Newsweek 1008 2012(21500401181)

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Newsweek 1008 2012(21500401181)

  1. 1. C M Y K OPAC 5 95 Vol O nw15 Pacific LAST CHANCE FOR CHÁVEZ BY BORIS MUÑOZ OCTOBER 8, 2012 The Muslim Paradox Why do they always blame the West for their weakness? By Husain HaqqaniFolio Mag Pg 08_COVER.indd 1 NWK_OCT Vol MO 9/29/12 11:10:41 AM
  2. 2. C M Y K 95 Newsweek OCTOBER 8, 2 012 4 LET TERS NEWSBEAST 6 AME RI CAN NOT E B OOK Will there ever be a limit to how much we let Facebook share? By Katie Baker 7 INTERNATIONAL NOTEBOOK Honduras is aiming to become a free-market paradise. By Mac Margolis 8 P E R S O N O F I N T E R E ST Fatou Bensouda takes on the bad guys at the International Criminal Court. By Jane Teeling 9 WORLD ON A PAG E South Korea’s undutiful daughter; exhuming a Turkish president. By Tunku Varadarajan 10 E C O N O M Y By Dan Gross MONEY By Christopher Elliot DIPLO MACY By Mac Margolis 12 U.S.-EGYPT REL ATIONS Barack Obama and Egypt’s new president find themselves in a delicate dance. By Fouad Ajami 1 4 R EPORTER AT L ARG E C H Á V E Z STU M P S F O R R E E L E CT I O N PAG E 2 8 Belarus’s opposition leaders face an excruciating choice. By Anna Nemtsova F E AT U R E S ‘Hopes are high for 16 The Real Threat to Islam Bensouda, whose Muslims have good reason to be angry—and it’s not a sophomoric trailer on YouTube. appointment to the By Husain HaqqaniCLOCKWISE FROM TOP : JORGE SILVA — REUTERS , BAS CZERWINSKI — AFP - GETTY IMAGES , COUR TESY OF THE LOUVRE MUSEUM , PLATON — HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH 24 From Tiger to Pussycat ICC elicited wide- Vietnam’s economy was promising. How the country got off track. By Rob Cox spread praise.’ 28 Last Chance for Chávez JA N E T E E L I N G PAG E 8 In Venezuela, a close election electrifies a nation. By Boris Muñoz 34 Women of the Revolution Female freedom fighters have become indispensable to Syria’s rebellion. By Mike Giglio 38 A Russia for All Russians The country needs to deliver on its promises to include its disabled millions. Photographs by Platon. Text by Human Rights Watch OMNIVORE 4 4 ART Honoring Islam’s grand history. 4 8 M U G G L E S J.K. Rowling ditches Potter. 50 B O O KS Lawrence Osborne’s new novel spins a haunting tale. 60 TH E CIT Y Susanna Daniel reflects on Madison, Wisconsin. RU SS IA’S D ISABL E D PAG E 3 8 T H E LO U V R E ’ S N E W I S L A M I C G ALL E R I E S PAG E 4 4 Vol. CLX, No. 15. October 8, 2012 © 2012 by The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company LLC, 555 West 18th Street, New York, NY 10011. Printed by Times Printers Pte Ltd and Ringier Print (HK) Ltd. All rights reserved. Copyright under the International Copyright Convention. Copyright reserved under the Pan American Convention. Registered in the Philippines Patent Office. In the U.S.A.: Postmaster: send address changes to Newsweek International, 555 West 18th Street, New York, NY 10011; second-class postage paid at Los Angeles, California, and at additional mailing offices. Newsweek International is written and edited for a worldwide audience and is published weekly, except occasionally when two issues are combined into one expanded issue that counts as two subscription copies, by The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company LLC (ISSN 0163-7061). Singapore MICA (P) 077/02/2012, Malaysia KDN Permit PPS 1127/11/2012(022876). For subscription inquiries please contact The Newsweek/Daily Beast Company LLC, 3601-02 China Resources Building, 26 Harbour Road, Wanchai, Hong Kong; email: newsweek.asia@customersvc.com; tel: 852-2921-2921; fax: 852-2921-2947. To order reprints, e-prints, posters, and plaques, or request permission to republish Newsweek content, please contact our representative PARS International by visiting: O N T H E C OV E R www.NewsweekReprints.com. MOISES SAMAN—MAGNUM OCTOBER 8, 2012 | 3 Singapore Folio Mag Pg Vol MO SI3 I CE O 0
  3. 3. C M Y K 5 95 Innocence of Muslims protesters in Cairo.Folio Mag Pg Vol MO RAGE IN THE MUSLIM WORLDA16 I BN O 0 OV0315
  4. 4. C M Y K 95 M U S L I M S H AV E G O O D R E A S O N T O B E A N G R Y— A N D I T ’ S N O T A S O P H O M O R I C M OV I E T R A I L E R O N YO U T U B E . BY H U S A I N H AQ QA N Iow101622 Folio Mag Pg Vol MO A17 I BO O 0
  5. 5. C M Y K 5 95 CONFLICT This primary school in Pakistan’s Punjab province has no desks or electricity. T anger against the West, which belittles Is- any other religion, Muslims do not like lam and abuses Islam’s prophet. insults to their faith or to their prophet. There was, of course, no earthquake in But the protests that make the headlines Washington, and no movie theater had are the function of politics, not religion. been destroyed. In fact, the movie has Hoping to avoid being accused of siding never made its way beyond YouTube. But with blasphemers, the Pakistani govern- for several days, the fabricated text mes- ment tried to align itself with the pro- sage and email made the rounds, for- testers’ cause by declaring a public holi- warded and reforwarded around Pakistan day and calling it “Love of the Prophet and in some cases to Pakistanis living in Day.” Although 95 percent of Pakistan’s the diaspora. It was part of a campaign to 190 million people are Muslim, only an arouse Muslim passions by what author estimated 45,000 actually took part in THOUSANDS OF cellphone subscribers Salman Rushdie has termed “the outrage that Friday’s demonstrations around the in Pakistan received an anonymous text industry.” Similar false mass messaging country against Innocence of Muslims. message recently announcing a miracle: convinced millions after 9/11 that Jews The protests mattered largely because of an earthquake on Tuesday, Sept. 18, had had been warned to stay away from the their violence: as many as 17 people were destroyed the Washington, D.C. movie Twin Towers, implying a conspiracy that killed and scores injured. theater that was exhibiting Innocence many still believe without a shred of evi- Men of religion have often slandered of Muslims, the controversial film that dence. Last year, after U.S. special forces each other’s faiths. Islam has endured its PREVIOUS SPREAD : MOISES SAMAN — MAGNUM has triggered violent protests in several killed Osama bin Laden, anonymous share of criticism and abuse over the cen- Muslim countries. An email version of messages suggested that the raid in Ab- turies, especially from Christians, against the text message even included a picture bottabad was a staged event and bin Laden whom they fought for control of the Levant of a mangled structure. Allah, the texter had been killed months earlier. and the southern corners of Europe during claimed, had shown His anger against the Such well-organized manipulation of the Crusades and the Ottoman wars. The movie’s insult to Islam and Prophet Mu- sentiment belies the notion that orches- 14th-century Byzantine emperor Manuel hammad, and with Him on their side the trated protests are spontaneous expres- II Palaeologus hurled the ultimate insult at faithful should not be afraid to vent their sions of Muslim rage. Like followers of Muslims when he declared that everything 18 | NEWSWEEKFolio Mag Pg Vol MO ow101647A18 I BP O 0
  6. 6. C M Y K 95 A police truck in flames near the U.S. Embassy in Cairo, Sept. 13, 2012. Muhammad brought was evil, “such as his the ones who draw attention to otherwise it easier to choreograph global campaigns, command to spread by the sword the faith obscure attacks on Islam and then use and in Muslim-majority countries, Islam- he preached.” Historically, Muslims re- those attacks to muster popular support. ists tend to be among those who are most turned the favor by pointing out the flaws The effort is often aided by Islamophobes effectively organized to take advantage of in other religions and outlining their own hoping to create their own wedges by technology for political ends. perfect faith. Muslim emperors ruled over portraying Islam as a threat to Western An early prototype of these mass- large non-Muslim populations while Mus- civilization. Conservative and practicing mobilization campaigns centered on lim preachers and Sufi mystics worked to Muslims who are not Islamists are caught Rangeela Rasool (Playboy Prophet), a proselytize and win converts to Islam. But in the middle, along with scholarly com- salacious version of Muhammad’s life. there is no record in those days of mob mentators on Islamic history and tradi- Published in British India in 1927, the violence against foreign envoys or traders tion who are not Islamophobes. controversial book was hardly a bestsell- in retaliation for blasphemy against Mu- The past two decades have seen peri- er. In fact it went mostly unnoticed until hammad or Islam allegedly committed by odic outbreaks of protest over insults to Muslim politicians encountered it two Islam’s enemies in distant lands. Prophet Muhammad and Islam. In each years later and complained. The British The phenomenon of outrage over in- case, the protesters were not reacting to authorities arrested and tried the book’sFROM LEFT : ZACKARY CANEPARI — PANOS , MOISES SAMAN — MAGNUM sults to Islam and its final prophet is a something they had seen or read in the publisher, Rajpal, only to acquit him. function of modern-era politics. It started ordinary course of life. With the exception Agitation by Muslim groups encouraged during Western colonial rule, with Mus- of The Satanic Verses, none of the objects a young illiterate carpenter by the single lim politicians seeking issues to mobi- of complaint were even widely accessible name Ilmuddin to stab the publisher to lize their constituents. Secular leaders until the public was whipped into a fury. death in Lahore. Ilmuddin was given the focused on opposing foreign domina- The Islamists first introduced the objec- title of ghazi (“warrior for the faith”) by tion, and Islamists emerged to claim that tionable material to their audience and Islamist political groups and was defend- Islam is not merely a religion but also a then instigated the outrage by character- ed in court, albeit on technical grounds political ideology. Threats to the faith be- izing it as part of a supposed worldwide (and unsuccessfully), by Muhammad came a rallying cry for the Islamists, who conspiracy to denigrate Islam. The emer- Ali Jinnah, who would later become the sought wedge issues to define their politi- gence of social media and the swiftness of founder of Pakistan. The British amended cal agenda. To this day, Islamists are often international communications have made the Indian penal code to add punishment OCTOBER 8, 2012 | 19 ow101621 Folio Mag Pg Vol MO A19 I BQ O 0
  7. 7. C M Y K 5 95 CONFLICT for blasphemy and incitement of reli- several weeks and suffering from perma- gious hatred. nent nerve damage. The Rangeela Rasool controversy polar- Obscure books and writers can be just ized Hindus and Muslims, particularly in as useful. Pakistan’s Jamaat-e-Islami the Punjab. The region eventually had to (“Islamic Party”) has never done well be parceled out between the two religions in elections, but it has a long record of in the 1947 Partition, and the two Punjabs seeking, publicizing, and capitalizing suffered the most brutal communal vio- on perceived insults to Islam in hope of lence of that horrific time. Pakistani lead- flexing its political muscle. Its activists ers sometimes cite the book’s publication are trained in street protests and choreo- as an example of how the Islamic faith graphed demonstrations, and the party would have been threatened under non- was one of the main organizers of the Muslim rule had the British left the sub- protests against Innocence of Muslims in continent undivided. It does not matter Pakistan. Back in 1971, in the midst of the in that political argument that there are civil war that led to the creation of Ban- roughly as many Muslims today in India gladesh (and soon after Jamaat-e-Islami as there are in Pakistan. had suffered a humiliating defeat at the “Defending the honor of the prophet” is polls), the party discovered and loudly widely regarded as a worthy cause, not to denounced The Turkish Art of Love, a sex be opposed or criticized even by secular manual containing derogatory references Muslims. If a secular politician dares to to Prophet Muhammad that was pub- point out that the faith of 1.6 billion peo- lished in 1933. During the ensuing riots, ple can scarcely be threatened by a book Christian churches were attacked, and li- with a print run of only 1,000 copies, he quor shops (which were legal at the time) can easily be targeted as a defender of were looted. The British Council building blasphemers. The governor of Pakistan’s in Lahore was also attacked. Punjab province, Salmaan Taseer, was Ironically, all the books that have been murdered last year by his own bodyguard targeted for protests over the years remain for questioning the reasonableness of available to this day. Rangeela Rasool can Pakistan’s blasphemy laws. The country’s be downloaded from the Internet. Chil- Islamist media described Taseer’s killer dren of Gabalawi continues to be read as a latter day Ilmuddin, and lawyers in many languages. Even The Turkish Art showered him with rose petals. of Love can be easily bought almost any- Like all modern political tactics, reli- where in the world. The Satanic Verses gious protests tend to be timed for best protests of 1989, culminating in Ayatollah There is nothing in Islamic tradition effect. The Egyptian Nobel laureate Na- Khomeini’s fatwa against author Salman that requires Muslims to come out in guib Mahfouz first published Children of Rushdie, only increased the book’s sales. the streets and throw rocks or set things Gabalawi—an allegorical novel in Arabic If the protests were really supposed on fire every time they hear of someone insulting their faith. Like Jewish and Christian scriptures, Islam’s sacred texts NOTHING IN ISLAMIC TRADITION REQUIRES speak of divine retribution as well as of MUSLIMS TO SET THINGS ON FIRE EVERY TIME God’s mercy. References to holy war are interspersed with exhortations to char- THEY HEAR OF SOMEONE INSULTING THEIR FAITH. ity, kindness toward others, and respect for life. Every chapter of the Quran be- that allegedly belittled Islam—in 1959. to silence insults against Islam and the gins with the words “In the name of Allah And yet the book didn’t become the tar- Prophet Muhammad, their failure should (God), the most compassionate, the most get of significant protests until 30 years by now be obvious. Instead of being shut merciful,” encouraging believers to prac- later, after Mahfouz won the Nobel Prize down, objectionable books and movies tice mercy over retribution. for literature, and Omar Abdel-Rahman, have gained publicity. Obscure publi- In fact, the Quran refers to Prophet the “Blind Sheik,” currently in U.S. prison cations—and, in the latest case, Inter- Muhammad as “Rehmatul-lil-Alameen” for instigating terrorism, condemned the net posts—have become internationally or “the one bringing compassion for all 1959 book. The publicity surrounding known. Rather than ending dissemina- worlds.” After announcing his prophet- the 1988 Nobel Prize provided an ideal tion of material offensive to Muslim hood, Muhammad prayed for those who opportunity for Sheik Omar to rally his sensibilities, the protests have almost al- insulted or opposed him. In one famous base and advance the cause of polarizing ways had the opposite effect. In the case episode, he once went to inquire about Egyptian society. His fatwa finally caught of Innocence of Muslims, the video was the health of an old woman in Mecca up with Mahfouz in 1994, when a knife- posted on YouTube in June, but hardly who had thrown garbage on him every wielding Islamist stabbed the novelist in anyone paid attention to it until Egyptian day. When she failed to show up to de- the neck, leaving him hospitalized for Islamists broadcast it in early September. liver her daily insult, he was concerned. 20 | NEWSWEEKFolio Mag Pg Vol MOA20 I BR O 0
  8. 8. C M Y K 95 glory has proved so difficult to resurrect. Islamists see the world as polarized between the Ummah (the community of believers, whom they describe as one na- tion) and the rest. The West’s rise, rather than the Ummah’s decline, receives far greater attention from Islamist scholars and leaders. Their worldview is sum- marized in the Arabic-language title of a book by the Indian Islamist scholar Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi. Its English-language version is unremarkable enough—Islam and the World: The Rise and Decline of Muslims and Its Effect on Mankind. But the Arabic edition’s title translates literally as: What the World Lost by the Decline of Muslims. The civilizational narcissism is clear. “Our decline is the world’s loss,” it suggests. “We do not need to change anything. The West needs to fix things for us so that it does not lose the benefits of our civilization.” The outrage industry ensures that Mus- lims continue to blame others for their condition, raging over their impotence instead of focusing on economic, politi- cal, and social issues. At the same time, successive civilian and military govern- ments in Pakistan have chosen to ap- pease the dial-a-riot Islamist hardliners rather than confront them. A multitude of Islamist groups has sprouted, includ- Displaced Pakistanis at a camp for flood evacuees in Sindh province, 2010. ing jihadi militants battle-hardened in Afghanistan and Kashmir, and a com- Such compassion won converts to Islam world spent centuries in ascendance be- petition of sorts now takes place among and contributed to the faith’s expansion. fore Western influence rose, and Muslim them over who is the greater champion But a religion is what its followers make power declined. And there is no question of the honor of Islam and its prophet. A it, and the demands of Islamist politics in that Western imperialism in the 19th and similar development is evident in the ri- recent times have helped to stamp Mus- early 20th centuries was far from benign. valry between the Muslim Brotherhood lims as being prone to anger and suscep- It divided Muslims, denigrated them, and and the Salafists in Egypt and in other tible to violence. Meanwhile, bigoted no- used modern technology—from the print- Arab countries. bodies have been made influential when ing press to electronic media and the Even strategically pro-Western rul- their anti-Islam provocations have suc- moving image—to render a caricature of ers find it convenient to perpetuate the ceeded in unleashing the fury of tens of a once-preeminent civilization and the Ummah’s narrative of Islam being un- thousands around the world. But to the faith that rests at its heart. der siege and Muslims being the targets orchestrators of the protests, none of this The current weakness of the Muslim of an insidious global conspiracy. Morale matters. Their target is not the perpetra- world, however, is not entirely the fault is kept up by bogus stories of miracles, tors of the insults and abuse. Instead they of Western colonialism and postcolonial such as the destruction of the theater that are only looking for ways in which to mo- machinations. For a century or more, showed a blasphemous movie, or the one bilize Muslims against the West, if only to overcoming that weakness has been the claiming that Neil Armstrong converted present themselves subsequently as the driving force behind almost every major to Islam after hearing the call to prayer mediators who can bridge that divide. political movement in the Muslim world, while he was on the moon. (He didn’t.) Since falling under Western colonial from pan-Arabism to contemporary Is- It is rare to find mention of hard negative rule, the Muslim world has developed a lamism. Nevertheless, Muslims have facts in the general discourse within the narrative of grievance. The view is shared made practically no serious effort to un- 57 member states of the Organisation ofJAMES LONGLEY — INSTITUTE by Islamists, who consider Islam a po- derstand the causes and remedies of their Islamic Cooperation (OIC), which collec- litical ideology, and other Muslims who decline over the past 300 years. Outrage tively account for approximately one fifth don’t. Like all national and community and resentment—and the conspiracy the- of the world’s population but only 7 per- narratives, it has some elements that are ories that inform them—are poor substi- cent of global output. true. It is a historical fact that the Muslim tutes for comprehending why Islam’s lost The economic dysfunction in the 22 OCTOBER 8, 2012 | 21 ow101661 Folio Mag Pg Vol MO A21 I BS O 0
  9. 9. C M Y K 5 95 CONFLICT Victims of Pakistan’s disastrous 2010 floods took refuge at an ancient graveyard. Arab countries, several of them blessed The “knowledge deficit” mentioned in set by the independent group Freedom with oil reserves, highlights how Muslim the Arab Development Report of 2002 House. Even the “Arab Spring” seems un- scholars and politicians have failed to un- continues to worsen. Roughly half the likely to change that harsh reality. derstand and explain the waning power world’s illiterate adults are found among Decline, weakness, impotence, and of the Ummah to their people. The Arab Muslims, and two thirds of that number helplessness are the words repeated most countries had a combined GDP of $1.9 are women. Greece, with a population of frequently in the speeches and writings of trillion in 2010, compared with the Euro- 11 million, translates more books from today’s Muslim leaders. All four are con- pean Union’s GDP of $17.5 trillion. Spain other languages than the entire Arab ditions that feed outrage—the response of alone produced $1.43 trillion in GDP, world, which has a cumulative popula- people lacking real power to change their without the benefit of natural resources tion of 360 million. Since the 9th century, circumstances. Ironically that response such as oil and gas. The wealth of Western when the Abbasid rulers of Baghdad pa- is cultivated by leaders who could chan- nations comes from manufacturing and tronized learning and built a huge library nel their people’s energy toward real so- innovation, neither of which has found for its time, only 100,000 books have lutions. Instead of orchestrating hate on much favor in Muslim-majority countries. been translated from other languages the pretext of even the most insignificant A real debate among Muslims about into Arabic. The same number of books provocation, Muslim leaders could extend their decline might identify why the Ot- are translated from other languages into literacy, expand education, and make toman and Mughal empires refused to ac- Spanish every year. their nations’ economies more competi- cept the printing press for more than two A thousand years ago, Muslims led the tive. But as in Western democracies, the and a half centuries after Johannes Gut- world in the field of science and math- politics of wedge issues is always easier tenberg invented movable type. It might ematics. Today they are noticeably ab- to pursue. Rising Islamophobia in Europe also explain why Muslims failed to em- sent from any list of recent inventors and and North America helps Islamists keep brace the Industrial Revolution, modern innovators in science and technology. things on the boil. “Us versus them” is al- banking, insurance, and the joint stock Since 1901, only two Muslims have won ways a useful distraction from “us versus MASSIMO BERRUTI — AGENCE VU - AURORA company, even after these had emerged a Nobel Prize in the sciences, and one of our problems.” in Europe. Instead, most of the discus- them (Pakistan’s Dr. Abdus Salam, Phys- sion focuses on real or perceived historic ics, 1979 is not deemed a Muslim in his Husain Haqqani, Pakistan’s ambassa- injustice. “We are weak because we were home country because of his association dor to Washington from 2008 to 2011, is colonized,” Muslims tend to say, instead of with the Ahmadiyya sect. Not coinciden- a professor of international relations at recognizing that Muslim lands were colo- tally, only a handful of Muslim-majority Boston University and a senior fellow at nized because they had become weak. countries fulfill the criteria for freedom the Hudson Institute. 22 | NEWSWEEKFolio Mag Pg Vol MOA22 I BT O 0

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