Political Science 5 – Western Political Thought - Power Point #5
Western Political Thought Dr. John Paul Tabakian Political Science 5 Fall 2012 – Power Point #5
COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #5Today’s Lecture Covers The Following:• Media Propaganda Discussion• Chief Joseph “Indian Perspective”• Homestead and Transcontinental Railroad Act (1862)• Dawes Act (1887)• Turner from “The Frontier”• Andrew Carnegie “The Gospel Of Wealth”• Upton Sinclair “The Jungle”
CHIEF JOSEPH “INDIAN PERSPECTIVE” (1)•Best known for his resistance to the U.S. Governments attemptsto force his tribe onto reservations.•Spent much of his early childhood at a mission maintained byChristian missionaries.•The Nez Perce were a peaceful nation spread from Idaho toNorthern Washington. The tribe had maintained good relations withthe whites after the Lewis and Clark expedition.•In 1855 Chief Josephs father, Old Joseph, signed a treaty with theU.S. that allowed his people to retain much of their traditionallands. In 1863 another treaty was created that severely reducedthe amount of land, but Old Joseph maintained that this secondtreaty was never agreed to by his people.
CHIEF JOSEPH “INDIAN PERSPECTIVE” (2)•A showdown over the second "non-treaty" came after ChiefJoseph assumed his role as Chief in 1877. After months offighting and forced marches, many of the Nez Perce weresent to a reservation in what is now Oklahoma, where manydied from malaria and starvation.•Chief Joseph tried every possible appeal to the federalauthorities to return the Nez Perce to the land of theirancestors. In 1885, he was sent along with many of his bandto a reservation in Washington where, according to thereservation doctor, he later died of a broken heart.
HOMESTEAD & TRANSCONTINENTALRAILROAD ACT OF 1862Industrialists looked to the Northwest Territory as amarket for manufactured goods. A protective tariffrestricted the American market to American industryalone. The Homestead Act in 1862 opened moreland to settlers, and the Transcontinental RailroadAct of 1862 gave the railroads incentives to linkwestern markets to eastern industry.
DAWES ACT (1887)•The attempt to assimilate Indians into the population.•Senator Henry L. Dawes: “Till this people will consent togive up their lands [reservations], and divide them amongtheir citizens, so that each can own the land he cultivates,they will not make much more progress.”•Emphasis on private property as a means of citizenship. To“civilize” the savage, eliminate cultural patterns.Plains Indians were hunters; other tribes claimed the landwas not arable.•Actually resulted in the reduction of Indian lands as the actpermitted sale of land to government at @$2.50/acre.
TURNER FROM “THE FRONTIER” (1)•Turner’s thesis: “The existence of an area of free land, itscontinuous recession, and the advance of American settlementwestward, explain American development.”•As a type of determinism, Turner’s thesis ties geography to nationalideology/culture, defining the character of Americans and Americansociety: a type of “primitivism” where “[T]he wilderness masters thecolonist.” (“meeting point between savagery and civilization.”).•American social development “continually beginning over again onthe frontier.” (“perennial rebirth,” “fluidity of American life”).
TURNER FROM “THE FRONTIER” (2)•“European life entered the continent” and “America modified anddeveloped that life and reacted on Europe.”•“New Product” “away from the influence of Europe, a steadygrowth of independence on American lines.”•“Composite Nationality”; “tides of continental immigration”; “mixedrace”•Dangers of individualism out of control; relate to DeToequeville.•What endures? The notion of going west for opportunity, groundfor new ideas? Consider that the real move was to the towns andcities along with the expansion into free, wilderness land.
CARNEGIE FROM “WEALTH”Andrew Carnegie (18351919) was a massively successfulbusiness man - his wealth was based on the provision of ironand steel to the railways, but also a man who recalled hisradical roots in Scotland before his immigration to the UnitedStates. To resolve what might seem to be contradictionsbetween the creation of wealth, which he saw as proceedingfrom immutable social laws, and social provision he came upwith the notion of the "gospel of wealth". He lived up to hisword, and gave away his fortune to socially beneficial projects,most famously by funding libraries. His approval of death taxesmight surprise modern billionaires!
UPTON SINCLAIR’S “THE JUNGLE”•Upton Sinclair was a poor reformer who sought to write the GreatAmerican Novel.•“The Jungle” examined the unsanitary methods of Chicago’smeatpacking industry of Chicago. It was released in 1906.•President Theodore Roosevelt received advanced copy. Used hisinfluence to push Congress to pass a law establishing the Food andDrug Administration (FDA). Roosevelt coined the term “muckrakers”to describe Sinclair and other reformist crusaders.•Roosevelt’s phrase was not meant to be wholly complimentary.•Muckrackers are journalists who expose political and commercialcorruption.