Applying the ARCS Model of Motivational Design in     Distance LearningJohn M. Keller, Florida State University
Topics   Issues in Distance Learning   Characteristics of the ARCS Model   Empirical Studies of the ARCS Model   Motiv...
Issues   Drop out    Non-completion    Boredom    Lack of support    Need for support    Scarcity of empirical    st...
ARCS: Characteristics   Four categories   Grounded in the literature   Provides basis for design   Integrated with lea...
ARCS: Conceptual Foundation      Attention Need for stimulation & variety         – curiosity, boredom, arousal      Rel...
ARCS: Design Process   Seven to ten steps   Worksheets with instructions   Problem solving model   Compatible with ins...
ARCS: Critical Design Events  l    Audience analysis       (Curvilinear)  l    Design strategy       (From brain-       st...
Studies: Theoretical Validity Means, Jonassen, & Dwyer, 1996 Goal: To determine the role of relevance in  students’ moti...
Studies: Application Validity Suzuki & Keller (1996) Implemented motivational design  activities in a major computer pro...
Studies: Adaptive CBI Design   Song & Keller (1999)   Continuing analysis of learner    motivation   Computer adjusts m...
Motivation & D. L.: Studies   Types: theoretical, application, case,    empirical, opinion   Indicators of satisfaction ...
Motivation & D. L.: Student  Support  Visser’s (1999) approach: student   support  Motivational messages  Use of the si...
Summary      Problem Solving Approach      Wide Range of Application      Still EvolvingJohn M. Keller, Florida State U...
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Applying the arcs_model_of_motivational_design_in_distance_learning_by_john_keller _final

  1. 1. Applying the ARCS Model of Motivational Design in Distance LearningJohn M. Keller, Florida State University
  2. 2. Topics  Issues in Distance Learning  Characteristics of the ARCS Model  Empirical Studies of the ARCS Model  Motivation & Distance Learning  SummaryJohn M. Keller, Florida State University
  3. 3. Issues Drop out Non-completion Boredom Lack of support Need for support Scarcity of empirical studies Criticality of motivationJohn M. Keller, Florida State University
  4. 4. ARCS: Characteristics  Four categories  Grounded in the literature  Provides basis for design  Integrated with learning & performanceJohn M. Keller, Florida State University
  5. 5. ARCS: Conceptual Foundation  Attention Need for stimulation & variety – curiosity, boredom, arousal  Relevance Desire to satisfy basic motives – needs, motives, attractions  Confidence Desire to feel competent and in control – attributions, expectancies, self-efficacy  Satisfaction Desire to feel good about oneself – intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, equityJohn M. Keller, Florida State University
  6. 6. ARCS: Design Process  Seven to ten steps  Worksheets with instructions  Problem solving model  Compatible with instructional systems design (ISD)John M. Keller, Florida State University
  7. 7. ARCS: Critical Design Events l Audience analysis (Curvilinear) l Design strategy (From brain- storming to analysis)John M. Keller, Florida State University
  8. 8. Studies: Theoretical Validity Means, Jonassen, & Dwyer, 1996 Goal: To determine the role of relevance in students’ motivation to learn Found relevance to be affected differently by intrinsic and extrinsic factors Motivation, especially confidence, was related to achievement John M. Keller, Florida State University
  9. 9. Studies: Application Validity Suzuki & Keller (1996) Implemented motivational design activities in a major computer project Tested the effectiveness of ARCS motivational tactics Found a high level of satisfactionJohn M. Keller, Florida State University
  10. 10. Studies: Adaptive CBI Design  Song & Keller (1999)  Continuing analysis of learner motivation  Computer adjusts motivational tactics  Includes learner controlJohn M. Keller, Florida State University
  11. 11. Motivation & D. L.: Studies  Types: theoretical, application, case, empirical, opinion  Indicators of satisfaction (Biner, Dean, & Mellinger, 1994; Tallman, 1994)  Persistence & motivational characteristics (Fjortoft, 1996)John M. Keller, Florida State University
  12. 12. Motivation & D. L.: Student Support  Visser’s (1999) approach: student support  Motivational messages  Use of the simplified design process  Positive results on retentionJohn M. Keller, Florida State University
  13. 13. Summary  Problem Solving Approach  Wide Range of Application  Still EvolvingJohn M. Keller, Florida State University

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