Microfluidics

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Microfluidics

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Microfluidics

  1. 1. Microfluidics
  2. 2. Microfluidics refers to the behavior and control of liquids constrained to volumes near the μL range. Behavior of liquids in the micro domain differs greatly from macroscopic fluids. –Surface tension. –Laminar flow. –Fast thermal relaxation. –Diffusion. Microfluidics
  3. 3. Microfluidics Microfluidics was developed in the 1980s, mainly for use in inkjet printers Microfluidics is an multidisciplinary field with a wide variety of applications
  4. 4. Components of Microfluidic Device Micro-scale Handling System Sample Loading And Injection Microfluidic Device Small Volume Transport Electro-Osmotic Pump Subatmospheric Pressure Chamber Electro-Pneumatic Distributor
  5. 5. Microscale Fluid Handling System A solution for conducting microscale reactions (digestion, separation etc.) and for efficiently transporting microliter to picoliter samples from a chip to an analytical device and/or a collection device. Advantages Efficient Sample Transport Reduces manipulations (e.g.. flushing) Reduces/eliminates problems of sample carryover Savings Less Sample, Reagent(s), Time
  6. 6. Sample Loading and Injection Device A solution for a universal interface device for transferring samples in series or parallel from sample container (e.g. multi-well plates) into channels of a multi-channel microfluidic device and/or into an analytical device that can be integrated into or separated from a microchip. Advantages Uses standardized sample plates Variable sample volumes Reusable or disposable device
  7. 7. Electro-osmotic Pumping System A solution to control fluid dynamics in microfluidic device by using pump(s) to generate electro-osmotic flow or pressurized flow in the device and/or to perform sample transfer, gradient generation or fraction collection/deposition. Advantages Easily integrated into existing microchips Its fabrication ensures high manufacturing and operating reproducibility Simple design
  8. 8. Small Volume Transport A solution for moving small volumes of sample through the capillary channels or tubing of a microfluidic device, especially long distances. Advantages Minimal loss or dilution of sample. Minimal cross contamination between samples  Minimal loss of sample to channel walls Washes inserted between samples Faster sample changes Multiple sample plugs injected at closely spaced intervals Samples can be transported long distances with high speed to devices, such as an NMR.
  9. 9. Variable Pressure Delivery Chamber A solution for more efficient sample transfer from electrophoresis capillary or microchip to a mass spectrometer through an electrospray chamber by controlling pressure to allow fine control of sample flow rate from electrospray needle. Advantages Minimal sample loss Lower evaporation of droplets Efficient desolvation Minimal power supply source needed
  10. 10. A New Class of Micropump: The Micro Throttle Pump (MTP)
  11. 11. Applications of Microfluidics Fast PCR using Nanodroplets Continued…
  12. 12. Applications of Microfluidics Continued… Lab on a Chip (LOC) for bacterial culturing and testing.
  13. 13. Applications of Microfluidics Lab-on-a-Robot Wireless mobile unit carrying an electrochemical detection unit and HVPS.  After choosing a location, onboard GPS navigates the robot to the test site. At test site, a MEMS device diffuses a gas sample through 50 μL of buffer solution. A small sample of this solution is injected into a microfluidic device that electrophoretically separates the components of the gas. A detector sends real-time sampling data back to the base computer running a LabVIEW program, which can be used to relay new commands to the robot and analyze the data transmitted from the robot.

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