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Intentional Torts

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Theses slides are the parts of the lectures delivered by Dr. Tabrez Ahmad in KIIT Law School, KIIT University India.

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Intentional Torts

  1. 1. Dr. Tabrez Ahmad Associate Professor of Law Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  2. 2. <ul><li>Nature of a Tort: </li></ul><ul><li>Tort liability is imposed by law rather than voluntary assumed as is the case with contract liability. </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  3. 3. <ul><li>When does a tort occur? </li></ul><ul><li>There are 4 elements in a tort action: </li></ul><ul><li>1. A duty to one person </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  4. 4. <ul><li>2. The breach of that duty (either by doing something or failing to do something) </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  5. 5. <ul><li>3. The breach must proximately cause the plaintiff’s injury </li></ul><ul><li>4. An injury to the plaintiff </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  6. 6. <ul><li>What is an intentional act? </li></ul><ul><li>An act is intentional where the actor: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Intended the physical consequences of his/her act or </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  7. 7. <ul><li>2. Knew, or should have known, that those consequences were substantially certain to occur as a result of his/her conduct </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  8. 8. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Bhaskar locks his shop at the end of the day. Unknown to Bhaskar, Kanad was in the restroom. </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  9. 9. <ul><li>As a result, Kanad could not exit the store until Bhaskar returned the next day. </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  10. 10. <ul><li>Has Bhaskar Committed a false imprisonment? </li></ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  11. 11. <ul><li>Intentional Torts: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Battery </li></ul><ul><li>2. Assault </li></ul><ul><li>3. False Imprisonment </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  12. 12. <ul><li>4. Infliction of Emotional Distress </li></ul><ul><li>5. Defamation </li></ul><ul><li>6. Invasion of Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>7. Trespass </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  13. 13. <ul><li>8. Nuisance </li></ul><ul><li>9. Trespass to Personal Property </li></ul><ul><li>10. Conversion </li></ul><ul><li>11. Interference with Contractual Rights </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  14. 14. <ul><li>12. Disparagement </li></ul><ul><li>13. Fraudulent Misrepresentation </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  15. 15. <ul><li>Battery: </li></ul><ul><li>A battery occurs where the defendant has intentionally caused an offensive touching upon an item which is physically associated with the plaintiff. </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  16. 16. <ul><li>Prima facie defined: “At first look” – a claim “good on the face of it” </li></ul><ul><li>What does it mean? </li></ul><ul><li>Why have such a requirement? </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  17. 17. <ul><li>Moving party argues that the Complaint, assuming factual allegations to be true, fails to state a valid legal claim </li></ul><ul><li>Facts extraneous to the Complaint are not considered – the motion focuses on “the four corners of the Complaint” </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  18. 18. <ul><li>Van Camp v. McAfoos : </li></ul><ul><li>Plaintiff’s complaint fails to state a claim if it does not contain an allegation of fault – an allegation that the defendant acted either intentionally or negligently </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  19. 19. <ul><li>Literally asks the judge to “direct” the jury to render a verdict for the moving party </li></ul><ul><li>-- comes after the plaintiff has produced all his evidence at trial </li></ul><ul><li>-- moving party is arguing that the plaintiff has failed to prove the elements of any legal claim </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  20. 20. <ul><li>Battery requires that the defendant act, “intending to cause a harmful or offensive contact,” and that “a harmful [or offensive] contact results.” </li></ul><ul><li>-- Snyder v. Turk </li></ul><ul><li>-- Cohen v. Smith </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  21. 21. <ul><li>What counts as “contact” ? </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  22. 22. <ul><li>What damages are available for offensive (not physically harmful) battery? </li></ul><ul><li>Must damages be proved with precision? </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  23. 23. <ul><li>1. Defendant must act volitionally </li></ul><ul><li>2. Defendant must intend to cause a harmful or offensive touching of the plaintiff </li></ul><ul><li>3. Contact with or touching of the plaintiff </li></ul><ul><li>4. Plaintiff must be either harmed or offended by the touching ( note causal link ) </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  24. 24. <ul><li>Either of the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Acting with the purpose to achieve the invasive result, </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Acting with knowledge that the invasive result is substantially certain to occur </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  25. 25. <ul><li>D intends to commit a tort on A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But commits that tort on B instead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can B sue D for that tort? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But commits a different tort on A </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can A sue D for the different tort? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But commits a different tort on B instead. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can B sue D for the different tort? </li></ul></ul></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  26. 26. <ul><li>Children: May be held liable for intentional torts, as long as they form the requisite intent and the other elements are proved </li></ul><ul><li>Parents: Are not liable for torts of their children, unless (1) the parents themselves are at fault and primarily liable, OR (2) a statute makes them liable. </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  27. 27. <ul><li>Polmatier & White v. Muniz </li></ul><ul><li>General rule : Mental infirmity is not a blanket defense. The issue is whether the defendant formed the required “intent.” </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  28. 28. <ul><li>Defendant must intend to touch the plaintiff </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>must intend to harm or offend the plaintiff </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  29. 29. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>1.Where the D </li></ul><ul><li>deliberately poisons the plaintiff </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  30. 30. <ul><li>2.Where the D knocks a hat off the plaintiff’s </li></ul><ul><li>head </li></ul><ul><li>3.Where the D shakes the car that the D knows the plaintiff is seated in. </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  31. 31. <ul><li>Assault: </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs where the defendant intentionally cause the plaintiff to reasonably be in apprehension of an imminent, offensive touching. </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  32. 32. <ul><li>False Imprisonment: </li></ul><ul><li>Occurs when the defendant intentionally confines (either physically or by overcoming the plaintiff’s will) </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  33. 33. <ul><li>the plaintiff to a definable area from which there is no reasonably apparent means of escape . </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  34. 34. <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasure Inn </li></ul><ul><li>Shopkeeper’s Privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Arrest Privilege </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  35. 35. <ul><li>Defamation: </li></ul><ul><li>Elements: </li></ul><ul><li>1. False Communication </li></ul><ul><li>2. Injury to the Reputation </li></ul><ul><li>3. Published Statement </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  36. 36. <ul><li>A defamatory statement is one which is false and lowers the person’s esteem in the community or subjects the person to hatred, contempt, or ridicule. </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  37. 37. <ul><li>Defamation (continued): </li></ul><ul><li>Libel: When the defamatory statement is in written form. </li></ul><ul><li>Slander: When the defamatory statement is oral </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  38. 38. <ul><li>* The defamatory statement must be communicated to a third person or persons other than the one who is defamed. </li></ul><ul><li>* Can not defame a dead person. </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  39. 39. <ul><li>Defenses to defamation suits: </li></ul><ul><li>Absolute Privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Qualified Privilege </li></ul><ul><li>Constitutional </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  40. 40. <ul><li>Invasion of Privacy: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Appropriation of Name or Likeness </li></ul><ul><li>*Use of another’s name without consent </li></ul><ul><li>*For benefit </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  41. 41. <ul><li>2. Intrusion </li></ul><ul><li>*Unreasonable and offensive interference with person’s seclusion </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  42. 42. <ul><li>3. Public Disclosure of Private Facts </li></ul><ul><li>* Publicity (communication to public peers) </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  43. 43. <ul><li>* Of private information regarding an individual can be truthful </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  44. 44. <ul><li>4. False Light </li></ul><ul><li>* Highly Offensive </li></ul><ul><li>* Publicity </li></ul><ul><li>* Placing another in false light </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  45. 45. <ul><li>* The defendant publicly knew was untrue or acted in reckless disregard of truth </li></ul><ul><li>* There is a difference between an accident and reckless disregard </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  46. 46. <ul><li>Interference with Property Rights: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Real Property </li></ul></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  47. 47. <ul><ul><li>Trespass: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intentionally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enters or remains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>on property belonging to another or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>causes a thing or another to do so or </li></ul></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  48. 48. <ul><ul><li>fails to remove something he has a duty to remove. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Injury (damage) does not have to occur. </li></ul></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  49. 49. <ul><li>Interference with Property Rights: </li></ul><ul><li>Airspace </li></ul><ul><li>Nuisance </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  50. 50. <ul><li>Personal Property: </li></ul><ul><li>Intention </li></ul><ul><li>dispossession or </li></ul><ul><li>unauthorized use of other’s property </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT
  51. 51. <ul><li>Liability: </li></ul><ul><li>Dispossession </li></ul><ul><li>Trespass to personal property </li></ul><ul><li>Conversion </li></ul>Friday, December 11, 2009 Dr. Tabrez Ahmad,KLS, KIIT

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