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Introduction To Environmental Health

Introduction To Environmental Health

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Introduction To Environmental Health

  1. 1. Introduction To Environmental Health<br />
  2. 2. Definition: ‘Health …’<br />‘…is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity’<br />‘Health is only possible where resources are available to meet human needs and where the living and working environment is protected from life-threatening and health threatening pollutants, pathogens and physical hazards’<br />
  3. 3. Definition: ‘Environment’<br />‘…[All] that which is external to individual human host. <br />It can be divided into physical, biological, social cultural any or all of which can influence health status in populations.’<br />
  4. 4. Definition: ‘Environmental Health’<br />‘…comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, biological, social and psychosocial factors in the environment. It also, refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling, and preventing those factors in the environment that can potentially affect adversely the health of present and future generations’<br />
  5. 5. Definition: ‘Environmental Health’<br />‘…comprises those aspects of human health, including quality of life, that are determined by physical, biological, social and psychosocial factors in the environment. It also, refers to the theory and practice of assessing, correcting, controlling, and preventing those factors in the environment that can potentially affect adversely the health of present and future generations’<br />
  6. 6. ‘Health Effect…’<br />‘…is the specific damage to health that an environmental hazard can cause an individual person. Often the same hazard can cause a range of different effects of different severity.’<br />
  7. 7. Interdependent Environments<br />A relational definition of environment is a function of scale, boundaries, spatial proximity and recipient populations<br />When considering a global scale, focus is on the effect of an unbounded environment, e.g. air, on all populations anywhere<br />
  8. 8. Interdependent Environments<br />When considering local scale, focus is on effect of both a bounded and an unbounded environment, e.g. water and air, on a subpopulation closest to the exposure event<br />The local scale is a subpart of the global scale<br />
  9. 9. Systematic Approach<br />In the absence of a universal definition of ‘good health’, at least a universal concept of adverse health effect, e.g. sick, illness, dysfunctional, ‘not normal’ or ‘not well’, must exist such that understanding the concept results in a response<br />In order to identify and investigate adverse states of health, a fundamental systematic approach of health problem identification and characterization must exist and be implemented<br />
  10. 10. Systematic Approach<br />This approach is summarized as follows:<br /><ul><li>Determine the source and nature of hazards
  11. 11. Determine the exposure pathway
  12. 12. Measure the effects
  13. 13. Apply controls however possible</li></li></ul><li>Systematic Approach<br />This approach is summarized as follows:<br /><ul><li>Determine the source and nature of hazards
  14. 14. Determine the exposure pathway
  15. 15. Measure the effects
  16. 16. Apply controls however possible</li></li></ul><li>Environmental problem responders<br /><ul><li>focus on the health hazard that has been identified and characterized
  17. 17. analyze the environment of the exposed population to see what controls are needed and what controls can be implemented to minimize risk of recurrence and risk of future occurrence
  18. 18. where means of control does not exist, it may be necessary to invent</li>
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Introduction To Environmental Health

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