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Nanotechnology Presentation For Electronic Industry


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Nanotechnology for electronic Industry

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Nanotechnology Presentation For Electronic Industry

  1. 1. The aim of Nanoelectronics is to process, transmit and store information by taking advantage of properties of matter that are distinctly different from macroscopic properties. The relevant length scale depends on the phenomena investigated: it is a few nm for molecules that act like transistors or memory devices, can be 999 nm for quantum dot where the spin of the electron is being used to process information. Microelectronics, even if the gate size of the transistor is 50 nm, is not an implementation of nano electronics, as no new qualitative physical property related to reduction in size are being exploited. Nano electronics Nano Science & Technology
  2. 2. The last few decades has seen an exponential growth in microchip capabilities due primarily to a decrease in the minimum feature sizes. The resulting doubling of processor speed every 18 months (known as Moores Law) is, however, expected to break down for conventional microelectronics in about 15 years for both fundamental and economic reasons [Nature 406,1027 (2000)]. Fifteen years correspond to only 3 generations of graduate students (2 y MSc., 3y Ph.D.)! The search is on, therefore, for new properties, paradigms and architectures to create a novel nanoelectronics. Nano electronics Nano Science & Technology
  3. 3. Semiconductor electronics have seen a sustained exponential decrease in size and cost and a similar increase in performance and level of integration over the last thirty years (known as Moore's Law). After 10 years, either economical or physical barriers will pose a huge challenge. The difficulty of making a profit in view of the exorbitant costs of building the necessary manufacturing capabilities if present day technologies are extrapolated. The latter is a direct consequence of the shrinking device size, . Nanoelectronics thus needs to be understood as a general field of research aimed at developing an understanding of the phenomena characteristic of nanometer sized objects with the aim of exploiting them for information processing purposes. Specifically, by electronics we mean the handling of complicated electrical wave forms for communicating information (as in cellular phones), probing (as in radar) and data processing (as in computers) [Landauer, Science (1968)]. Concepts at the fundamental research level are being persued world-wide to find nano-solutions to these three characteristic applications of electronics. One can group these concepts into three main categories: 1. Molecular electronics Electronic effects (e.g. electrical conductance of C60) Synthesis (DNA computing as a buzz word) 2. Quantum Electronics, Spintronics (e.g. quantum dots, magnetic effects) 3. Quantum computing Currently the most active field of research is the fabrication and characterization of individual components that could replace the macroscopic silicon components with nanoscale systems. Examples are molecular diodes , single atom switches or the increasingly better control and understanding of the transport of electrons in quantum dot structures. A second field with substantial activity is the investigation of potential interconnects. Here, mostly carbon nanotubes and self-assembled metallic or organic structures are being investigated. Very little work is being performed on architecture (notable exceptions are HP's Teramac project [Heath et al., Science 280 , 1716 (1998)] or IBM's selfhealing Blue Gene project). Furthermore, modeling with predictive power is in a very juvenile stage of development. This understanding is necessary to develop engineering rules of thumb to design complex systems. One needs to appreciate that currently the best calculations of the conductance of a simple molecule such as C60 are off by a factor of more than 30. This has to do with the difficult to model, but non-trivial influence of the electronic contact leads. The situation in quantum computing is somewhat different. The main activities are on theoretical development of core concepts and algorithms. Experimental implementations are only starting. An exception is the field of cryptography (information transportation), where entangled photon states propagating in a conventional optical fiber have been demonstrated experimentally.
  4. 4. First, nanoelctronics is a wide open field with vast potential for breakthroughs coming from fundamental research. Some of the major issues that need to be addressed are the following: 1. Understand nanoscale transport! (closed loop between theory and experiment necessary). Most experiments and modeling concentrate on DC properties, AC properties at THz frequencies are however expected to be relevant. 2. Develop/understand self-assembly techniques to do conventional things cheaper. This has the future potential to displace a large fraction of conventional semiconductor applications. One needs to solve the interconnect problem and find a replacement of the transistor. If this can be done by self-assembly, a major cost advantage compared to conventional silicon technology would result. 3. Find new ways of doing electronics and find ways of implementing them (e.g. quantum computing; electronics modeled after living systems; hybrid Si-biological systems; cellular automata). Do not try and duplicate a transistor, but instead investigate new electronics paradigms! Do research as a graduate student in this field and lay the foundation for the Intel of the New Millennium. What needs to be done ? Nanoelectronics Nano Science & Technology
  5. 5. Unique Optical behavior of nano-materials Optical properties of solids are caused when an electron changes from a high energy state to a lower energy state, it gives off a photon with the energy difference between the states. When the electron waves are confined, only specific wavelengths of photons are given off, these nanomaterials are called quantum dots. Quantum dot Nano Science & Technology
  6. 6. Quantum Dots Future applications Biosensers Drug Delivery Disease Treatment In vitro Imaging Of Fixed cell and Tissues Intracellular Organelles And Molecules Membrane Surface Bionalytical Assays Fluorescent activated Cell sorting (FACS) Analysis and Microarrays CdSe powder Nano Science & Technology Quantum dot In vivo targeting of Cells, tissues organs And tumors in animals For diagnosis, Therapy & drug testing
  7. 7. Electron beam Lithography Using electron beams to create the mask patterns directly on a chip Wave length of electron beam used is in picometers Nano Science and Technology ITO- Indium tin oxide conductive film Magnified 35,000 Times Tiny lines on this silicon wafer
  8. 8. Nanorobotics is the technology of creating machines or robots at or close to the scale of a nanometers (10 -9 meters). Nanorobot in surgery Nanorobot in bloodstream Nanorobot delivers a molecule to the organ inlet Nano Science and Technology Nanorobotics Nanorobot in organism Nanorobot (biological motor) Nanorobot
  9. 9. Nano Science and Technology Applications in Electronics Nano TV Ipod Nano Single nanotube transistor
  10. 10. Homeland Security application Nano Science and Technology Applications in Electronics
  11. 11. Applications like 6,840 raw uncompressed high quality Video/TV hours, or nearly 10,000,000 high-resolution images, or 30,000 four-drawer filing cabinets of documents, or 20,000 DVD'S Worm's or 100 - 100 gigabyte disk drives etc. - Nano Science and Technology Atomic Holographic Optical Storage Nanotechnology
  12. 12. Rewritable Atomic Holographic Optical Storage is useful because -   highest NLO analog / digital / optical capacity available -    lowest cost per gigabyte -    highest data bit density of any storage device -    lowest power requirements per gigabyte -    longest archive shelf life of any data storage media, -    widest environmental conditions and tolerances -    only technology that scales from nano to macro solutions -    most reliable removable read / write media available -    a non-contact recording nanotechnology for increased reliability -    highest bandwidth data transfer potential -    direct replacement for hard disk drives -   NO destruction of storage media destroyed by Infrared, Visible, or UV rays -    NOT effected by extreme high energy EMF or Cosmic Ray i.e. Solar Flares and Solar Winds for Moon / Mars Exploration Nano Science and Technology Atomic Holographic Optical Storage Nanotechnology
  13. 13. Peptide nanotubes on a carbon electrode for biosensors Nano-electronic biosensor based on a nanowire Possible biosensor using carbon nanotube Digital images of single-cell sensing. A- An optical nanosensor before insertion and a single cell, B- Optical nanosensor inserted into the cell. Applications in Biosensers Nano Science and Technology A B
  14. 19. Impact of Electron Devices on Warfighting
  15. 20. Scanning Near-field Photon Emission Microscopy (SNPEM) Techniques for Nano-electronic Device Failure Analysis                                                                                                                                                                                           Schematic illustration of scanning near-field photon emission spectroscopy
  16. 21. Thanks