
such as food wastes and paper, ...
 Reserves
 While some landfills simply burn landfill gas with a flare, more than 380 projects at
365 U.S. landfills are ...
 Water Resource Use
 Engines or combustion turbines that burn landfill gas to produce energy
typically require negligibl...
 About This Technology
 Wind is created because the sun heats the Earth unevenly, due to the
seasons and cloud cover.
 ...
 Reserves
 The availability of wind power varies across the United States.
 Areas with the best wind availability inclu...
 Water Discharges
 Wind turbines do not discharge any water while creating electricity.
 Solid Waste Generation
 Wind ...
 World primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year
on average between 2006 and 2030 – an increase of
45% .
 The world’s...
 Indian Energy Sector Some facts… India - one of the fastest growing
economies in the world.
 It is poised to grow at ar...
 Indian Energy Sector Vision of Some Eminent Experts..
 “ The energy scene in the 21st century is going to see a major s...
 India's energy potential is rated the third largest in the world,
with annual installations of 875 mega watts (MW), only...
 Primary Commercial Energy Mix
 (%) World V/S India :
 Primary Commercial Energy Mix (%) World V/S India Resources
 Wo...
 India – Potential for various Renewable Energy Technologies
by 2020:
 India – Potential for various Renewable Energy Te...
 ENERGY for the future - Some Options…:
 ENERGY for the future - Some Options… Clean Coal Technologies Usage of
renewabl...
Power Generation Cost of Electricity
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Simple Cycle
Gas Turbine
Combined
Cycle Gas
Turbine
Conventional
C...
This environment drives technology
development
•High fuel prices …
require higher efficiency
•Energy security …
requires m...
Portfolio of affordable, reliable &
environmentally responsible technologies
Energy technology objectives
Driving cost of ...
Green technology winning in the market
Wind
Next-gen blades
Advanced drive trains
Innovative controls
'02 ‘06
$200 MM
$3B ...
Evolution
Advanced Cooling
System
GEVO 12 Engine
Reduced fuel consumption AND
reduced emissions
•Reduces emissions by 40% ...
Gasifier
Radiant
Syngas
Cooler
Particulate
Removal
Mercury
Removal
Sulfur Removal
Future CO2
Capture
Gas Turbine
Electrici...
Nuclear
• Simplified design, increased output, smaller footprint …
will reduce CAPEX and OPEX, and shorten construction sc...
'04 '05
• 3% of Electricity Production
• Significant Growth … ~25% CAGR (’95 – ’13)
• ~40% Global Power Capital Spending
G...
Renewables … Wind
Complete range of products
 Arklow demonstration
project … 7 x 3.6s
 Largest commercial
operation
1.5 ...
Breakthrough technology
– Nano
– Concentrators
– Other …
Tomorrow
Integrated systems Optimize
– Reduced material
– Increas...
Longer-term Best Bets
Enabling technology to deal with environmental challenges
Waste to energy
Liquid fuels
GE Company Pr...
Future of Energy Technology
• Socio-economic trends demanding technology
developments
• Government, academia, industry all...
Green is green: energy technology that is…
 Good for our customers
 Good for the environment
 Good for our shareholders...
Energy demand is growing
Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 73
 Global energy demand rising
 2003 - 123 milli...
World Energy Scene (I)
 1) The world uses a lot of energy
 Average power consumption = 13.6 TWs, or 2.2 kWs per person
...
World Energy Scene (II)
4) Use of primary energy
 - In USA: 34% residential & commercial; 37% industrial; 26%
transport ...
Future Energy Use
 The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects the world’s
energy use to increase 60% by 2030 (while po...
Carbon dioxide levels over the last 60,000 years - we are
provoking the atmosphere!
Source University of Berne and Nationa...
There is widespread evidence of climate change
e.g. Thames Barrier Now Closed Frequently to Counteract
Increasing Flood Ri...
Meeting the Energy Challenge Will Need
■ Fiscal measures to change the behaviour of consumers, and provide
incentives to e...
What is the cost target for a new energy source?
1979
1983
1987
1991
1995
1999
Sweden
USA
Finland
France
Greece
Denmark
Sp...
Objectives of European Power Plant
Conceptual Study
 1. Compared to earlier European studies:
• Ensure the designs satisf...
World Energy Spending
 World energy (electricity) market ~ $3 tr ($1 tr) pa
 Publicly funded energy R&D down 50% globall...
Coal
44.5%
Oil and gas
30%
Fusion
1.5%
Fission
6%
Renewables
18%
EU energy subsidy and R&D
~ 30 Billion Euro (per year)
So...
EPA applies Strategic Environmental Assessments(SEAs) to predict and
evaluate the environmental implications of a plan in ...
 Introduction •
 „Environmental Impact Assessment‟ (EIA) can be
defined as the systematic identification and
evaluation ...
 NEPA Process (National Environmental Policy Act)
 Introduction
 • The primary purpose of the EIA process, also called ...
 Need of EIA
 Need of EIA • Environment is composed of Biotic &
Abiotic components. There is a dynamic equilibrium
betwe...
 Need of EIA • For Example, a forest ecosystem is a
complete ecosystem which provides food, shelter to
a wide variety of ...
 Need of EIA
 Ideal EIA System An Ideal EIA system Would be
 • Apply to all project that are expected to have a
signifi...
 Ideal EIA System
 Ideal EIA System
 • Include broad public participation and stringent administrative
review procedure...
 Goals of Environment Impact Assessment The major aims of EIA are:
 • Resources Conservation
 • Waste minimization
 • ...
 Methodology of Environment Impact Assessment
 • The EIA methodology consists of four phases, namely:
 • Organizing the...
 Inter Disciplinary Team In Conducting EIA analysis
 Organizing the Job
 • Thus the team includes geologists, agronomis...
 Performance of the Assessment This Phase of EIA consists of
the following steps.
 • (a) Site Visit: The members of the ...
 Performance of the Assessment (d) Preparation of Checklist: A
checklist is prepared to ensure complete coverage of all t...
 Preparation of EIS
 Preparation of EIS
 • EIS is the conclusion of EIA. It is a written statement which serves
as a de...
 Preparation of EIS
 • Alternatives of the activity.
 • Relationship of the proposed activities to the existing land us...
 Review of EIS
 Review of EIS The affected person may include.
 • Bonafide Local Residents
 • Local Associations
 • E...
 Limitations of EIA EIA suffers from following limitations
 • EIA should be undertaken at the policy and planning
level ...
 Limitations of EIA
 • More research and development of improved
methodologies is required to overcome limitations relat...
 • Sustainable development is essential for the overall socio-
economic development. Sustainable development must meet
th...
 Role of EIA in Sustainable Development
 Role of EIA in Sustainable Development
 • Sustainable development is closely l...
 Role of EIA in Sustainable Development
 • Carrying capacity based planning ensures
sustainable development, Environment...
 Role of EIA in Sustainable Development
 Guidelines for Project Proponents
 • The MOEF has prepared environmental guide...
 Guidelines for Project Proponents
 • The critical Issues guidelines are: focused in these
 • Can the local environment...
 • Environmental Audits are intended to quantify
environmental performance and environmental position
of an industry/ org...
 Environmental Audits
 • Environmental auditing is mandatory only in cases stipulated
by law.
 • The aim of the audit i...
 Definition of Environmental Audit
 • The concept of environmental auditing in industrial units in
India was formally in...
 Environmental Audits should provide answer to the following
Questions
 • What are we doing ? In particular, are we in c...
 Assessment
 Components of Environmental Audit Verification
 • Verification determines and documents
performance by eva...
 Verification
 Environmental Audit
 Basic Steps in the Typical Audit Process
 • Pre-audit activities: These comprise s...
 Basic Steps in the Typical Audit Process
 • Comprehensive Knowledge of Environmental and
climate change issues.
 • Ade...
 Audit Process •
 The key activities include understanding management
system; assessing the strengths and weakness; gath...
 Types of Environmental Audits • • • • • • • • Compliance
Audits Environmental Management Audit Liability Definition or
d...
 The Benefits of Auditing
 • While environmental audits are designed to identify
environmental problems, there may be wi...
 The Benefits of Auditing
 • Enabling environmental problems and risks to be
anticipated and responses planned.
 • To d...
 The Benefits of Auditing
 ISO 14000 and Environmental Management System
 • The International environmental Standards a...
 ISO 14000 and Environmental Management System
 • The Current International Standards Environmental Management System
co...
 ISO 14000 and Environmental Management System
 • ISO 14000 does not only relate entirely to massive global
companies. T...
 To Whom does the Standard Apply?
 • ISO 14000 is a group of standards encompassing
the following areas:
 • Environment...
Environmental policy is any course of action deliberately taken
[or not taken] to manage human activities with a view to
p...
 The OSPAR Convention 1992 - is the convention for the Protection
of Maritime Environment of the North East Atlantic. Thi...
Various Environmental legislations covers all aspects of
offshore oil and gas regulations;
Exploration,
Production,
Decomm...
 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborate with Ministry
of Energy to regulate environmental issues relating to t...
Energy policy is the manner in which a given entity (often
governmental) has decided to address issues of energy
developme...
 To provide direction and a framework for management and
decision making
 To provide some clarity on the industry
 To p...
• This National Energy Policy outlines the energy sector goals,
challenges and actions.
• The Policy covers a gamut of iss...
V. Energy Efficiency and Conservation;
VI. Energy and Environment;
VII. Energy and Gender; and
VIII. Managing the future o...
 The Power-Subsector
 The goals of the Power sub-sector includes increasing
installed power generation capacity from abo...
 Petroleum Sub-sector
 The goals of the Petroleum sub-sector includes ensuring
sustainable exploration, development and ...
 Renewable Energy Sub-sector
 The Renewable Energy sub-sector covers biomass, mini
hydro, solar and wind resources.
 Th...
(i) inadequate infrastructure requiring huge
investments;
(ii) inadequate access to energy services;
(iii) high cost of fu...
(v) operational and management difficulties in utility companies
(vi) vulnerability to climate change and environmental im...
 1. Create a new ministry of energy by integrating the ministries of petroleum & natural gas,
power, new and renewable en...
 Strengths and Opportunities: It will allow the government to frame a
coherent energy policy that cuts across different s...
 Strengths and Opportunities: It will help contain the government’s fiscal deficit.
 It will help the rational use of en...
 Case Studies: Russia announced plans to raise
regulated natural gas tariffs on the domestic market
by 15 percent for all...
 Strengths and Opportunities: As a monopoly that makes super-profits, Coal India
has no incentive to ramp up production t...
 Strengths and Opportunities: The problem is not ownership per se.
The problem is the consequence of ownership. Governmen...
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector
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Part 2 lecture environmental regulation in energy sector

  1. 1. Environmental Regulation in Energy Sector Part-2 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, Professor of Law
  2. 2.  Sources of Energy  Energy Market and Technologies in India  Electricity from Natural Gas and its Impact on Environmental Impacts  Electricity from Coal and its Impact on Environment  Electricity from Nuclear Energy and its Impact on Environment  Electricity from Municipal Solid Waste and its Impact on Environment  Electricity from Hydropower and its Impact on Environment  Electricity from Non-Hydroelectric Renewable Energy Sources and its Impact on environment  World Energy Scenario  Indian Energy Sector Some facts Agenda Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 2
  3. 3.  Indian Energy Sector Vision of Some Eminent Experts  Energy Potential – Shape of Things to Come  Power Generation Cost of Electricity  This environment drives technology development  Energy technology objectives  Green technology winning in the market  Growing Demand for Renewables  Future of Energy Technology  Energy demand is growing  World Energy Scene  Environment Impact Assessment (EIA)  Energy, EIA and Sustainable Development  Environment audit  Environmental Policy  Framework for Environmental Legislation  Energy Policy  Energy Policy- Strategic areas  Case Study Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 3 Agenda Cont…
  4. 4. o The energy sector is the totality of all of the industries involved in the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing, refining and distribution. o Energy is fundamental to development hence its significance in international politics and trade. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 4 Sources of Energy
  5. 5. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in | 5 There are five major primary energy sources in the world 36% 27% 23% 7% 6% 1% Oil Coal Natural Gas Hydro Nuclear Others Source Consumption
  6. 6. Industry comprises:  Petroleum industry-  including oil companies, petroleum refiners, fuel transport and end- user sales at gas stations  Gas industry-  including natural gas extraction, and coal gas manufacture, as well as distribution and sales Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 6 Sources of Energy
  7. 7.  Electrical power industry-  including electricity generation, electric power distribution and sales  Coal industry  Nuclear power industry, and the  Renewable energy industry-  comprising alternative energy and sustainable energy companies, including those involved in hydroelectric power,  wind power, and solar power generation, and the manufacture, distribution and sale of alternative fuels  Biomass - traditional energy industry based on the collection and distribution of firewood, commonly used for cooking and heating in developing countries are all industry players. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 7 Energy Sector, what it is what is not? Cont.
  8. 8.  Electricity generation is a significant source of air emissions in the world today.  Fossil fuel-fired power plants are responsible for 70 percent of USA sulfur dioxide emissions, 13 percent of nitrogen oxide emissions, and 40 percent of carbon dioxide emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels.  These emissions can lead to smog, acid rain, and haze.  In addition, these power plant emissions increase the risk of climate change.  Emissions and Generated Resource Integrated Database (eGRID) provides emissions data on virtually every power plant and company that generates electricity in the United States.  The air emissions impacts of electricity generation vary from technology to technology. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 8
  9. 9.  Natural gas is a fossil fuel formed when layers of buried plants and animals are exposed to intense heat and pressure over thousands of years.  The energy that the plants and animals originally obtained from the sun is stored in the form of carbon in natural gas.  Natural gas is combusted to generate electricity, enabling this stored energy to be transformed into usable power.  Natural gas is a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame.  The natural gas power production process begins with the extraction of natural gas, continues with its treatment and transport to the power plants, and ends with its combustion in boilers and turbines to generate electricity.  Initially, wells are drilled into the ground to remove the natural gas.  After the natural gas is extracted, it is treated at gas plants to remove impurities such as hydrogen sulfide, helium, carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, and moisture.  Pipelines then transport the natural gas from the gas plants to power plants. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 9 Electricity from Natural Gas
  10. 10.  Power plants use several methods to convert gas to electricity.  One method is to burn the gas in a boiler to produce steam, which is then used by a steam turbine to generate electricity.  A more common approach is to burn the gas in a combustion turbine to generate electricity.  Another technology, that is growing in popularity is to burn the natural gas in a combustion turbine and use the hot combustion turbine exhaust to make steam to drive a steam turbine.  This technology is called "combined cycle" and achieves a higher efficiency by using the same fuel source twice. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 10
  11. 11.  Environmental Impacts  Although power plants are regulated by federal and state laws to protect human health and the environment, there is a wide variation of environmental impacts associated with power generation technologies.  The purpose of the following section is to give you a better idea of the specific air, water, and solid waste releases associated with natural gas-fired generation.  Air Emissions  At the power plant, the burning of natural gas produces nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide, but in lower quantities than burning coal or oil.  Methane, a primary component of natural gas and a greenhouse gas, can also be emitted into the air when natural gas is not burned completely.  Similarly, methane can be emitted as the result of leaks and losses during transportation.  Emissions of sulfur dioxide and mercury compounds from burning natural gas are negligible. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 11
  12. 12.  The average emissions rates from natural gas-fired generation are:  1135 lbs/MWh (pounds per megawatt-hour) of carbon dioxide,  0.1 lbs/MWh of sulfur dioxide, and  1.7 lbs/MWh of nitrogen oxides.  Compared to the average air emissions from coal-fired generation, natural gas produces half as much carbon dioxide, less than a third as much nitrogen oxides, and one percent as much sulfur oxides at the power plant.  In addition, the process of extraction, treatment, and transport of the natural gas to the power plant generates additional emissions. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 12
  13. 13.  Water Resource Use  The burning of natural gas in combustion turbines requires very little water. However, natural gas-fired boiler and combined cycle systems do require water for cooling purposes.  When power plants remove water from a lake or river, fish and other aquatic life can be killed, affecting animals and people who depend on these aquatic resources. Water Discharges  Combustion turbines do not produce any water discharges.  However, pollutants and heat build up in the water used in natural gas boilers and combined cycle systems.  When these pollutants and heat reach certain levels, the water is often discharged into lakes or rivers.  This discharge usually requires a permit and is monitored. Solid Waste Generation  The use of natural gas to create electricity does not produce substantial amounts of solid waste.  Land Resource Use  The extraction of natural gas and the construction of natural gas power plants can destroy natural habitat for animals and plants. Possible land resource impacts include erosion, loss of soil productivity, and landslides. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 13
  14. 14.  Coal is a fossil fuel formed from the decomposition of organic materials that have been subjected to geologic heat and pressure over millions of years.  Coal is considered a nonrenewable resource because it cannot be replenished on a human time frame.  The activities involved in generating electricity from coal include mining, transport to power plants, and burning of the coal in power plants.  Initially, coal is extracted from surface or underground mines. The coal is often cleaned or washed at the coal mine to remove impurities before it is transported to the power plant—usually by train, barge, or truck.  Finally, at the power plant, coal is commonly burned in a boiler to produce steam.  The steam is run through a turbine to generate electricity. Environmental Impacts  Although power plants are regulated by central and state laws to protect human health and the environment, there is a wide variation of environmental impacts associated with power generation technologies.  The purpose of the following section is to give you a better idea of the specific air, water, solid waste, and radioactive releases associated with coal-fired generation. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 14 Electricity from Coal
  15. 15.  Air Emissions  When coal is burned, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and mercury compounds are released.  For that reason, coal-fired boilers are required to have control devices to reduce the amount of emissions that are released.  The average emission rates from coal-fired generation are:  2,249 lbs/MWh of carbon dioxide,  13 lbs/MWh of sulfur dioxide, and  6 lbs/MWh of nitrogen oxides.  Mining, cleaning, and transporting coal to the power plant generate additional emissions.  For example, >methane, a potent greenhouse gas that is trapped in the coal, is often vented during these processes to increase safety. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 15
  16. 16.  Water Resource Use  Large quantities of water are frequently needed to remove impurities from coal at the mine.  In addition, coal-fired power plants use large quantities of water for producing steam and for cooling.  When coal-fired power plants remove water from a lake or river, fish and other aquatic life can be affected, as well as animals and people who depend on these aquatic resources.  Water Discharges  Pollutants build up in the water used in the power plant boiler and cooling system.  If the water used in the power plant is discharged to a lake or river, the pollutants in the water can harm fish and plants.  Further, if rain falls on coal stored in piles outside the power plant, the water that runs off these piles can flush heavy metals from the coal, such as arsenic and lead, into nearby bodies of water.  Coal mining can also contaminate bodies of water with heavy metals when the water used to clean the coal is discharged back into the environment.  This discharge usually requires a permit and is monitored. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 16
  17. 17.  Solid Waste Generation  The burning of coal creates solid waste, called ash, which is composed primarily of metal oxides and alkali.  On average, the ash content of coal is 10 percent.  Solid waste is also created at coal mines when coal is cleaned and at power plants when air pollutants are removed from the stack gas.  Much of this waste is deposited in landfills and abandoned mines, although some amounts are now being recycled into useful products, such as cement and building materials.  Land Resource Use  Soil at coal-fired power plant sites can become contaminated with various pollutants from the coal and take a long time to recover, even after the power plant closes down.  Coal mining and processing also have environmental impacts on land.  Surface mining disturbs larger areas than underground mining. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 17
  18. 18.  Nuclear energy originates from the splitting of uranium atoms in a process called fission.  Fission releases energy that can be used to make steam, which is used in a turbine to generate electricity.  Nuclear power accounts for approximately 20 percent of the United States' electricity production and 3 % in India .  More than 100 nuclear generating units are currently in operation in the United States and around 16 in India  Uranium is a nonrenewable resource that cannot be replenished on a human time scale.  Uranium is extracted from the earth through traditional mining techniques or chemical leaching.  Once mined, the uranium ore is sent to a processing plant to be concentrated into enriched fuel (i.e., uranium oxide pellets).  Enriched fuel is then transported to the nuclear power plant.  In the plant’s nuclear reactor, neutrons from uranium atoms collide with each other, releasing heat and neutrons in a chain reaction.  This heat is used to generate steam, which powers a turbine to generate electricity. Nuclear power generates a number of radioactive by-products, including tritium, cesium, krypton, neptunium and forms of iodine. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 18 Electricity from Nuclear Energy
  19. 19.  Environmental Impacts  Although power plants are regulated by central and state laws to protect human health and the environment, there is a wide variation of environmental impacts associated with power generation technologies.  The purpose of the following section is to give you a better idea of the specific air, water, land, and radioactive waste releases associated with nuclear power electricity generation. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 19
  20. 20.  Air Emissions  Nuclear power plants do not emit carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, or nitrogen oxides as part of the power generation process.  However, fossil fuel emissions are associated with the uranium mining and uranium enrichment process as well as the transport of the uranium fuel to and from the nuclear plant.  Water Resource Use  Nuclear power plants use large quantities of water for steam production and for cooling.  Some nuclear power plants remove large quantities of water from a lake or river, which could affect fish and other aquatic life.  Water Discharges  Heavy metals and salts build up in the water used in all power plant systems, including nuclear ones.  These water pollutants, as well as the higher temperature of the water discharged from the power plant, can negatively affect water quality and aquatic life.  Nuclear power plants sometimes discharge small amounts of tritium and other radioactive elements as allowed by their individual wastewater permits.  Waste generated from uranium mining operations and rainwater runoff can contaminate groundwater and surface water resources with heavy metals and traces of radioactive uranium. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 20
  21. 21.  Spent Fuel  Every 18 to 24 months, nuclear power plants must shut down to remove and replace the "spent" uranium fuel.  This spent fuel has released most of its energy as a result of the fission process and has become radioactive waste.  Currently, the spent fuel is stored at the nuclear plants at which it is generated, either in steel-lined, concrete vaults filled with water or in above-ground steel or steel-reinforced concrete containers with steel inner canisters.  In 2012, in USA the President’s Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future issued a report (PDF) (180 pp., 4.3M, About PDF)recommending the timely development of one or more permanent deep geological facilities for the safe disposal of spent fuel. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 21
  22. 22.  Radioactive Waste Generation  Enrichment of uranium ore into fuel and the operation of nuclear power plants generate wastes that contain low-levels of radioactivity.  These wastes are shipped to a few specially designed and licensed disposal sites.  When a nuclear power plant is closed, some equipment and structural materials become radioactive wastes.  This type of radioactive waste is currently being stored at the closed plants until an appropriate disposal site is opened.  Management, packaging, transport, and disposal of waste are strictly regulated and carefully controlled by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the U.S. Department of Transportation Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 22
  23. 23.  Municipal solid waste (MSW) refers to the stream of garbage collected through community sanitation services.  Medical wastes from hospitals and items that can be recycled are generally excluded from MSW used to generate electricity.  Paper and yard wastes account for the largest share of the municipal waste stream, and much of this can be recycled directly or composted.  Currently, over 30 percent of MSW generated in the United States is recycled annually.  While not producing this waste in the first place is the preferred management strategy for this material, recycling is preferred over any method of disposal.  The majority of MSW that is not recycled is typically sent to landfills after it is collected.  As an alternative, MSW can be directly combusted in waste-to-energy facilities to generate electricity.  Because no new fuel sources are used other than the waste that would otherwise be sent to landfills,  MSW is often considered a renewable power source.  Although MSW consists mainly of renewable resources such as food, paper, and wood products, it also includes nonrenewable materials derived from fossil fuels, such as tires and plastics. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 23 Electricity from Municipal Solid Waste
  24. 24.  At the power plant, MSW is unloaded from collection trucks and shredded or processed to ease handling.  Recyclable materials are separated out, and the remaining waste is fed into a combustion chamber to be burned.  The heat released from burning the MSW is used to produce steam, which turns a steam turbine to generate electricity.  The United States has about 87operational MSW-fired power generation plants, generating approximately 2,500 megawatts, or about 0.3 percent of total national power generation.  However, because construction costs of new plants have increased, economic factors have limited new construction.  Environmental Impacts  Although power plants are regulated by both central and state laws to protect human health and the environment, there is a wide variation of environmental impacts associated with power generation technologies.  The purpose of the following section is to give you a better idea of the specific air, water, land, and solid waste impacts associated with MSW-fired electricity generation. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 24
  25. 25.  Air Emissions Impacts  Burning MSW produces nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide as well as trace amounts of toxic pollutants, such as mercury compounds and dioxins.  Although MSW power plants do emit carbon dioxide, the primary greenhouse gas, the biomass-derived portion is considered to be part of the Earth's natural carbon cycle.  The plants and trees that make up the paper, food, and other biogenic waste remove carbon dioxide from the air while they are growing, which is returned to the air when this material is burned.  In contrast, when fossil fuels (or products derived from them such as plastics) are burned, they release carbon dioxide that has not been part of the Earth's atmosphere for a very long time (i.e., within a human time scale).  The average air emission rates in the United States from municipal solid waste-fired generation are:  3685 lbs/MWh of carbon dioxide, (it is estimated that the fossil fuel-derived portion of carbon dioxide emissions represent approximately one-half of the total carbon emissions)  1.2 lbs/MWh of sulfur dioxide, and  6.7 lbs/MWh of nitrogen oxides. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 25
  26. 26.  The variation in the composition of MSW affects the emissions impact.  For example, if MSW containing batteries and tires are burned, toxic materials can be released into the air.  A variety of air pollution control technologies are used to reduce toxic air pollutants from MSW power plants.  There can be significant greenhouse gas reduction benefits from recycling and source reduction when compared to other management options.  Note also that over 1.6 million ton of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, glass and combustion ash are recycled annually.  Water Resource Use  Power plants that burn MSW are normally smaller than fossil fuel power plants but typically require a similar amount of water per unit of electricity generated.  When water is removed from a lake or river, fish and other aquatic life can be killed, affecting those animals and people who depend on these resources. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 26
  27. 27.  Water Discharges  Similar to fossil fuel power plants, MSW power plants discharge used water. Pollutants build up in the water used in the power plant boiler and cooling system. In addition, the cooling water is considerably warmer when it is discharged than when it was taken. These water pollutants and the higher temperature of the discharged water can upon its release negatively affect water quality and aquatic life. This discharge usually requires a permit and is monitored.  Solid Waste Generation  The combustion of MSW reduces MSW waste streams, reducing the creation of new landfills. MSW combustion creates a solid waste called ash, which can contain any of the elements that were originally present in the waste. MSW power plants reduce the need for landfill capacity because disposal of MSW ash requires less land area than does unprocessed MSW. However, because ash and other residues from MSW operations may contain toxic materials, the power plant wastes must be tested regularly to assure that the wastes are safely disposed to prevent toxic substances from migrating into ground-water supplies. Under current regulations, MSW ash must be sampled and analyzed regularly to determine whether it is hazardous or not. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 27
  28. 28.  Hazardous ash must be managed and disposed of as hazardous waste. Depending on state and local restrictions, non-hazardous ash may be disposed of in a MSW landfill or recycled for use in roads, parking lots, or daily covering for sanitary landfills.  Land Resource Use  MSW power plants, much like fossil fuel power plants, require land for equipment and fuel storage. The non- hazardous ash residue from the burning of MSW is typically deposited in landfills.  Hydropower is considered a renewable energy resource because it uses the Earth's water cycle to generate electricity. Water evaporates from the Earth's surface, forms clouds, precipitates back to earth, and flows toward the ocean. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 28
  29. 29.  The movement of water as it flows downstream creates kinetic energy that can be converted into electricity. A hydroelectric power plant converts this energy into electricity by forcing water, often held at a dam, through a hydraulic turbine that is connected to a generator. The water exits the turbine and is returned to a stream or riverbed below the dam.  Hydropower is mostly dependent upon precipitation and elevation changes; high precipitation levels and large elevation changes are necessary to generate significant quantities of electricity. Therefore, an area such as the mountainous Pacific Northwest has more productive hydropower plants than an area such as the Gulf Coast, which might have large amounts of precipitation but is comparatively flat. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 29 Electricity from Hydropower
  30. 30.  Environmental Impacts  Although hydropower has no air quality impacts, construction and operation of hydropower dams can significantly affect natural river systems as well as fish and wildlife populations. Assessment of the environmental impacts of a specific hydropower facility requires case-by-case review.  Although power plants are regulated by federal and state laws to protect human health and the environment, there is a wide variation of environmental impacts associated with power generation technologies.  The purpose of the following section is to give consumers a better idea of the specific ecological impacts associated with hydropower. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 30
  31. 31.  Air Emissions  Hydropower's air emissions are negligible because no fuels are burned. However, if a large amount of vegetation is growing along the riverbed when a dam is built, it can decay in the lake that is created, causing the buildup and release of >methane, a potent greenhouse gas.  Water Resource Use  Hydropower often requires the use of dams, which can greatly affect the flow of rivers, altering ecosystems and affecting the wildlife and people who depend on those waters.  Often, water at the bottom of the lake created by a dam is inhospitable to fish because it is much colder and oxygen-poor compared with water at the top. When this colder, oxygen-poor water is released into the river, it can kill fish living downstream that are accustomed to warmer, oxygen-rich water.  In addition, some dams withhold water and then release it all at once, causing the river downstream to suddenly flood. This action can disrupt plant and wildlife habitats and affect drinking water supplies. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 31
  32. 32.  Water Discharges  Hydroelectric power plants release water back into rivers after it passes through turbines. This water is not polluted by the process of creating electricity.  Solid Waste Generation  The use of water to create electricity does not produce a substantial amount of solid waste.  Land Resource Use  The construction of hydropower plants can alter sizable portions of land when dams are constructed and lakes are created, flooding land that may have once served as wildlife habitat, farmland, and scenic retreats.  Hydroelectric dams can cause erosion along the riverbed upstream and downstream, which can further disturb wildlife ecosystems and fish populations. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 32
  33. 33.  Hydroelectric power plants affect various fish populations in different ways. Most notably, certain salmon populations in the Northwest depend on rivers for their life cycles.  These populations have been dramatically reduced by the network of large dams in the Columbia River Basin.  When young salmon travel downstream toward the ocean, they may be killed by turbine blades at hydropower plants. When adult salmon attempt to swim upstream to reproduce, they may not be able to get past the dams.  For this reason, some hydroelectric dams now have special side channels or structures to help the fish continue upstream. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 33
  34. 34.  Non-hydroelectric renewable energy refers to electricity supplied from the following renewable sources of power: solar, geothermal, biomass, landfill gas, and wind. Although installation of these renewable energy resources is growing, non-hydro renewable energy is currently responsible for less than two percent of the electricity generation in the United States. Air emissions associated with generating electricity from solar, geothermal, and wind technologies are negligible because no fuels are combusted in these processes. The average air emissions rates in the United States from non-hydro renewable energy generation are 1.22lbs/MWh of sulfur dioxide and 0.06 lbs/MWh of nitrogen oxides. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 34 Electricity from Non-Hydroelectric Renewable Energy Sources
  35. 35.  The sources discussed below are considered to be renewable because they are continuously being replenished. They are also considered to be sustainable because nature will replenish these sources into the future and faster than they can be used.  Solar  Geothermal  Biomass  Landfill gas  Wind Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 35
  36. 36.  About This Technology  Solar energy is a renewable resource because it is continuously supplied to the earth by the sun. There are two common ways to convert solar energy into electricity: photovoltaic and solar-thermal technologies. Photovoltaic systems consist of wafers made of silicon or other conductive materials.  When sunlight hits the wafers, a chemical reaction occurs, resulting in the release of electricity. Solar-thermal technologies concentrate the sun's rays with mirrors or other reflective devices to heat a liquid to create steam, which is then used to turn a generator and create electricity.  Reserves  Solar resources are available everywhere in the United States, although some areas receive less sunlight than others, depending on the climate and seasons.  The greatest solar resources are located in the Southwestern states, where sufficient solar energy falls on an area of 100 miles by 100 miles to provide all of the nation's electricity requirements. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 36 Solar
  37. 37.  Environmental Impacts Air Emissions  Emissions associated with generating electricity from solar technologies are negligible because no fuels are combusted.  Water Resource Use  Photovoltaic systems do not require the use of any water to create electricity.  Solar-thermal technologies may tap local water resources if the liquid that is being heated to create steam is water.  In this case, the water can be re-used after it has been condensed from steam back into water. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 37
  38. 38.  Water Discharges  Solar technologies do not discharge any water while creating electricity.  Solid Waste Generation  Solar-thermal technologies do not produce any substantial amount of solid waste while creating electricity.  The production of photovoltaic wafers creates very small amounts of hazardous materials that must be handled properly to avert risk to the environment or to people.  Land Resource Use  Photovoltaic systems require a negligible amount of land area because they are typically placed on existing structures.  In contrast, solar-thermal technologies may require a significant amount of land, depending upon the specific solar-thermal technology used.  Solar energy installations do not usually damage the land they occupy, but they prevent it from being used for other purposes.  In addition, photovoltaic systems can negatively affect wildlife habitat because of the amount of land area the technology requires. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 38
  39. 39.  About This Technology  Geothermal energy is continuously created beneath the Earth's surface from the extreme heat contained in liquid rock (called magma) within the Earth's core.  When this heat naturally creates hot water or steam, it can be piped to the surface and then used to turn a steam turbine to generate electricity.  Geothermal energy can also be obtained by piping water underground to extract heat from hot, dry rocks.  Heat is then returned to the surface to turn a steam turbine and generate electricity.  Reserves  Although geothermal energy exists everywhere in the United States, it is not easy to extract unless it is close to the surface.  Some areas of the United States with the greatest potential for generating electricity from geothermal energy include portions of Nevada, California, Oregon, Idaho, Utah, Washington, Alaska, Montana, Arizona, and Hawaii. In 2003, geothermal capacity was 2,300 MW.  Currently identified resources could provide more than 20,000 MW of power in the United States, and undiscovered resources might provide five times that amount.  Environmental Impacts  Air Emissions  Emissions associated with generating electricity from geothermal technologies are negligible because no fuels are combusted. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 39 Geothermal
  40. 40.  Water Resource Use  Geothermal power plants usually re-inject the hot water that they remove from the ground back into wells.  However, a small amount of water used by geothermal plants in the process of creating electricity may evaporate and therefore not be returned to the ground.  Also, for those geothermal plants that rely on hot, dry rocks for energy, water from local resources is needed to extract the energy from the dry rocks.  Water Discharges  Geothermal power plants can possibly cause groundwater contamination when drilling wells and extracting hot water or steam.  However, this type of contamination can be prevented with proper management techniques.  In addition, geothermal power plants often re-inject used water back into the ground (through separate wells) instead of discharging the used water into surface waters.  This prevents underground minerals or pollutants from being introduced into surface waters. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 40
  41. 41.  About This Technology  The term "biomass" can describe many different fuel types from such sources as trees; construction, wood, and agricultural wastes; fuel crops; sewage sludge; and manure. Agricultural wastes include materials such as corn husks, rice hulls, peanut shells, grass clippings, and leaves. Trees and fuel crops (i.e., crops specifically grown for electricity production) can be replaced on a short time scale.  Agricultural wastes, sewage sludge, and manure are organic wastes that will continue to be produced by society. For these reasons, biomass is considered a renewable resource.  Biomass obtains its energy from the sun while plants are growing. Plants convert solar energy into chemical energy during the process of photosynthesis. This energy is released as heat energy when the plant material is burned. Biomass power plants burn biomass fuel in boilers. The heat released from this process is used to heat water into steam to turn a steam turbine to create electricity. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 41 Biomass
  42. 42.  Biomass is sometimes burned in combination with coal in boilers at power plants.  This process, called co-firing, is typically used to reduce air emissions and other environmental impacts from burning coal.  Co-firing biomass with coal may require a coal boiler to be modified somewhat so it can combust coal.  When co-fired with coal, only a small amount of biomass is typically added (no more than 15 percent of the total amount of fuel going into the boiler) to maintain the boiler's efficiency.4  The paper Biodiesel Production from Municipal Sewage Sludges (PDF) (4 pp., 663K, About PDF) provides detailed information about biodiesel as a fuel derived from renewable biomass.  Reserves  Of the estimated U.S. biomass resource of 590 million net tons, only 14 million dry tons, or enough to supply about 3,000 MW of capacity, is currently available. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 42
  43. 43.  Environmental Impacts  Air Emissions  Biomass power plants emit nitrogen oxides and a small amount of sulfur dioxide.  The amounts emitted depend on the type of biomass that is burned and the type of generator used.  Although the burning of biomass also produces carbon dioxide, the primary greenhouse gas, it is considered to be part of the natural carbon cycle of the earth.  The plants take up carbon dioxide from the air while they are growing and then return it to the air when they are burned, thereby causing no net increase. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 43
  44. 44.  Biomass contains much less sulfur and nitrogen than coal; therefore, when biomass is co-fired with coal, sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides emissions are lower than when coal is burned alone.  When the role of renewable biomass in the carbon cycle is considered, the carbon dioxide emissions that result from co-firing biomass with coal are lower than those from burning coal alone.  Water Resource Use  Biomass power plants require the use of water, because the boilers burning the biomass need water for steam production and for cooling.  If this water is used over and over again, the amount of water needed is reduced.  Whenever any type of power plant removes water from a lake or river, fish and other aquatic life can be killed, which then affects those animals and people that depend on these aquatic resources. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 44
  45. 45.  Water Discharges  As is the case with fossil fuel power plants, biomass power plants have pollutant build-up in the water used in the boiler and cooling system.  The water used for cooling is much warmer when it is returned to the lake or river than when it was removed.  Pollutants in the water and the higher temperature of the water can harm fish and plants in the lake or river where the power plant water is discharged.  This discharge usually requires a permit and is monitored.  In general, crops grown for biomass fuel require fewer pesticides and fertilizers than crops grown for food, which means that less pesticide and fertilizer runoff will reach local streams and ponds than if food crops are grown.  Solid Waste Generation  The burning of biomass in boilers creates a solid waste called ash that must be disposed of properly. However, the ash from biomass normally contains extremely low levels of hazardous elements. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 45
  46. 46.  Land Resource Use  Generating electricity from biomass can affect land resources in different ways. Biomass power plants, much like fossil fuel power plants, require large areas of land for equipment and fuel storage.  If these biomass plants burn a waste source such as construction wood waste or agricultural waste, they can provide a benefit by freeing areas of land that might otherwise have been used for landfills or waste piles.  Biomass grown for fuel purposes requires large areas of land and, over time, can deplete the soil of nutrients.  Fuel crops must be managed so that they stabilize the soil, reduce erosion, provide wildlife habitat, and serve recreational purposes. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 46
  47. 47.  About This Technology  Landfill gas is created when microorganisms cause organic waste, such as food wastes and paper, to decompose in landfills.  Landfill gas is composed of about fifty percent methane.  Carbon dioxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) make up the remainder.  Landfill gas escapes into the air unless it is collected and burned. In landfill gas energy projects, landfill gas is burned in boilers, reciprocating engines, and combustion turbines to produce electricity.  The landfill size and age, quantity of organic waste, and the local climate help determine how much gas a landfill can produce.  EPA requires large landfills to collect and burn landfill gas with flares to destroy the VOCs. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 47 Landfill gas
  48. 48.  Reserves  While some landfills simply burn landfill gas with a flare, more than 380 projects at 365 U.S. landfills are collecting and using landfill gas to produce energy.  Thirty additional projects are currently under construction. EPA estimates that more than 600 additional landfills could support landfill gas energy projects cost- effectively.  Landfill gas continues to be produced for twenty years or more after a landfill is closed. Therefore, as long as landfills continue to be built, landfill gas will continue to be a resource for producing electricity.  Environmental Impacts  Air Emissions  Burning landfill gas produces nitrogen oxides emissions as well as trace amounts of toxic materials. The amount of these emissions can vary widely, depending on the waste from which the landfill gas was created.  The carbon dioxide released from burning landfill gas is considered to be a part of the natural carbon cycle of the earth.  Producing electricity from landfill gas avoids the need to use non-renewable resources to produce the same amount of electricity. In addition, burning landfill gas prevents the release of >methane, a potent greenhouse gas, into the atmosphere. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 48
  49. 49.  Water Resource Use  Engines or combustion turbines that burn landfill gas to produce energy typically require negligible amounts of water.  Water Discharges  Engines and combustion turbines burning landfill gas have very little or no water discharges.  The collection of landfill gas involves drilling wells into landfills, which does not affect local bodies of water.  Solid Waste Generation  Landfill gas technologies do not produce any substantial amount of solid waste while creating electricity.  Land Resource Use  Burning landfill gas to produce electricity has little impact on land resources.  While the equipment used to burn the landfill gas and generate electricity does require space, it can be located on land already occupied by the existing landfill, thus avoiding any additional use of land. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 49
  50. 50.  About This Technology  Wind is created because the sun heats the Earth unevenly, due to the seasons and cloud cover.  This uneven heating, in addition to the Earth's rotation, causes warmer air to move toward cooler air.  This movement of air is wind.  Wind turbines use two or three long blades to collect the energy in the wind and convert it to electricity.  The blades spin when the wind blows over them.  The energy of motion contained in the wind is then converted into electricity as the spinning turbine blades turn a generator.  To create enough electricity for a town or city, several wind turbine towers need to be placed together in groups or rows to create a "wind farm." Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 50 Wind
  51. 51.  Reserves  The availability of wind power varies across the United States.  Areas with the best wind availability include portions of the following states: North Dakota, Texas, Kansas, South Dakota, Montana, Nebraska, Wyoming, Oklahoma, Minnesota, Iowa, Colorado, New Mexico, California, Wisconsin, and Oregon.  In general, wind is consistent and strong enough in the Great Plains states and mountain passes in the various mountain ranges throughout the United States to generate electricity using wind turbines.  The Rocky Mountain and Great Plains states have sufficient wind resources to meet 10 to 25 percent of the electric power requirements of these states.11  Environmental Impacts  Air Emissions  Emissions associated with generating electricity from wind technology are negligible because no fuels are combusted.  Water Resource Use  Wind turbines in areas with little rainfall may require the use of a small amount of water.  If rainfall is not sufficient to keep the turbine blades clean, water is used to clean dirt and insects off the blades so that turbine performance is not reduced. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 51
  52. 52.  Water Discharges  Wind turbines do not discharge any water while creating electricity.  Solid Waste Generation  Wind technologies do not produce any substantial amount of solid waste while creating electricity.  Land Resource Use  Wind turbines generally require the use of land, although they may also be sited offshore.  Land around wind turbines can be used for other purposes, such as the grazing of cattle or farming.  When wind turbines are removed from land, there are no solid wastes or fuel residues left behind.  However, large wind farms pose aesthetic concerns and wind turbines that are improperly installed or landscaped may create soil erosion problems.  Wind farms can also have noise impacts, depending on the number of wind turbines on the farm.  New blade designs are being used to reduce the amount of noise.  Bird and bat mortality has been an issue at some wind farms.  Improvements to wind turbine technologies and turbine siting have helped mitigate bird mortality. Research on impacts to bats is now underway. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 52
  53. 53.  World primary energy demand grows by 1.6% per year on average between 2006 and 2030 – an increase of 45% .  The world’s energy needs would be well over 50% higher in 2030 than today.  China and India together account for 45% of the increase in global primary energy demand in this scenario. - World Energy Outlook ( www.iea.org ) World Energy Scenario Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 53
  54. 54.  Indian Energy Sector Some facts… India - one of the fastest growing economies in the world.  It is poised to grow at around 7 percent on moderate term.  India’s Energy Consumption is 12.6 million btu (british thermal unit)  India energy intensity is higher compared to Japan, USA and Asia as a whole by 3.7, 1.55 and 1.47 times respectively (energy consumption compared to GDP).  This indicates inefficient use of energy but also substantial scope of energy savings.  Long term energy plan for India therefore should aim at – Projecting the energy demand Projecting the energy mix Exploring the possibilities for alternative sources and Suggesting measures for energy efficient uses Indian Energy Sector Some facts…: Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 54
  55. 55.  Indian Energy Sector Vision of Some Eminent Experts..  “ The energy scene in the 21st century is going to see a major shift. Very soon, oil and gas will see its finiteness. It is high time that we realize this factor and work towards the fuel of the future. - Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam, Former President of India, Address at Energy Technology Conclave “Technology for Sustainability”  If we expect our economy to keep growing at 9-10% p.a., we need a commensurate growth in power supply. The power sector has made good progress over the past few years. It has also seen very significant changes.  However we have not been able to make a decisive breakthrough in ensuring high and sustainable rates of growth of this sector and improving its financial health. - Hon’ble Ex-Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh Indian Energy Sector Vision of Some Eminent Experts Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 55
  56. 56.  India's energy potential is rated the third largest in the world, with annual installations of 875 mega watts (MW), only after Europe and the United States, exceeding forecasts of 500 MW - BTM Consult.  A recent study by the World Resources Institute (WRI)- India’s energy demand is expected to more than double by 2030. The country is consequently in need of a huge amount of new power generation capacity. Considering the figures of the WRI, the cheapest generating capacity for India will no doubt be energy savings Energy Potential – Shape of Things to Come Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 56
  57. 57.  Primary Commercial Energy Mix  (%) World V/S India :  Primary Commercial Energy Mix (%) World V/S India Resources  World-India  Oil 37.4-33.22  Natural Gas 24.3-9.34  Coal 25.5-53.54  Nuclear 6.5-1.04  Hydel 6.3-2.63  Source : www. planningcommission.gov.in Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 57
  58. 58.  India – Potential for various Renewable Energy Technologies by 2020:  India – Potential for various Renewable Energy Technologies by 2020 Sources/System Approximate Potential Biogas plants (in millions)  12 Improved woodstoves in millions)  120 Biogas (MW)  17000 Solar Energy (MW/KM2 )  20 Wind Energy (MW)  20000 Small Hydropower (MW)  10000 Ocean Energy (MW) 50000 Source: India 2020 – A Vision for the New Millennium by Dr. A P J Abdul Kalam & Y S Rajan, Page No. 254 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 58
  59. 59.  ENERGY for the future - Some Options…:  ENERGY for the future - Some Options… Clean Coal Technologies Usage of renewable energy resource Modernization of power transmission & distribution system Alternative fuels for surface transportation- bio-fuels, electric vehicles, hydrogen and fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen has significant potential as a clean energy source  Energy India 2020 – a shape of things to come on Indian energy sector:  Energy India 2020 – a shape of things to come on Indian energy sector  Global Perspectives of Energy Sector  Perspectives of Energy Sector in India  Non-conventional energy – Development so far & potential sources Profile of major players of energy sector  Energy efficiency & energy audit  Energy statistics Energy directory Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 59
  60. 60. Power Generation Cost of Electricity 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Simple Cycle Gas Turbine Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Conventional Coal Cleaner Coal Nuclear Wind No PTC $10 Gas $8 Gas $6 Gas $4 Gas ¢/kWh CO2 g/kWh: 650 450 1000 900* 0 0 *Near zero with sequestration Market Adopting Portfolio Approach Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 60
  61. 61. This environment drives technology development •High fuel prices … require higher efficiency •Energy security … requires more diverse solutions •More stringent environmental standards … require lower emissions, increased use of renewables and nuclear Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 61
  62. 62. Portfolio of affordable, reliable & environmentally responsible technologies Energy technology objectives Driving cost of electricity down Efficiency Reliability Emissions EfficientDiverse Nuclear Coal Gas Wind Oil Geothermal Biomass Hydro Solar + Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 62
  63. 63. Green technology winning in the market Wind Next-gen blades Advanced drive trains Innovative controls '02 ‘06 $200 MM $3B + Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 63
  64. 64. Evolution Advanced Cooling System GEVO 12 Engine Reduced fuel consumption AND reduced emissions •Reduces emissions by 40% compared to existing locomotives •Increased fuel efficiency by 3% - Saves 9,000 gallons of fuel per locomotive per year* Common Control Architecture *Assumes average of 300,000 gallons of fuel consumption per year Green technology winning in the market Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 64
  65. 65. Gasifier Radiant Syngas Cooler Particulate Removal Mercury Removal Sulfur Removal Future CO2 Capture Gas Turbine Electricity Transmission & Distribution Steam Turbine HRSG Cleaner coal • Converts coal to synthesis gas … cleaned prior to burning • Produces useful by-products • Driving down cost and emissions – CAPEX approaching pulverized coal – Criteria emissions approaching natural gas IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 65
  66. 66. Nuclear • Simplified design, increased output, smaller footprint … will reduce CAPEX and OPEX, and shorten construction schedule • Part of the US Department of Energy 2010 Program, design certification submitted to NRC, selected by NuStart, Entergy & Dominion • On plan for 2007 Combined Operation License applications Improved safety & security Modular & passive design Advanced new nuclear … ESBWR (The Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor) Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 66
  67. 67. '04 '05 • 3% of Electricity Production • Significant Growth … ~25% CAGR (’95 – ’13) • ~40% Global Power Capital Spending Global Renewable Installed Capacity (GWs) Growing Demand for Renewables … World Requiring Renewable Energy Solutions 182 160 Wind 12GW >50% of Growth US … 20 % Wind ‘20 UK … 20% Renewables ‘20 Germany … 20% Renewables ‘15 EU … 12% Renewables ‘10 China … 30 GW Wind ‘20 Spain … 20 GW Wind ‘11 India … 12 GW Wind ‘12 ‘05‘04 Wind Solar Biopower Small Hydro Geothermal Aggressive Global Targets Source: REN21 2006 update Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 67
  68. 68. Renewables … Wind Complete range of products  Arklow demonstration project … 7 x 3.6s  Largest commercial operation 1.5 MW platform • Full power conversion • Simplified servicing • Larger farms with easier grid integration Future: 2.5/100 MW • Capacity factor leadership • High reliability • Advanced controls Future: 5 - 7 MW • Leading cost of energy • Utilize GE technology strengths • Among the most proven and utilized technology • Over 4,700 units worldwide • 97%+ availability 2.5 MW platform 3.6 MW offshore Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 68
  69. 69. Breakthrough technology – Nano – Concentrators – Other … Tomorrow Integrated systems Optimize – Reduced material – Increase efficiency – Mfg processes COE 30 ¢/kWh And Beyond COE 18 ¢/kWh Today COE 10 ¢/kWh Renewables … Solar Driving cost down Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 69
  70. 70. Longer-term Best Bets Enabling technology to deal with environmental challenges Waste to energy Liquid fuels GE Company Proprietary CO2 Capture Hydrogen Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 70
  71. 71. Future of Energy Technology • Socio-economic trends demanding technology developments • Government, academia, industry all have a role • No silver bullet – a portfolio approach to technologies Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 71
  72. 72. Green is green: energy technology that is…  Good for our customers  Good for the environment  Good for our shareholders Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 72
  73. 73. Energy demand is growing Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 73  Global energy demand rising  2003 - 123 million GWh  2030  211 million GWh (+71%)  Driven by rapidly growing economies – China, India etc  Oil / Gas / Coal share remains the same  Renewables unable to deliver at this scale in time  CO2 problem continues to grow Gas 24% Oil 38% Other 8% Nuclear 6% Coal 24% 2003 Gas 26% Oil 33% Other 9% Nuclear 5% Coal 27% 2030 Source – International Energy Agency 2007
  74. 74. World Energy Scene (I)  1) The world uses a lot of energy  Average power consumption = 13.6 TWs, or 2.2 kWs per person  [world energy [electricity] market ~ $3 trillion [$1 trillion] pa]  - very unevenly (OECD 6.2kWs/person; Bangladesh 0.20 kWs/person)  2) World energy use is expected to grow  - growth necessary to lift billions of people out of poverty  3) 80% is generated by burning fossil fuels   climate change & debilitating pollution  - which won’t last for ever  Need major new (clean) energy sources - requires new technology Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 74
  75. 75. World Energy Scene (II) 4) Use of primary energy  - In USA: 34% residential & commercial; 37% industrial; 26% transport (~30% domestic) ~1/3 of primary energy => electricity (@ ~ 35% efficiency => 12.4% of world’s energy use)) - Fraction → electricity ~ development (14.3% USA; 6.0% Bangladesh) and is likely to grow - Fuel  electricity very country dependent e.g. coal = 35% in UK*, 54% in USA, 76% in China * falling as EU emission directives => closure of coal power stations; without new nuclear build the UK likely to be 70% reliant on (mainly imported) gas by 2020 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 75
  76. 76. Future Energy Use  The International Energy Agency (IEA) expects the world’s energy use to increase 60% by 2030 (while population expected to grow from 6.2B to 8.1B) - driven largely by growth of energy use and population in India (current use = 0.7 kWs/person, vs. OECD average of 6.2 kWs/person) and China (current use = 1.3 kWs/person)  Strong link between energy use and the Human Development Index (HDI ~ life expectancy at birth + adult literacy and school enrolment + gross national product per capita at purchasing power parity) – need increased energy use to lift millions out of poverty Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 76
  77. 77. Carbon dioxide levels over the last 60,000 years - we are provoking the atmosphere! Source University of Berne and National Oceanic, and Atmospheric Administration Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 77
  78. 78. There is widespread evidence of climate change e.g. Thames Barrier Now Closed Frequently to Counteract Increasing Flood Risk (=> potential damage ~ £30bn) Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 78
  79. 79. Meeting the Energy Challenge Will Need ■ Fiscal measures to change the behaviour of consumers, and provide incentives to expand use of low carbon technologies ■ Actions to improve efficiency (domestic, transport,…, grid) ■ Use of renewables where appropriate (although individually not hugely significant globally)  BUT only four sources capable in principle of meeting a large fraction of the world’s energy needs: • Burning fossil fuels (currently 80%) - develop & deploy CO2 capture and storage • Solar - seek breakthroughs in production and storage • Nuclear fission - hard to avoid if we are serious about reducing fossil fuel burning (at least until fusion available) • Fusion - with so few options, we must develop fusion as fast as possible, even if success is not 100% certain Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 79
  80. 80. What is the cost target for a new energy source? 1979 1983 1987 1991 1995 1999 Sweden USA Finland France Greece Denmark Spain Belgium Ireland Germany Austria Netherlands UK Italy Portugal Japan 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 9.00 10.00 11.00 12.00 coe (p/kWh) Year Country World industrial electricity prices (taxes excluded) in p/kWh [1p = 1 penny UK]
  81. 81. Objectives of European Power Plant Conceptual Study  1. Compared to earlier European studies: • Ensure the designs satisfy economic objectives • Update the plasma physics basis  (For both reasons, the parameters of the designs differ substantially from those of the earlier studies)  2. Confirm the excellent safety and environmental features of fusion power Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 81
  82. 82. World Energy Spending  World energy (electricity) market ~ $3 tr ($1 tr) pa  Publicly funded energy R&D down 50% globally since 1980 in real terms: currently ~ 0.3% of market. Private funding down also, e.g. - 67% in USA 1985-97  Increased energy R&D needed across the board  Fusion spend is small on the scale of the energy market and the challenge  What about relative spending on fusion and (e.g.) Renewables?  Most government support for renewables consist of subsidies to bring relatively mature technologies to the market, e.g in Europe: • Energy market: €700 billion • Energy subsidies: €28 billion (€5.4 billion to renewables) • Energy R&D: € 2 billion (€500 million to fusion) Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 82
  83. 83. Coal 44.5% Oil and gas 30% Fusion 1.5% Fission 6% Renewables 18% EU energy subsidy and R&D ~ 30 Billion Euro (per year) Source : EEA, Energy subsidies in the European Union: A brief overview, 2004. Fusion and fission are displayed separately using the IEA government- R&D data base and EURATOM 6th framework programme dataDr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 83
  84. 84. EPA applies Strategic Environmental Assessments(SEAs) to predict and evaluate the environmental implications of a plan in order to identify areas of concern and establish best environmental practices. Different forms of assessments includes:  Ecological impact assessment  Environmental health impact assessment  Hazard and risk impact assessment  Noise impact assessment  Social impact assessment  Water quality impact assessment  Air quality impact assessment Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 84 Environmental Impact Assessment for the Energy Sector
  85. 85.  Introduction •  „Environmental Impact Assessment‟ (EIA) can be defined as the systematic identification and evaluation of the potential impacts (effects) of proposed projects, plans, program or legislative action of the physical, chemical, biological, cultural, and socioeconomic components of the total environment. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 85 „Environmental Impact Assessment‟
  86. 86.  NEPA Process (National Environmental Policy Act)  Introduction  • The primary purpose of the EIA process, also called NEPA Process (National Environmental Policy Act) is to encourage the consideration of the environment in planning and decision making so as to ultimately arrive at actions which are environment friendly.  • EIA is a planning tool which helps planners in predicting future impacts of different development activities.  • EIA provides information about adverse environment effects, predicts, the overall risks arising from any activity, helps in identifying areas where risks can possibly be reduced. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 86
  87. 87.  Need of EIA  Need of EIA • Environment is composed of Biotic & Abiotic components. There is a dynamic equilibrium between these components. When a project is undertaken it tends to disturb these components. To maintain the quality of environment it is essential that the perspective impacts of the project on natural environment are studied on time and remedial measures be taken so as to promote sustainable and holistic development of the project. This is done through EIA. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 87
  88. 88.  Need of EIA • For Example, a forest ecosystem is a complete ecosystem which provides food, shelter to a wide variety of species. It provides firewood, resins, timber, medicinal herbs, etc.. to us. Therefore forests are our lifeline. Whenever a project is undertaken which demands clearing of the forest like construction of road or a dam, then EIA helps us to access the impact of that activity on this life line. It also suggests alternate project sites and alternate process technologies. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 88
  89. 89.  Need of EIA  Ideal EIA System An Ideal EIA system Would be  • Apply to all project that are expected to have a significant environmental effects and address all impacts that are expected to occur due to that project.  • Compare alternatives to a proposed project, management techniques and mitigation measures.  • Result in a clear EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) which conveys the importance of the likely and their specific characteristics to non experts in the field. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 89
  90. 90.  Ideal EIA System  Ideal EIA System  • Include broad public participation and stringent administrative review procedures.  • Be timed so as to provide information for decision making.  • Be enforceable.  • Include monitoring and feedback procedures.  • Therefore, the purpose of EIA is to help design projects which enhance the quality of the environment by examining alternative and remedial measures throughout the entire course of planning and designing of the development projects Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 90
  91. 91.  Goals of Environment Impact Assessment The major aims of EIA are:  • Resources Conservation  • Waste minimization  • Recovery of by-product.  • Efficient use of equipment  • Sustainable Development  Methodology of Environment Impact Assessment  • Human activities of urbanization and industrialization have many undesirable environmental side effects. Environmental Impact Assessment is a procedure which ensures that developmental activities cause minimal environmental side effects without reducing the productivity of natural systems and without destroying the ecological balance.  • EIA helps to identify the major areas of environmental damage due to developmental activities in a systematic and comprehensive manner and also suggests remedial measures to minimize these negative impacts. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 91
  92. 92.  Methodology of Environment Impact Assessment  • The EIA methodology consists of four phases, namely:  • Organizing the Job  • Performing the assessment  • Writing the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)  • Review of the EIS.  Organizing the Job  • In this step an inter disciplinary (ID) team is constituted to conduct analysis of the various impacts of the proposed programme on the environment. An ID team can be defined as a team which has been organised to address a common problem. It consists of a group of two or three persons trained in different fields with the knowledge of concepts, methods, data and terms related to that subject. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 92
  93. 93.  Inter Disciplinary Team In Conducting EIA analysis  Organizing the Job  • Thus the team includes geologists, agronomists, chemists, agriculturists, ecologists, hydrologists, meteorologists, engineers, scientists, biologists, anthropologists, etc..  • The time schedule for the conduct of analysis is fixed. The experts should have a knowledge of the rules, regulations, and limitations on the part of the government. Finally a format is prepared containing all the particular about the projects, its sponsors, participants of the ID team, time schedule, cost, specific responsibilities. Etc. This format is distributed to all the members of ID Team Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 93
  94. 94.  Performance of the Assessment This Phase of EIA consists of the following steps.  • (a) Site Visit: The members of the interdisciplinary team visit the site to determine the possible environmental impacts of the proposed project and record of the description of the environment as it exists prior to the implementation of the proposed project.  • (b) Identification and Evaluation: The adverse and beneficial effects of the proposed projects on the environment are evaluated.  • (c) Discussion of Alternatives: Various possible alternatives are discussed i.e. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 94
  95. 95.  Performance of the Assessment (d) Preparation of Checklist: A checklist is prepared to ensure complete coverage of all the possible consequences of the proposed project, so that it can be determined as to what administrative actions should be taken. (e) Measurement of Environment Impact, due to the project: For Identifying the impact of the project on the environment, a checklist of the environmental attributes reflects the impact on the environment resulting from a particular action.  Criteria for Selecting EIA Methodology  • A large number of models and methodologies are being practiced in EIA studies. Generally the specialists on EIA make their own methodologies for individual projects. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 95
  96. 96.  Preparation of EIS  Preparation of EIS  • EIS is the conclusion of EIA. It is a written statement which serves as a device to ensure that the policies and goals defined by NEPA (National Environment policy Act) are infused into the ongoing programmed. It must contain the following items.  • Description of the site of the project or environment where the proposed project is to take place.  • Description of the proposed project, purpose of action, its goals and objectives, area, extent, equipments, manpower and material requirement.  • The environmental impact of the proposed project.  • The unavoidable adverse effects resulting from the activity. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 96
  97. 97.  Preparation of EIS  • Alternatives of the activity.  • Relationship of the proposed activities to the existing land use plans.  • Relationship between local short term uses and long term productivity of the resources involved.  • Identifying the measures that can be taken in order to minimize the adverse effects.  • Incorporating the modifications in the proposed projects.  • Finally the EIS, written in a clear and comprehensive manner is presented to the public, competent authorities and independent experts. It is reviewed carefully before any decision is taken in favor or against the proposed project.  Review of EIS  • After the completion of EIS report, the law requires that the public must be informed and consulted on the proposed project. The proposed project is made available to the public through Press. Anyone likely to be affected by the project is entitled to have access to the executive summary of the EIA. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 97
  98. 98.  Review of EIS  Review of EIS The affected person may include.  • Bonafide Local Residents  • Local Associations  • Environment Groups active in the area.  • Any other person located at the project site/ sites of displacement.  • They are to be given an opportunity to make oral/ written suggestions  • At least one month period is given for public inspection and submission of comments on the EIS  • After the final review of beneficial and adverse environmental impacts and cost benefit analysis etc.., a decision is ultimately taken to either approve or reject the proposed project. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 98
  99. 99.  Limitations of EIA EIA suffers from following limitations  • EIA should be undertaken at the policy and planning level rather than at the project level.  • Range of Possible alternatives in the project EIA is often small.  • There is no criteria to decide what type of project are to undergo EIA. A lot of unnecessary expense and delay in project clearance could be avoided as there are many projects that do not require an in-depth EIA.  • Lack of comprehensive environment information base, limitation of time, manpower and financial resources make EIA very complicated and time consuming. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 99
  100. 100.  Limitations of EIA  • More research and development of improved methodologies is required to overcome limitations relating to the uncertainties in data.  • EIA, reports are too academic, bureaucratic and lengthy containing too many tables of collected data without any data analysis, interpretation and environmental implications.  • In actual practice EIA ends immediately after project clearance, no follow up action is taken.  • It does not incorporate the strategies of preventing environmental intervention. The issue of resource conservation, waste minimization, by product recovery and improvement in efficiency of equipment, need to be pursued as the explicit goal in EIA Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 100
  101. 101.  • Sustainable development is essential for the overall socio- economic development. Sustainable development must meet the need of the present generation without compromising the ability of the future generations to meet their own needs and aspirations.  Role of EIA in Sustainable Development  • It is possible to have development without destroying the environment. This requires a gradual shift from uncontrolled exploitation to efficient management of natural resources. To ensure sustainable development the depletion of renewable resources should not take place at a rate faster than their rate of generation.  • Only those technological developments with minimum environmental hazards should be adopted in order to sustain the environment for future generations. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 101 Role of EIA in Sustainable Development
  102. 102.  Role of EIA in Sustainable Development  Role of EIA in Sustainable Development  • Sustainable development is closely linked to the carrying Capacity of an ecosystem as the latter determines the limits to economic development. Carrying capacity of a specific ecosystem is the maximum rate of resource consumption that can be sustained definitely in that specific area and overexploitation of natural resources above this maximum will lead to depletion and ecological degradation. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 102
  103. 103.  Role of EIA in Sustainable Development  • Carrying capacity based planning ensures sustainable development, Environment Impact Assessment (EIA) could form a major instrument in decision making and for measurement of sustainability in the context of regional carrying capacity, provided the conceptual framework is extended to cumulative assessment of developmental policies, plans and projects on a regional basis. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 103
  104. 104.  Role of EIA in Sustainable Development  Guidelines for Project Proponents  • The MOEF has prepared environmental guidelines, to help the project proponents to work out an EIA, Guidelines have been prepared to bring out specific information required for environmental clearance.  • These guidelines basically consists of aspect regarding planning and implementation of development projects. The majority of projects in India which requires EIA, are large developmental projects like nuclear power, river valley, thermal power plants, etc.. Where government play an important role. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 104
  105. 105.  Guidelines for Project Proponents  • The critical Issues guidelines are: focused in these  • Can the local environment cope with the additional waste and pollution that the project will produce?  • Will the project location conflict with the nearby land use or preclude later developments in surrounding areas?  • Can the project operate safely without serious risk of accidents or long term health hazards?  Guidelines for Project Proponents  • How will the project affect economic activities that are based on natural resources?  • Is there sufficient infrastructure to support the project?  • How much the resources will the project consume and are adequate supplies of these resources available?  • What kind of human resources will it require or replace and what will be its social impacts in the short/long run?  • What damages will it inadvertently cause to the national/ regional assets such as natural resources, tourists areas or historic or cultural sites etc.? Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 105
  106. 106.  • Environmental Audits are intended to quantify environmental performance and environmental position of an industry/ organization. In this way they perform a function similar to financial audits.  • An environmental audit report ideally contains a statement of environmental performance and environmental position, and may also aim to define what needs to be done to sustain or improve on indicators. Of such performance and position. It can as one of the tool for achieving the goal of sustainable development. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 106 Environmental Audits
  107. 107.  Environmental Audits  • Environmental auditing is mandatory only in cases stipulated by law.  • The aim of the audit is to facilitate management control of environmental practices and to enable the company to assess compliance with it‟s policies including meeting regulatory requirements.  Definition of Environmental Audit  • According to United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), Environmental Audit (EA) is a systematic documented, periodic and objective review by a regulated entity of facility operations and practices related to meeting environmental requirements . Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 107
  108. 108.  Definition of Environmental Audit  • The concept of environmental auditing in industrial units in India was formally introduced in March 1992 with an over all objective of minimizing consumption of resources and promoting use of clean technologies in industrial production to minimize generation of wastes. India was the first country in the world to make environmental audits compulsory.  Definition of Environmental Audit  • The government of India, by its gazette notification [No. GSR 329 (E) ] of March 13, 1992 made it mandatory for all the industries to provide annual environmental audit reports of their operations, beginning with 1992-93. This required industries to provide details of water, raw material and energy resources used, and the products and waste generated by them. These audit reports has to be submitted to the concerned state pollution control boards on or before 30th September every year. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 108
  109. 109.  Environmental Audits should provide answer to the following Questions  • What are we doing ? In particular, are we in compliance with government regulations, guidelines, codes of practices, permit conditions?  • Can we do it better? In particular, are there nonregulated areas where operations can be improved to minimize the impact on the environment?  • Can we do it more cheaply? What more should we do ?  Components of Environmental Audit Assessment  • An assessment provides expert judgment/ opinion on hazards, associated risks and management and control measures. It also identifies knowable hazards and estimates the significance of risks. The process assesses current practices and capabilities and provide the basis for recommendations to improve the organization‟s management system and environmental performance. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 109
  110. 110.  Assessment  Components of Environmental Audit Verification  • Verification determines and documents performance by evaluating the application of, and adherence to, policies and procedures. It certifies the validity of data and reports and evaluates the effectiveness of management systems. It also ensures that regulations and policies are being adhered to and assists in identifying gaps in organizational policies and standards. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 110
  111. 111.  Verification  Environmental Audit  Basic Steps in the Typical Audit Process  • Pre-audit activities: These comprise scheduling; team selection; logistical arrangement; gathering background information and developing the audit plan.  • Selection of the Team for the Environmental Audit:  • Although environmental audit is similar to other form of audit, the selection of the audit team requires careful consideration. The following attributes are expected of environmental auditors:  • Adequate knowledge in all aspects of EIA Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 111
  112. 112.  Basic Steps in the Typical Audit Process  • Comprehensive Knowledge of Environmental and climate change issues.  • Adequate knowledge of environmental auditing acquired through training followed by practical experience.  • An independent and unbiased approach, with aptitude for research.  • Being an emerging and expanding field of audit, inclination to develop and apply new techniques and methodologies to assess the environmental related performance of the entity, by drawing experience from elsewhere.  • Good human relations and communication skills. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 112
  113. 113.  Audit Process •  The key activities include understanding management system; assessing the strengths and weakness; gathering audit evidences, evaluating audit finding and reporting audit finding to management.  Post Audit Activities:  • Post audit activities are to ensure the audit results are clearly communicated to the appropriate level of management and to evaluate effectiveness of audit and provide suggestions for improving future audit; share lessons learned during the audit. It also includes preparation of a draft report; issue a final report to legal counsel and develop a develop action plans and follow up. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 113
  114. 114.  Types of Environmental Audits • • • • • • • • Compliance Audits Environmental Management Audit Liability Definition or due Diligence Audits.  Supplier Audits.  Programme Audits Single Issue Audits.  Risk Definition or Hazard Identification Where international audits need to be carried out by a central team, there can be good reasons for covering more than one area while onsite to minimize costs.  Types of Environmental Audits  Compliance Audits  Environmental Management Audit  Liability Definition or due Diligence Audits  Supplier Audits. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 114
  115. 115.  The Benefits of Auditing  • While environmental audits are designed to identify environmental problems, there may be widely differing reasons for undertaking them: Compliance with legislation, pressure from suppliers and customers, requirements from insurers or for capital projects, or to demonstrate environmental activities to the public.  The benefits of environmental audit include:  • Ensuring compliance, not only with laws, regulations and standards, but also with laws, regulation and standards, but also with company policies. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 115
  116. 116.  The Benefits of Auditing  • Enabling environmental problems and risks to be anticipated and responses planned.  • To demonstrate that an organization is aware of its impact upon the environment through providing feedback.  • Increases management and employee awareness of environmental issues.  • More efficient resources use and finance savings.  • Promotes “Good Practices”  • Providing better private and Public Image and “Security” to Top Management. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 116
  117. 117.  The Benefits of Auditing  ISO 14000 and Environmental Management System  • The International environmental Standards are intended to provide organizations with the elements of an effective environmental management system, which can be integrated of an effective environment management system, which can be integrated with other management requirements to assist organizations to achieve environmental and financial goals. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 117
  118. 118.  ISO 14000 and Environmental Management System  • The Current International Standards Environmental Management System cover following major areas:  • Environment Management System  • Environmental Auditing  • Environmental Labeling  • Environmental Performance Evaluation  • Life Cycle Assessment and terms of definition on the  ISO 14000 and Environmental Management System  • ISO 14000 builds a single global management System that allows effective management of environmental responsibilities, liabilities, costs, document commitment to government, and promotes concern for the society.  ISO 14000 and Environmental Management System  • ISO 14000 is a way of empowering businesses to take control of environmental responsibility and encouraging government departments to approach the challenges with far greater flexibility. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 118
  119. 119.  ISO 14000 and Environmental Management System  • ISO 14000 does not only relate entirely to massive global companies. The standard states that” It has been written to applicable to all types and sizes of organization and to accommodate diverse geographical, cultural and social condition.”  • ISO 14001 Certification is an initiative to bring about uniformity in environmental compliance standard to reduce impediment to trade among countries.  To Whom does the Standard Apply?  • The Standards apply to all type and sizes of organizations and the design to encompass diverse, Cultural and Social Conditions. For ISO 14001, except for committing to continual improvement and compliance with applicable legislation and regulations, the standard does not establish absolute requirement for environmental performance. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 119
  120. 120.  To Whom does the Standard Apply?  • ISO 14000 is a group of standards encompassing the following areas:  • Environmental Management Systems (14001, 14002, 14004)  • Environmental Auditing (14010, 14011, 14012)  • Evaluation of Environmental Performance (14031)  • Environmental Labeling (14020, 14021, 14022, 14023, 14025)  • Life Cycle Assessment Dr. Tabrez Ahmad, http://energylex.blogspot.in 120
  121. 121. Environmental policy is any course of action deliberately taken [or not taken] to manage human activities with a view to prevent, reduce, or mitigate harmful effects on nature and natural resources, and ensuring that man-made changes to the environment do not have harmful effects on humans. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 121 Environmental Policy
  122. 122.  The OSPAR Convention 1992 - is the convention for the Protection of Maritime Environment of the North East Atlantic. This is an international treaty in respect of preventing and eliminating pollution.  Oil Pollution, Prevention and Control OPPC Regulations 2005 (UK) - Early Treaties  Oslo Convention 1972 – Convention for the Prevention of Maritime pollution by dumping from ships and aircrafts.  Paris Convention 1974 – Convention on the prevention of maritime pollution from land based sources. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 122 Framework for Environmental Legislation
  123. 123. Various Environmental legislations covers all aspects of offshore oil and gas regulations; Exploration, Production, Decommissioning and Abandonment. These legislations are enforced through:  Licensing – Application process - Model Clauses  The Energy related Ministries and the government departments responsible for licensing and exploration enforcement and regulating developments of India’s oil and gas resources. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 123 Enforcement of Environmental Legislation Cont.
  124. 124.  Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) collaborate with Ministry of Energy to regulate environmental issues relating to the oil and gas industry.  Environmental Legislation The Environmental Protection Act 1986 establishes the Authority, Responsibility, Structure and Funding of the EPA. The Act defines the requirements and responsibilities of the Environmental Protection Inspectors and empowers the EPA to request that an EIA process be undertaken. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 124 Enforcement of Environmental Legislation Cont..
  125. 125. Energy policy is the manner in which a given entity (often governmental) has decided to address issues of energy development including energy production, distribution and consumption. The attributes of energy policy may include legislation, international treaties, incentives to investment, guidelines for energy conservation, taxation and other public policy techniques. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 125 Energy Policy
  126. 126.  To provide direction and a framework for management and decision making  To provide some clarity on the industry  To provide other stakeholders a framework  Provides a mechanism to coordinate and monitor activities of a sector  Facilitate constructive dialogue  To provide clients/partners with information on areas of business opportunities Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 126 Rational for a policy
  127. 127. • This National Energy Policy outlines the energy sector goals, challenges and actions. • The Policy covers a gamut of issues and challenges relating to the following areas: I. Power Sub-sector; II. Petroleum Sub-sector; III. Renewable Energy Sub-sector; IV. Waste-to-Energy; Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 127 India’s energy policy –key highlights
  128. 128. V. Energy Efficiency and Conservation; VI. Energy and Environment; VII. Energy and Gender; and VIII. Managing the future of the sector. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 128 India’s energy policy –key highlights Cont.
  129. 129.  The Power-Subsector  The goals of the Power sub-sector includes increasing installed power generation capacity from about 2,000 MW today to 5,000 megawatts (MW) by 2015, and increase electricity access from the current level of 66% to universal access by 2020. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 129 India’s energy policy –key highlights
  130. 130.  Petroleum Sub-sector  The goals of the Petroleum sub-sector includes ensuring sustainable exploration, development and production of the country’s oil and gas endowment;  Judicious management of the oil and gas revenue for the overall benefit and welfare of all Indian; and  Indigenisation of related knowledge, expertise and technology. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 130 India’s energy policy –key highlights
  131. 131.  Renewable Energy Sub-sector  The Renewable Energy sub-sector covers biomass, mini hydro, solar and wind resources.  The goals of the Renewable Energy sub-sector includes increasing the proportion of renewable energy in the total national energy mix and ensure its efficient production and use. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 131 India’s energy policy –key highlights
  132. 132. (i) inadequate infrastructure requiring huge investments; (ii) inadequate access to energy services; (iii) high cost of fuel for electricity generation; (iv) inadequate regulatory capacity and enforcement; Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 132 Challenges in the Policy Implementation
  133. 133. (v) operational and management difficulties in utility companies (vi) vulnerability to climate change and environmental impacts (vii) inefficiency in the production, transportation and use of energy Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 133 Challenges in the Policy Implementation Cont.
  134. 134.  1. Create a new ministry of energy by integrating the ministries of petroleum & natural gas, power, new and renewable energy, coal and the Nuclear Power Corporation  2 Every unit of fuel and every unit of energy should command a market price: subsidise the poor through direct cash transfers  3 End Coal India’s monopoly over the mining of coal; Allow domestic and foreign investors to mine coal and sell in the open market  4 Give complete autonomy to energy PSUs like ONGC, IOC, NTPC; Begin the process of privatization via a National Shareholding Trust accountable to Parliament  5 Set strict time limits for environment clearances for mining and energy projects  6 Corporatise and merge state electricity discoms into a single national entity  7 Create a cross-border energy grid: tap the hydro-power potential of neighbouring countries  8 Create ready-to-dig opportunities for exploration companies  9 Upgrade the Solar Energy Mission: target 30,000 MW instead of current 20,000 MW capacity in ten years; Encourage wind-based power  10 Address the demand side to encourage energy efficiency: make the GRIHA system of rating buildings mandatory; Impose higher taxes on energy inefficient household appliances and motor vehicles Energy Policy- Strategic areas Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 134
  135. 135.  Strengths and Opportunities: It will allow the government to frame a coherent energy policy that cuts across different sub sectors.  It will end the coordination problems and turf wars between existing ministries which often work at cross purposes.  Weaknesses and Threats: It will mean that the jobs of four cabinet ministers will be reduced to one.  It will be resisted by the bureaucracies in each of the ministries.  How to get it done: An executive order announcing the merger of the 4 ministries (plus one PSU) as soon as the PM is sworn is, before the cabinet portfolio allocation is made.  A minister of state must be appointed for each sub-sector who can be responsible for the execution of projects in that sub-sector even as the cabinet minister frames overall policy and ensures coordination.  Case Studies: In Germany, the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy has the lead responsibility for the formulation and implementation of Energy policy.  The US and UK have unified ministries of energy. 1. Create a new ministry of energy by integrating the ministries of petroleum & natural gas, power, new and renewable energy, coal and the Nuclear Power Corporation Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 135
  136. 136.  Strengths and Opportunities: It will help contain the government’s fiscal deficit.  It will help the rational use of energy resources as people moderate their consumption according to market prices.  Weaknesses and Threats: It will be viewed as an anti-poor, anti-middle class move.  It will be near impossible to forge a broad political consensus on it.  How to get it done: Announce an immediate and complete deregulation of diesel prices. To make this politically acceptable, the current scheme of 50 paise adjustment per month should be considerably accelerated, perhaps to Rs 1-2 per month.  Government should end the practice of dictating the prices of petrol and diesel to oil PSUs.  Announce an in-principle end to subsidies for LPG and kerosense with the assurance that these will be phased out only when a direct cash transfer subsidy scheme for the poor is implemented. Announce a tight time-table along with the launch of several closely monitored and scalable pilot projects.  Use Aadhar to fast track the implementation of cash subsidy scheme for the poor. 2 Every unit of fuel and every unit of energy should command a market price: subsidise the poor through direct cash transfers Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 136
  137. 137.  Case Studies: Russia announced plans to raise regulated natural gas tariffs on the domestic market by 15 percent for all users from July 2013. China announced that oil product prices would be adjusted every 10 working days to better reflect international prices from March 2013.  Subsidies to coal producers, for example, have been phased out or reduced sharply in recent years in several OECD countries. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 137
  138. 138.  Strengths and Opportunities: As a monopoly that makes super-profits, Coal India has no incentive to ramp up production to the levels India’s energy sector needs.  India’s power sector is predominantly dependent on coal. Captive mining by private sector is not a substitute for open competition in coal mining.  India’s balance of payments has suffered because of excessive imports of coal despite sufficient domestic reserves.  Weaknesses and Threats: Coal India will resist and try and protect its monopoly status.  Domestic interest groups will resist opening coal mining to foreign investors.  How to get it done: By creating a unified ministry of energy, the Coal Ministry’s resistance to opening their prized PSU to competition will be reduced.  Offer Coal India full managerial autonomy in return for putting them on a level playing field.  Case Study: Australian Federal Treasurer Joe Hockey removed foreign investment conditions on the ownership of Yancoal Australia Limited in 2013. The riders were earlier placed on Yanzhou Coal Mining Company, a Chinese state- owned enterprise, in 2009, including reducing its ownership in Yancoal, which operates mines in NSW and Queensland, from 100% to less than 70%. 3 End Coal India’s monopoly over the mining of coal; Allow domestic and foreign investors to mine coal and sell in the open market Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 138
  139. 139.  Strengths and Opportunities: The problem is not ownership per se. The problem is the consequence of ownership. Government ownership inducts both sloth and corruption into the management of public sector units; Government is still a major player in energy.  The cohabitation of government ownership in sectors opened to private investment has only enhanced renting – as is evident in the civil aviation sector - and arbitrage opportunities – in coal and power, for instance -- thanks to inefficiencies embedded through ownership.  Public ownership in its truest sense will enhance accountability, investment and efficiency through competitive practices.  Weaknesses and Threats: Ministers will resist an erosion of their turf of patronage.  There will be a political storm over privatizing profitable PSUs, even though these profits are because of protection not competitiveness. 4. Give complete autonomy to energy PSUs like ONGC, IOC, NTPC; Begin the process of privatization via a National Shareholding Trust accountable to Parliament Dr. Tabrez Ahmad http://energylex.blogspot.in 139

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