The Gilded Age


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The Gilded Age

  1. 1. The Gilded Age<br />The Politics of Corruption and the Corruption of Politics.<br />
  2. 2. &quot;No country can be well governed unless its citizens as a body keep religiously before their minds that they are the guardians of the law, and that the law officers are only the machinery for its execution, nothing more.&quot;<br />
  3. 3. The Gilded Age?<br />1865-1901<br />Corrupt<br />Industrialization <br />Urbanization<br />Immigration <br />Power: 1/8 of the population owned 7/8 of the wealth…<br />Close elections- back and forth<br />
  4. 4. The less a man knows the bigger the noise he makes and the higher the salary he commands.<br />Andrew Johnson (D-National Union): One term<br />Ulysses S. Grant (R): Two terms<br />Rutherford Hayes (R): One term<br />James A. Garfield (R): Five months- Assassinated <br />Chester A. Arthur (R): One term<br />Grover Cleveland (D): One term-for now…<br />Benjamin Harrison (R): One term<br />Grover Cleveland (D): One term<br />
  5. 5. It must have a beginning…<br />Reconstruction- scare tactics, terrorism, state government corruption<br />King Andrew- Johnson vetoes the Tenure of Office Act<br />Edwin Stanton<br />Impeachment- the biggest show in town!<br />Not guilty- one vote…<br />Surely this is the end….<br />
  6. 6. President Ulysses S. Grant- the hero of Vicksburg and Appomattox and the savior of the grand union!<br />Grant was a trusting president.<br />Black Friday<br />Whiskey Ring<br />He was LOYAL<br />He sought civil service reform, but believed in patronage.<br />
  7. 7. Credit Mobilier<br />Construction company formed by a Union Pacific VP.<br />“Hired” by Union Pacific for Transcontinental Railroad.<br />Overcharge the Feds and keep the loot… Your tax dollars.<br />Members of government were offered cheap stock in the company.<br />They made money and also sided with Credit Mobilier in congress.<br />Partisan paper exposed and explodedthe scandal.<br />Vice President Colfax was one of many government officials involved.<br />
  8. 8. 1876<br />Hayes v Tilden<br />Tilden Wins! Wait for it…<br />Hayes Wins!!<br />Florida, South Carolina (BOO), and Louisiana<br />GOP Returning Boards- Hayes<br />Special Electoral Commission <br />Compromise made<br />Reconstruction ends<br />
  9. 9. If at first you don’t succeed, assassinate the President of the United States<br />James Garfield<br />Charles Guiteau<br />“I am a Stalwart of the Stalwarts! Arthur is president now!”<br />
  10. 10. Pendleton Act<br />Chester A. Arthur: used to be the customs agent in NYC. Made a ton of money. Lucrative post there!<br />Interesting…<br />Established the merit system.<br />Did it kill the spoils system?<br />
  11. 11. Republicans<br />Factions formed due to the size of the party-big party<br />Corruption split the party– Grant<br />Stalwarts- Roscoe Conkling, spoils system<br />Half Breeds- James Blaine, reform<br />Mugwumps- Independents who opposed the Spoils System altogether- backed Cleveland and took votes from James Blaine<br />
  12. 12. Democrats<br />Won back the south<br />Lost POTUS elections 1860-1880<br />Opposed imperialism<br />Promoted Laissez Faire capitalism<br />Supported civil service reform<br />Fought the Tweed Ring<br />
  13. 13. Tammany Hall<br />BIG example of a political machine<br />Supported Democrats<br />Immigrants- Irish power<br />Incentives for votes<br />Helped out the people- welfare ,supplies, protection<br />Bosses<br />New York patronage<br />
  14. 14. Boss Tweed<br />William Tweed: Head of Tammany Hall 1858-71<br />Tammany machine stole a lot of money- made him rich<br />Tweed said that “the counters make the vote”<br />Thomas Nast- GOP NY Times<br />Tweed tries to buy off Nast… <br />Nast drawings work. People cannot read, but they can see the pictures…<br />Tweed convicted of fraud<br />Special prisoner- allowed to leave every week. <br />Held a party at his house…<br />Escaped to Spain<br />Nast cartoons are in Spain too…<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. “Of the politicians, by the politicians, and for the politicians. “<br />How They Did It…<br />
  17. 17. History is written by the winners (or those that were in class yesterday)<br />Show of hands<br />The who, the what, the where, the when, the why…<br />Draft time.<br />
  18. 18. Scenario One<br />Senator Jim Beam and Congressman Jack Daniels<br />Tammany officials would provide liquor for votes.<br />Practice continued into the 20th century and was not limited to NYC.<br />
  19. 19. Scenario Two<br />The almighty dollar<br />Votes for cash<br />Immigrants had little money<br />Governor Bulkeley of CT said this about vote buying: “It is right for the candidate to secure that man’s vote, if he is without principle or ignorant, by any means you can use.”<br />Also paid people to stay home and NOT vote.<br />Happened in the open…<br />
  20. 20. Scenario Three<br />Patronage<br />I will support your campaign financially if you give me a job.<br />
  21. 21. Scenario Four<br />He’s dead Jim…<br />“Resurrectionists” <br />
  22. 22. The Power of the Press<br />Gilded Age politics needed the press.<br />Politics thrived on fear.<br />The press kept the people informed.<br />Politicians and parties groomed reporters, editors, etc.<br />Kept out third parties<br />Mudslinging<br />The press could easily fabricate stories.<br />
  23. 23. Truth<br />James A. Garfield’s letter arrives<br />Paper runs it<br />It is actually an amazingly bad fake<br />Democrats kept pushing the letter as real<br />Dan Rather<br />Press set the tone for campaigns.<br />
  24. 24. Money is Power?<br />Standard Oil money may have purchased Henry Payne of Ohio a senate seat but it was all for nothing. Many members in the senate felt the seat was paid for and made sure he held little influence. He narrowly escaped expulsion and chose not to seek a second term.<br />
  25. 25. The More Things Change…<br />Republicans<br />Senator Ted Stevens<br />Rep. Duke Cunningham<br />Governor John Rowland<br />Democrats<br />Governor Rod Blagojevich<br />Governor George Ryan<br />Rep. William Jefferson<br />
  26. 26. George Washington Plunkitt<br />State Senator from New York- Represented NYC<br />Big party man- loved spoils<br />Machine politics- felt it was best because it looked after the weak.<br />