Political Science 2 – Comparative Politics - Power Point #12
Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 2 Modern World Governments – Fall 2012Power Point Presentation – November 13th & November 15th
COURSE LECTURE TOPICSThis Week’s Lecture Covers:•Culturalist Approaches & Conflict Cultural Conflict American Foreign Policy Shapes The World Cultural Commonalities Become Strong Religious Conflicts The West Versus The Rest
CULTURAL CONFLICT (1)Samuel Huntington argues that a “clash of civilizations” is imminent.He claims that ever-broadening cultural affinities are replacingnational loyalties. Instead of allegiance to the nation-state, individualsmay be prone to pledging allegiance to a broader association tied intocultural identity like religion. Intellectuals have failed to address acrucial aspect of what global politics will look like as it enters into anew phase. Huntington claims that the new source of conflict will notbe ideologically or economically based, but cultural instead. Hehypothesizes that the new source of conflict will be primarily culturaland that this will be a primary determinant of future conflicts. Culturewill be a primary determinant for future conflicts. This does not meanthat states will no longer be the most powerful actors in world affairs.Conflicts will however be between nations and groups representativeof different civilizations. This fact will dominate global politics for "thefault lines between civilizations will be the battle lines of the future”.This conflict of civilizations will be the last phase of the evolution ofconflict in the modern world.
CULTURAL CONFLICT (2)Samuel P. Huntington defines a civilization according to its culturalentity "villages, regions, ethnic groups, nationalities, religious groups,all have distinct cultures at different levels of cultural heterogeneity...Acivilization is thus the highest cultural grouping of people and thebroadest level of cultural identity people have short of that whichdistinguishes humans from other species. It is defined both bycommon objective elements, such as language, history, religion,customs, institutions, and by the subjective self-identification ofpeople." Huntington argues that people can refine their identities,resulting in their identification being redefined and the compositionand boundaries of civilization. Civilizations can blend or even overlap.The can also encompass include subcivilizations. Samuel P. Huntingstates, "Civilizations are nonetheless meaningful entities, and whilethe lines between them are seldom sharp, they are real. Civilizationsare dynamic; they rise and fall; they divide and merge. And as anystudent of history knows, civilizations disappear and are buried in thesands of time".
CULTURE – AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY SHAPING THE WORLD (1)Samuel P. Huntington infers that the world will be shaped through thecontinuing interaction of seven or eight major civilizations: Western,Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox Latin Americanand maybe even African civilization. Future conflicts will instigatealong the cultural fault lines that border these civilizations from oneanother. There are six reasons why this will happen:1. Civilizations possess different makeups with each respective foundations formed by history, language, culture, tradition and what Huntington stresses as the most important, religion.2. With the decreasing size of the world these different civilizations are increasingly interacting with one another. This increase of interaction raises the self-awareness of each respective civilization and what makes them different from other civilizations and commonalities.
CULTURE – AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY SHAPING THE WORLD (2)3. Continued economic modernization and the homogenization of social norms continue to spread throughout the farthest regions of the world. This serves to dislodge people from longstanding local identities, including the weakening of the nation state as one source of this identification. George Weigel has commented on the "unsecularization of the world" as being "...one of the dominant social facts of life in the late twentieth century.“4. Fourth, the West is at the peak of its power and this has spurred the revitalization of civilization-consciousness. Western dominance has spurred non-Western civilizations to strike back in an effort to preserve their identities. This means that other civilizations are rising to alter the cultural traditions of the West in order to survive themselves. This is referred to as a return to the roots phenomenon.
CULTURE – AMERICAN FOREIGN POLICY SHAPING THE WORLD (3)5. Political and economic differences are more easily rectified or mutable that cultural characteristics and differences.6. There is a strong push towards economic regionalism.Samuel P. Huntington cites statistics that describe this phenomenon"total trade that were intraregional rose between 1980 and 1989 from51% in Europe, 33% to 37& in East Asia, and 32% to 36% in NorthAmerica. The importance of regional economic blocs is likely tocontinue to increase in the future". There are two points that have tobe relayed with the first being that it will serve to reinforce civilization-consciousness. The second point is that economic-regionalist canonly succeed when it is rooted in a common civilization.
CULTURAL COMMONALITIES BECOME STRONG (1) Cultural commonalities are becoming stronger following the end of the Cold War. Murray Weidenbaum gives an example of this effect on the East Asian economic bloc. "Despite the current Japanese dominance of the region, the Chinese-based economy of Asia is rapidly emerging as a new epicenter for industry, commerce and finance. This strategic area contains substantial amounts of technology and manufacturing capability (Taiwan), outstanding entrepreneurial, marketing and service acumen (Hong Kong), a fine communications network (Singapore), a tremendous pool of financial capital (all three) and very large endowments of land, resources, and labor (mainland China)...From Guangzhou to Singapore, from Kuala Lumpur to Manila, this influential network - often based on extensions of the traditional clans - has been described as the backbone of the East Asian economy." The European Community continues to resist including non-Arab-Muslim countries into its fold, thus encouraging them to create the Economic Cooperation Organization.
CULTURAL COMMONALITIES BECOME STRONG (2) There are ten countries: Iran, Pakistan, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Afghanistan. Samuel P. Huntington argues that the clash of civilizations occurs at two levels: at the micro-level and the macro- level. At the micro-level, adjacent groups residing along the fault lines between civilizations battle one another over the control of territory as well as each other. At the macro-level, states possessing different civilizations compete for military and economic superiority as well as fight over control of international institutions and third parties, all while promoting their respective political and religious values. Samuel P. Huntington argues that as many of the Arab countries continue to make strides toward economic and social development that autocratic forms of government may be discarded. Democracy taking root in these countries does not necessarily mean that it will foster friendly relations with the West. It may instead foster Islamist movements or in other words, strengthen anti-Western political forces.
CULTURAL COMMONALITIES BECOME STRONG (3) Samuel Huntington stresses that this may be temporary, but we cannot be certain as of yet. M.J. Akbar argues that the next confrontation that the West is going to have to confront is one coming from the Muslim world, "It is in the sweep of the Islamic nations from the Maghreb to Pakistan that the struggle for a new world order will begin." Bernard Lewis reaches a similar conclusion, "We are facing a mood and a movement far transcending the level of issues and policies and the governments that pursue them. This is no less than a clash of civilizations - the perhaps irrational but surely historic reaction of an ancient rival against our Judeo-Christian heritage, our secular present, and the world-wide expansion of both."
CULTURE – RELIGIOUS CONFLICT (1)Religion stimulates ethnic identifications. It also arouses Russianfears over the security of its southern borders. Archie Rooseveltdetails this concern: "Much of Russian history concerns the strugglebetween the Slavs and the Turkic peoples on their borders, whichdates back to the foundation of the Russian state more than athousand years ago. In the Slavs millennium-long confrontation withtheir eastern neighbors lies the key to an understanding not only ofRussian history, but Russian character. To understand Russianrealities today one has to have a concept of the great Turkic ethnicgroup that has preoccupied Russians through the centuries." KennethWaltz insists that sovereign states with fixed borders are the best wayto maintain the peace domestically. When a state is no longercompetent it may fall into a state of disrepair with separate territoriesbreaking apart becoming autonomous, but unable to correlate totransnational developments.
CULTURE – RELIGIOUS CONFLICT (2)States try to rally support from other states belonging to the sameculture when they are involved in a war with people from anothercivilization. H.D.S. Greenway calls this the "kin-country" syndrome.This terminology replaces political ideology and traditional balance ofpower as the principal basis for cooperation and coalitions. Post-ColdWar conflicts like those in the Persian Gulf, the Caucasus and Bosniainvolved elements of civilization rallying. First, the 1991 Persian GulfWar begun as a result of one Arab state invading a neighbor Arabstate. This later evolved into Iraq facing a coalition of Arab, Western,and other states. Truth be told that while only a few Muslimgovernments supported Saddam Hussein, a lot of Arab elites privatelyoffered their moral support. Second, Armenian military successes in1992 and 1993 swayed Turkey to increase its support of Azerbaijan.
CULTURE – RELIGIOUS CONFLICT (3)The Soviet Union originally supported Azerbaijan as the republic wasdominated with communist leaders. The collapse of the Soviet Unionled to a reversal of Russian policy as it shifted support to Armenia dueto a change of concern from political considerations to religious ones.Third, Western public may have shown sympathy for the BosnianMuslims over their suffering from Serbs, but little concern was given toCroatian attacks on Muslims. Samuel P. Huntington lists threerequirements a torn country must meet before it can redefine itscivilization identity. First, the countrys economic and political eliteshave to enthusiastically endorse the transition. Second, its public hasto endorse whatever new definition is adopted. Third, dominantgroups in the recipient civilization have to embrace the convert.
CULTURE THE WEST VERSUS THE REST (1)Samuel P. Huntington stresses that civilization-consciousness isincreasing and that global politics will be focused on "the West andthe Rest". This applies to conflicts between the Western powers,especially the United States, against "others". However, Huntingtonstresses that the first conflict(s) will be between the West and severalIslamic-Confucian states. He further argues that the West shouldstrive towards greater cooperation among its members whilepromoting further incorporating into the West those societies inEastern Europe and Latin America whose cultures are moreadaptable.
CULTURE THE WEST VERSUS THE REST (2)The West should also coordinate its relations with Russia and Japan;prevent minor conflicts from developing into major inter-civilizationwars; limit the military capacity of Confucian and Islamic states; resistdrastic reductions in Western military capabilities and maintain militarysuperiority in the East and Southwest Asia; exploit differences andconflicts that exist between Confucian and Islamic states; supportthose civilizations and their respective groups that admire Westernvalues and interests; bolster those international institutions that reflectand legitimize Western interests and values and encourage non-Western states to participate in these institutions. Many non-Westernstates have pursued a goal of modernization without becomingWestern.
CULTURE THE WEST VERSUS THE REST (3)Japan is the only country that has succeeded. Samuel P. Huntingtoninfers that the West has to maintain its economic and military strengthto protect its interests against any possible threats from aliencivilizations. The fact is that the world will consist of variouscivilizations and each has to find some way to coexist with oneanother. This is why Huntington stresses the need for the West tofurther develop a better understanding of the underlying fundamentalsof counter religious and philosophical beliefs in order to discover andexploit those areas of commonality. This will enable the West to betterunderstand how those people in different civilizations identify theirinterests.