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Business: Service and Support


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A student was showing to an exchange student how to move quickly through the underground.
“there” he said
at the end of a rushed journey “that saved 2 minutes”.
after a moment
the exchange student replied “what are you going to do with them?”

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Business: Service and Support

  1. 1. busineerviceupport §
  2. 2. Business : Service & Support Pre-paired Workbook Ferudun SABAH Sufiyane MAY 2010 ISTANBUL ISBN 978-605-88973-1-1 REVISED EDITION MAY'2020 ISTANBUL
  3. 3. A student was showing to an exchange student how to move quickly through the underground. “there” he said at the end of a rushed journey “that saved 2 minutes”. after a moment the exchange student replied “what are you going to do with them?”
  4. 4. Form Follow Function Flow
  5. 5. Function Form Flow Follow
  6. 6. problem 1382, "a difficult question proposed for solution," from O.Fr. problème (14c.), from L. problema, from Gk. problema "a problem, a question," lit. "thing put forward," from proballein "propose," from pro "forward" + ballein "to throw" (see ballistics). Problem child first recorded 1920. solution late 14c., "a solving or being solved," from O.Fr. solucion, from L. solutionem (nom. solutio) "a loosening or unfastening," also "a solving," from pp. stem of solvere "to loosen, untie, solve, dissolve" (see solve). Meaning "liquid containing a dissolved substance" is first recorded 1590s. complain c.1370, from stem of O.Fr. complaindre "to lament," from V.L. *complangere, orig. "to beat the breast," from L. com- intensive prefix + plangere "to strike, beat the breast," from PIE base *plag- "to strike." Older sense of "lament" died out 17c. care O.E. caru, cearu "sorrow, anxiety, grief," also "serious mental attention," from P.Gmc. *karo, from PIE base *gar- "cry out, scream." Sense of "charge, oversight, protection" is c.1400. The verb is O.E. carian, cearian "to feel concern or interest," from P.Gmc. *karojanan. Phrase couldn't care less is from 1946; could care less in the same sense (with an understood negative) is 1966. Care figures in many "similies of indifference" in the form don't care a _____, with the blank filled by fig, pin, button, cent, straw, rush, point, farthing, snap, etc. trans- prefix meaning "across, beyond, to go beyond," from L. trans-, from prep. trans "across, over, beyond," probably originally prp. of a verb *trare-, meaning "to cross" (see through). transform mid-14c., from O.Fr. transformer, from L. transformare "change the shape or form of," from trans- "across" + formare "to form" (see form). 1400–50; late ME < LL trānsfōrmātiōn- (s. of trānsfōrmātiō) change of shape.
  7. 7. X two-runs-four
  8. 8. energy 1590s, from M.Fr. energie, from L.L. energia, from Gk. energeia "activity, operation," from energos "active, working," from en- "at" + ergon "work" (see urge (v.)). Used by Aristotle with a sense of "force of expression;" broader meaning of "power" is first recorded in English 1660s. Energy crisis first attested 1970. entropy 1868, from Ger. Entropie "measure of the disorder of a system," coined 1865 (on analogy of Ger. Energie) by physicist Rudolph Clausius (1822-1888) from Gk. entropia "a turning toward," from en- "in" + trope "a turning" (see trope). synergy 1660, "cooperation," from Mod.L. synergia, from Gk. synergia "joint work, assistance, help," from synergos "working together," related to synergein "work together, help another in work," from syn- "together" + ergon "work" (see urge (v.)). Meaning "combined activities of a group" is from 1847. syntropic f. Gr. SYN- + - turning + -IC; cf. TROPIC. Forming a series of similar parts pointing in the same direction, as ribs or vertebræ. So (in recent Dicts.) syntrope, any one of such parts; syntropy, condition of being syntropic.
  9. 9. en(ergy)tropy & syn(ergy)tropy X
  10. 10. half O.E. half, halb (Mercian), healf (W. Saxon) "side, part" (original sense preserved in behalf), from P.Gmc. *khalbas "something divided" (cf. O.N. halfr, O.Fris., M.Du. half, Ger. halb, Goth. halbs "half"). Used also in O.E. phrases as in modern Ger., to mean "one half unit less than," cf. þridda healf "two and a half," lit. "half third." The construction in two and a half, etc., is first recorded c.1200. Of time, in half past ten, etc., first attested 1750; in Scottish, the half often is prefixed to the following hour, as in Ger. (halb elf "ten thirty"). Half-and-half "ale and porter" is from 1756; half-baked in sense of "silly" is from 1855; half-breed "mixed race" is from 1760; half-blooded in this sense is from c.1600. Half-brother (early 14c.) and half-sister (c.1200) were in M.E.. Halftime in football is from 1871. half-truth is first recorded 1658; half-hearted is from 1610s. To go off half-cocked "speak or act too hastily" (1833) is in allusion to firearms. double early 13c., from O.Fr. duble, from L. duplus "twofold," from duo "two" + -plus "fold." Verb meaning "to work as, in addition to one's regular job" is c.1920, circus slang, from performers who also played in the band. Double-header is first recorded 1869, Amer.Eng., originally a kind of fireworks or a railway train pulled by two engines; baseball sense is c.1890. Double Dutch "gibberish" is attested from 1864 (High Dutch for "incomprehensible language" is recorded from 1789). Double agent is first attested 1935; double date is from 1931. Double-take and double talk both first attested 1938. Military double time (1833) was originally 130 steps per minute; in modern U.S. Army 180 steps of 36 inches in a minute. To double park a motor vehicle is recorded from 1931. single c.1300, "individual, unbroken, unmarried," from O.Fr. sengle "being one, separate," from L. singulus "one, individual, separate" (usually in pl. singuli "one by one"), from sim- (stem of simplus) + dim. suffix. Meaning "unaccompanied or unsupported by others" is from 1340. The verb meaning "to separate from the herd" (originally in deer-hunting, often with forth or out) is recorded from 1575. Single-handed is first attested 1709. Single-parent (adj.) is attested from 1969. dual c.1600, from L. dualis, from duo "two."
  11. 11. HALF DOUBLE 1:2 2:1 SINGLE DUAL 1:1 2:2 ONE 1 <half<double<single<dual<one>
  12. 12. support late 14c., from O.Fr. supporter, from L. supportare "convey, carry, bring up," from sub "up from under" + portare "to carry" (see port (1)). Related: Supported; supporting. The noun meaning "act of assistance, backing" is recorded from late 14c.; sense of "that which supports" is from 1560s. Meaning "services which enable something to fulfil its function and remain in operation" (e.g. tech support) is from 1953. service c.1100, "celebration of public worship," from O.Fr. servise, from L. servitium "slavery, servitude," from servus "slave" (see serve). Meaning "act of serving" is attested from 1230. Sense of "duty of a military man" first recorded 1580s, hence "the military as an occupation" (1706). Meaning "the furniture of the table" (tea service, etc.) is from mid-15c. Serving "a helping of food" is from 1769. Serviceable "ready to serve" is from early 14c.
  14. 14. versus mid-15c., in legal case names, denoting action of one party against another, from L. versus "turned toward or against," from pp. of vertere "to turn," from PIE *wert- "to turn, wind," from base *wer- "to turn, bend" (cf. O.E. -weard "toward," originally "turned toward," weorthan "to befall," wyrd "fate, destiny," lit. "what befalls one;" Skt. vartate "turns round, rolls;" Avestan varet- "to turn;" L. vertere (freq. versare) "to turn;" O.C.S. vruteti "to turn, roll," Rus. vreteno "spindle, distaff;" Lith. verciu "to turn;" Gk. rhatane "stirrer, ladle;" Ger. werden, O.E. weorðan "to become," for sense, cf. "to turn into;" Welsh gwerthyd "spindle, distaff;" O.Ir. frith "against").
  16. 16. product c.1430, "mathematical quantity obtained by multiplication," from M.L. productum, from L. "something produced," noun use of neuter pp. of producere "bring forth" (see produce). General sense of "anything produced" is attested in Eng. from 1575. produce late 15c., from L. producere "lead or bring forth, draw out," from pro- "forth" + ducere "to bring, lead" (see duke). Originally "extend," sense of "bring into being" is first recorded 1510s; that of "to put (a play) on stage" is from 1580s. The noun, "thing or things produced," is 1690s, from the verb, and was originally accented like it. Specific sense of "agricultural productions" (as distinguished from manufactured goods) is from 1745. customer 14c., "customs official;" later "buyer" (early 15c.), from Anglo-Fr. custumer, from M.L. custumarius, from L. consuetudinarius (see custom). More generalized meaning "a person with whom one has dealings" emerged 1540s; that of "a person to deal with" (usually wth an adjective, tough, etc.) is by 1580s. In Shakespeare, the word also can mean "prostitute.”
  18. 18. by O.E. be (unstressed) or bi (stressed) "near, in, by, during, about," from P.Gmc. *bi "around, about" (cf. O.S., O.Fris. bi, be "by near," Du. bij, Ger. bei "by, at, near," Goth. bi "about"), from *umbi (cognate with second element in PIE *ambhi "around," cf. Skt. abhi "toward, to," Gk. amphi- "around, about"). Originally an adverbial particle of place, in which sense it is retained in place names (Whitby, Grimsby, etc.). Elliptical use for "secondary course" (opposed to main) was in O.E. This also is the sense of the second by in the phrase by the by (1610s). Phrase by and by (early 14c.) originally meant "one by one," modern sense is from 1520s. By and large (1660s) originally was nautical, "sailing to the wind and off it," hence "in one direction then another.”
  20. 20. busy O.E. bisig "careful, anxious, busy, occupied," cognate with O.Du. bezich, Low Ger. besig; no known connection with any other Germanic or Indo-European language. Still pronounced as in M.E., but for some unclear reason the spelling shifted to -u- in 15c. The word was a euphemism for "sexually active" in 17c. Of telephone lines, 1893. In M.E., sometimes with a sense of "prying, meddlesome," preserved in busybody. Busy work is first recorded 1910. The verb is O.E. bisgian. business O.E. bisignes (Northumbrian) "care, anxiety, occupation," from bisig "careful, anxious, busy, occupied, diligent" (see busy) + -ness. Sense of "work, occupation" is first recorded late 14c. Sense of "trade, commercial engagements" is first attested 1727. Modern two-syllable pronunciation is 17c. Business card first attested 1840; business letter from 1766.
  22. 22. The straight line is one of the five basic elements in Western ideography. The straight vertical line stands for unity, oneness, the self (who am I?), the number 1, authority, power, the absolute, that which is outstanding, and contact between the lower and the higher. When placed between other signs, has a demarcating and dividing meaning. In logic, for example, A B can mean either A or B, but not both. In dualistic systems of meaning represents the positive pole. In the context of electrical power supply means power on, as opposed to for power off. As an electrical sign also denotes single-phase current. In addition the short vertical line often signifies seriousness or danger, (as does ). The traffic sign is an example, as is in the ground-to-air emergency code, where it indicates that the pilot is badly wounded and in need of a doctor.
  23. 23. one
  24. 24. Form Follow Function Flow
  25. 25. Follow Flow Function Form
  26. 26. reverse c.1300, from O.Fr. revers "reverse, cross," from L. reversus, pp. of revertere "turn back" (see revert). Reverse angle in film-making is from 1934. Reverse discrimination is attested from 1976. late 14c., "opposite or contrary" (of something), from reverse (adv./adj.); meaning "a defeat, a change of fortune" is from 1520s; meaning "back side of a coin" is from 1620s. Of gear-shifts in motor cars, from 1875. As a type of sports play (originally rugby) it is recorded from 1921. to O.E. to "in the direction of, for the purpose of, furthermore," from W.Gmc. *to (cf. O.S., O.Fris. to, Du. too, O.H.G. zuo, Ger. zu "to"), from PIE pronomial base *do- "to, toward, upward" (cf. L. donec "as long as," O.C.S. do "as far as, to," Gk. suffix -de "to, toward," O.Ir. do, Lith. da-). In O.E., the preposition (go to town) leveled with the adverb (the door slammed to) except where the adverb retained its stress (tired and hungry too); there it came to be written with -oo (see too). The nearly universal use of to with infinitives (to sleep, to dream, etc.) arose in M.E. out of the O.E. dative use of to, and helped drive out the O.E. inflectional endings (though in this use to itself is a mere sign, without meaning). Commonly used as a prefix in M.E. (to-hear "listen to," etc.), but few of these survive (to-do, together, and time references like today, tonight, tomorrow -- Chaucer also has to-yeere). To and fro "side to side" is attested from 1340. at O.E. æt, common P.Gmc. (cf. O.N., Goth. at, O.Fris. et, O.H.G. az), from PIE *ad- "to, near, at" (cf. L. ad "to, toward" Skt. adhi "near"). Lost in Ger. and Du., which use their equivalent of to; in Scandinavian, however, to has been lost and at fills its place. At-home (n.) "reception of visitors" is from 1745; baseball at-bat "player's turn at the plate" is from 1941. The colloquial use of at after where ("where it's at") is attested from 1859. In choosing between at church, in church, etc. at is properly distinguished from in or on by involving some practical connection; a worshipper is at church; a tourist is in the church. At last is recorded from late 13c.; adv. phrase at least was in use by 1775. At in M.E. was used freely with prepositions (e.g. at after, which is in Shakespeare), but this has faded with the exception of at about, which was used in modern times by Trollope, Virginia Woolfe, D.H. Lawrence, and Evelyn Waugh, but nonetheless is regarded as a sign of incompetent writing by my copy editor bosses. from O.E. fram, originally "forward movement, advancement," evolving into sense of "movement away," from P.Gmc. *fr- (cf. Goth. fram "from, away," O.N. fra "from," fram "forward"), corresponding to PIE *pr- (see pro).
  27. 27. reverse @ TO FROM
  28. 28. forward O.E. foreweard "toward the front," from fore + -ward. The verb is first recorded 1590s. Related: Forwarded. Adj. sense of "early" is from 1520s; that of "presumptuous" is attested from 1560s. The position in football so called since 1879. British English until mid-20c. preserved the distinction between forward and forwards, the latter expressing "a definite direction viewed in contrast with other directions." In Amer.Eng., however, forward prevails in all senses since Webster (1832) damned forwards as "a corruption.” require c.1300, "to ask a question, inquire," from O.Fr. requerre, from V.L. *requærere, from L. requirere "seek to know, ask," from re- "repeatedly" + quærere "ask, seek" (see query). The original sense of this word has been taken over by request. Sense of "demand (someone) to do (something)" is from 1751, via the notion of "to ask for imperatively, or as a right" (1380). recognize 1414, "resume possession of land," from M.Fr. reconiss-, stem of reconoistre "to know again, identify, recognize," from O.Fr., from L. recognoscere "acknowledge, recall to mind, know again, examine, certify," from re- "again" + cognoscere "know" (from co- "with" + gnoscere "become acquainted;" see notice). Meaning "perceive something or someone as already known" first recorded 1533. resolve late 14c., from L. resolvere "to loosen, undo, settle," from re-, intensive prefix, + solvere "loosen" (see solve). Same sense evolution as in resolution. The noun meaning "determination" is first recorded 1592. respond c.1300, respound, from O.Fr. respondere "respond, correspond," from L. respondere "respond, answer to, promise in return," from re- "back" + spondere "to pledge" (see spondee). Modern spelling and pronunciation is from c.1600.
  30. 30. experience late 14c., from O.Fr. experience, from L. experientia "knowledge gained by repeated trials," from experientem (nom. experiens), prp. of experiri "to try, test," from ex- "out of" + peritus "experienced, tested." The v. (1530s) first meant "to test, try;" sense of "feel, undergo" first recorded 1580s. Related: Experienced; experiences; experiencing. with O.E. wið "against, opposite, toward," a shortened form related to wiðer, from P.Gmc. *withro- "against" (cf. O.S. withar "against," O.N. viðr "against, with, toward, at," M.Du., Du. weder, Du. weer "again," Goth. wiþra "against, opposite"), from PIE *wi-tero-, lit. "more apart," from base *wi- "separation" (cf. Skt. vi, Avestan vi- "asunder," Skt. vitaram "further, farther," O.C.S. vutoru "other, second"). In M.E., sense shifted to denote association, combination, and union, partly by influence of O.N. vidh, and also perhaps by L. cum "with" (as in pugnare cum "fight with"). In this sense, it replaced O.E. mid "with," which survives only as a prefix (e.g. midwife). Original sense of "against, in opposition" is retained in compounds such as withhold, withdraw, withstand. Often treated as a conjunction by ungrammatical writers and used where and would be correct. First record of with child "pregnant" is recorded from c.1200. With it "cool" is black slang, recorded by 1931. within O.E. wiðinnan, lit. "against the inside," see with + in. without O.E. wiðutan, lit. "against the outside" (opposite of within), see with + out. As a word expressing lack or want of something (opposite of with), attested from c.1200. In use by 1393 as a conjunction, short for without that.
  32. 32. duration late 14c., from O.Fr. duration, from M.L. durationem (nom. duratio), from L. durare "harden" (see endure). Phrase for the duration (1916) originally refers to British enlistment in World War I. time O.E. tima "limited space of time," from P.Gmc. *timon "time" (cf. O.N. timi "time, proper time," Swed. timme "an hour"), from PIE *di-mon-, from base *da- "cut up, divide" (see tide). Abstract sense of "time as an indefinite continuous duration" is recorded from 1388. Personified since at least 1509 as an aged bald man (but with a forelock) carrying a scythe and an hour-glass. In English, a single word encompasses time as "extent" and "point" (Fr. temps/fois, Ger. zeit/mal) as well as "hour" (e.g. "what time is it?" cf. Fr. heure, Ger. Uhr). Extended senses such as "occasion," "the right time," "leisure," or times (v.) "multiplied by" developed in O.E. and M.E., probably as a natural outgrowth of phrases like, "He commends her a hundred times to God" (O.Fr. La comande a Deu cent foiz). tide O.E. tid "point or portion of time, due time," from P.Gmc. *tidiz "division of time" (cf. O.S. tid, Du. tijd, O.H.G. zit, Ger. Zeit "time"), from PIE *di-ti- "division, division of time," suffixed form of base *da- "to divide, cut up" (cf. Skt. dati "cuts, divides;" Gk. demos "people, land," perhaps lit. "division of society;" daiesthai "to divide;" O.Ir. dam "troop, company"). Meaning "rise and fall of the sea" (1340) is probably via notion of "fixed time," specifically "time of high water;" either a native evolution or from M.L.G. getide (cf. also Du. tij, Ger. Gezeiten "flood tide"). O.E. had no specific word for this, using flod and ebba to refer to the rise and fall. The verb meaning "to carry (as the tide does)" is recorded from 1626, usually with over.
  33. 33. tide
  34. 34. phase 1812, "phase of the moon," back-formed as a sing. from Mod.L. phases, pl. of phasis, from Gk. phasis "appearance" (of a star), "phase" (of the moon), from stem of phainein "to show, to make appear" (see phantasm). L. sing. phasis was used in Eng. from 1660. Non-lunar application is first attested 1841. Meaning "temporary difficult period" (especially of adolescents) is attested from 1913. The verb meaning "to synchronize" is from 1938, from the noun. first quarter the instant, approximately one week after a new moon, when one half of the moon's disk is illuminated by the sun. last quarter the instant, approximately one week after a full moon, when half of the moon's disk is illuminated by the sun. full moon the moon when the whole of its disk is illuminated, occurring when in opposition to the sun. Why is one side of the moon visible from earth? The moon is 'tidally locked' with earth. Planets and moons are not made of purely smoothe, evenly distributed material. They have lots of bumps and bulges, even if their over-all shape is spherical. The side of the moon that faces earth represents the more massive side of the moon. Over a very long time, the mutual tidal and gravitational forces between the earth and moon caused the more massive chunk of the moon to always face earth. All orbiting bodies have a tendency toward this tidal locking, but again, it takes an enormous amount of time and depends also on the rate of rotation of the body. Interestingly, there is something called 'libration', which causes the moon to apparently wobble from side to side and also a little up and down. [Think Libra, the scale. Imagine a balance scale slowly moving up and down until it settles.] The moon is not actually wobbling. The effect is the result of a practically constant rotational rate for the moon on its axis, and the fact that the orbital velocity of the moon around the earth is not constant. Because the moon's orbit is elliptical, the moon revolves more rapidly when it is closer to the earth. Also, some of the libration happens because the moon does not orbit around the earth exactly in the earth's equatorial plane. This means we can 'peak' a little above and a little below the usual view that we get of the moon. Over a period of about 15 years of lunar observation from earth, we can see very roughly 60% of the moon's surface as a result of all that libration.
  35. 35. phase
  36. 36. counter prefix meaning "against, in return," from Anglo-Fr. countre-, Fr. contre-, from L. contra "opposite, contrary to, against, in return," also used as a prefix (see contra-) contra prefix meaning "against," from L. adverb and preposition contra (see contra). The L. word was used as a prefix in Late Latin. in French, it became contre- and passed into Eng. as counter-. The O.E. equivalent was wiðer (surviving in withers and widdershins), from wið "with, against.” mid-14c., from L. contra (prep. and adv.) "against," originally "in comparison with," ablative singular feminine of *com- teros, from Old L. com "with, together" + -tr, zero degree of the comp. suffix -ter-. counter-steering is the technique used by single-track vehicle operators, cyclists and motorcyclists, to initiate a turn toward a given direction by first steering counter to the desired direction ("steer left to turn right"). In order to negotiate a turn successfully, the combined center of mass of the rider and the single-track vehicle must first be leaned in the direction of the turn, and steering briefly in the opposite direction causes that lean. Once sufficient lean is established to sustain the desired turn, the rider, or in many cases the bike itself, then steers into the turn to cause the bike to turn in the desired direction and stop the lean from increasing. This technique does not apply to multiple-tracked vehicles such as trikes and bicycles or motorcycles with sidecars attached. It is important to distinguish between counter-steering as a physical phenomenon and counter-steering as a rider technique for initiating a lean (the usual interpretation of the term). The physical phenomenon always occurs, because there is no other way to cause the bike and rider to lean short of some outside influence such as an opportune side wind, although at low speeds it can be lost or hidden in the minute corrections made to maintain balance.
  37. 37. DURING AFTER BEFORE counter
  38. 38. turn late O.E. turnian "to rotate, revolve," in part also from O.Fr. torner "to turn," both from L. tornare "turn on a lathe," from tornus "lathe," from Gk. tornos "lathe, tool for drawing circles," from PIE base *ter- "to rub, rub by turning, turn, twist" (see throw). Expression to turn (something) into (something else) probably retains the classical sense of "to shape on a lathe" (attested in Eng. from c.1300). To turn up "arrive" is recorded from 1755. Turning-point in the fig. sense is attested from 1836. Turn-off "something that dampens one's spirits" first recorded 1975 (said to have been in use since 1968); to turn (someone) on "excite, stimulate, arouse" is recorded from 1903. Someone should revive turn-sick "dizzy," which is attested from mid-15c. To turn (something) loose "set free" is recorded from 1590s. Turn around (v.) "reverse" is first attested 1880, Amer.Eng. Turn down (v.) "reject" first recorded 1891, Amer.Eng. Turn in "go to bed" is attested from 1690s, originally nautical. To turn the stomach "nauseate" is recorded from 1620s. mid-13c., "action of rotation," from Anglo-Fr. tourn (O.Fr. tour), from L. tornus "turning lathe;" also partly a noun of action from turn (v.). Meaning "an act of turning, a single revolution or part of a revolution" is attested from late 15c. Sense of "place of bending" (in a road, river, etc.) is recorded from early 15c. Meaning "beginning of a period of time" is attested from 1853 (e.g. turn of the century, 1926). Sense of "act of good will" is recorded from c.1300. Meaning "spell of work" is from late 14c.; that of "an individual's time for action, when these go around in succession" is recorded from late 14c. Turn about "by turns, alternately" is recorded from 1640s. Phrase done to a turn (1780) suggests meat roasted on a spit. The turn of the screw (1796) is the additional twist to tighten its hold, sometimes with reference to torture by thumbscrews.
  39. 39. turn
  40. 40. synchronous 1669, "existing or happening at the same time," from L.L. synchronus "simultaneous," from Gk. synchronos "happening at the same time," from syn- "together" + khronos "time." Meaning "recurring at the same successive instants of time" is attested from 1677.
  41. 41. 1.61.4 1.81.2 1.22 1.261.24 1.281.21 1.29 1.25 1.23 1.27 syn.chronous
  42. 42. diachronic 1857, from Gk. dia "throughout" + khronos "time." Use in linguistics dates from 1927. through c.1300, metathesis of O.E. þurh, from W.Gmc. *thurkh (cf. O.S. thuru, O.Fris. thruch, M.Du. dore, Du. door, O.H.G. thuruh, Ger. durch, Goth. þairh "through"), from PIE base *tr- "through" (cf. Skt. tirah, Avestan taro "through, beyond," L. trans "beyond," O.Ir. tre, Welsh tra "through"). Not clearly differentiated from thorough until early Mod.Eng. Spelling thro was common 15c.-18c. Reformed spelling thru (1917) is mainly Amer.Eng. out O.E. ut, common Gmc. (cf. O.N., O.Fris., Goth. ut, Du. uit, Ger. aus), from PIE base *ud- "up, up away" (cf. Skt. ut "up, out," uttarah "higher, upper, later, northern;" Avestan uz- "up, out," O.Ir. ud- "out," L. usque "all the way to, without interruption," Gk. hysteros "the latter," Rus. vy- "out"). Meaning "unconscious" is attested from 1898, originally in boxing. push c.1300, from O.Fr. poulser, from L. pulsare "to beat, strike, push," frequentative of pellere (pp. pulsus) "to push, drive, beat" (see pulse (1)). The noun is first recorded 1570. Meaning "approach a certain age" is from 1937. Meaning "promote" (1714) led to pusher "peddler of illegal drugs," first recorded 1935 in prison slang (earlier it meant "prostitute," 1923). Pushy "forward, aggressive" first recorded 1936. To push (someone) around is from 1923. Phrase push comes to shove is from 1958; to push (one's) luck is from 1911. To push the envelope in figurative sense is late 1980s. Push-up, the exercise, is from 1906; to push up daisies "be dead and buried" is from c.1860. Push-button (n.) is from 1898; adj. sense "characterized by the use of push-buttons" is from 1946. pull O.E. pullian "to pluck or draw out," of unknown origin, perhaps related to Low Ger. pulen "remove the shell or husk." Original sense preserved in pull teeth, pull weeds, etc., by late 16c. it had replaced draw as the main word for this activity. The noun meaning "personal or private influence" is 1889 in Amer.Eng. Common verb in slang usages 19c.-20c.; to pull (someone's) chain in figurative sense is from 1980, probably on the notion of a captive animal; to pull (someone's) leg is from 1886, on notion of "playfully tripping." To pull one's punches is from 1934; pull in "arrive" is 1905, from the railroad; to pull (something) on (someone) is from 1916; to pull (something) out of one's ass is Army slang from 1970s. Pullover first recorded 1907. To pull rank is from 1923; to pull the rug from under (someone) is from 1946.
  44. 44. Form Follow Function Flow
  45. 45. Form Function Follow Flow
  46. 46. process early 14c., "fact of being carried on" (e.g. in process), from O.Fr. proces "journey" (13c.), from L. processus "process, advance, progress," from pp. stem of procedere "go forward" (see proceed). Meaning "course or method of action" is from mid-14c.; sense of "continuous series of actions meant to accomplish some result" (the main modern sense) is from 1620s. Legal sense of "course of action of a suit at law" is attested from early 14c. Verb meaning "prepare by special process" first recorded 1884; processor is 1909; data processor is 1958; word processor is c.1974; food processor is 1977. proceed 1382, from O.Fr. proceder (13c.), from L. procedere "go forward, advance," from pro- "forward" + cedere "to go" (see cede) Proceeds (n.) "results, profits" is first attested 1665, on the notion of "that which proceeds from something." Proceedings "records of the doings of a society" is from 1830. cede 1633, from L. cedere "to yield," originally "to go, leave," from PIE base *ked- "to go, yield" (cf. Skt. a-sad- "to go, approach;" Avestan apa-had- "turn aside, step aside;" Gk. hodos "way," hodites "wanderer, wayfarer;" O.C.S. chodu "a walking, going," choditi "to go"). progress early 15c., "a going on, action of walking forward," from O.Fr. progres, from L. progressus (see progression). Figurative sense of "growth, development, advancement to higher stages" is from c.1600. progression c.1440, "action of moving forward," from O.Fr. progression (1425), from L. progressionem (nom. progressio) "a going forward," from progressus, pp. of progredi "go forward," from pro- "forward" + gradi "to step, walk," from gradus "step" (see grade). grade 1511, from Fr. grade "grade, degree," from L. gradus "step, degree," replacing M.E. gree "step, degree in a series," from O.Fr. grei "step," from L. gradus, related to gradi "to walk, step, go," from PIE *ghredh- (cf. Lith. gridiju "to go, wander," O.C.S. gredo "to come," O.Ir. in-greinn "he pursues," and second element in congress, progress, etc.). The verb is 1659, from the noun. Railway sense is from 1835.
  47. 47. pro(c/gr)ess
  48. 48. continuous 1670s, from L. continuus "uninterrupted, hanging together" (see continue). Related: Continuously (1670s). keystone "stone in the middle of an arch, which holds up the others," 1637, from key (1) in fig. sense of "that which holds together other parts." Fig. sense is from 1641. Pennsylvania was called the Keystone State because of its position (geographical and political) in the original American confederation, between northern states and southern ones. Keystone cops were the bumbling crew of officers in the slapstick films produced by Keystone Company, formed by Canadian-born U.S. film director Mack Sennett (1884-1960) in 1912. five The cardinal number next after four, represented by the symbols 5 or V.
  49. 49. continuous 4 53 18 2 6 7 9
  50. 50. interrupt c.1420, from L. interruptus, pp. of interrumpere "break apart, break off," from inter- "between" + rumpere "to break" (see rupture, and compare corrupt). 1375–1425; late ME interrupten < L interruptus ptp. of interrumpere to break apart, equiv. to inter- inter- + rup-, var. s. of rumpere to burst + -tus ptp. suffix; see rupture. inter L. inter (prep., adj.) "among, between," from PIE *enter "between, among" (cf. Skt. antar, O.Pers. antar "among, between," Gk. entera (pl.) "intestines," O.Ir. eter, O.Welsh ithr "among, between," Goth. undar, O.E. under "under"), a comparative of *en- "in." Also in certain L. phrases in Eng., such as inter alia "among other things." Spelled entre- in Fr., most words borrowed into Eng. in that form were re-spelled 16c. to conform with L. except entertain, enterprise. rupture 1481, from L. ruptura "the breaking (of an arm or leg), fracture," from pp. stem of rumpere "to break," cognate with O.E. reafian "to seize, rob, plunder," reofan "to tear, break;" O.N. rjufa "to break;" see reft). Meaning "abdominal hernia" first attested 1539. The verb is first recorded 1739.
  51. 51. interrupt
  52. 52. step O.E. steppan (Anglian), stæppan (W.Saxon) "take a step," from W.Gmc. *stap- "tread" (cf. O.Fris., M.Du., Du. stap, O.H.G. stapfo, Ger. stapfe "footstep"), from PIE base *stebh- "to tread, step" (cf. O.C.S. stopa "step, pace," stepeni "step, degree"). Originally strong (p.t. stop, pp. bestapen); weak forms emerged 13c., universal from 16c. Stepping stone first recorded early 14c.; in the figurative sense 1653. Step on it "hurry up" is 1923, from notion of gas pedal; step out (v.) is from 1907. O.E. steop-, with connotations of "loss," in combinations like steopcild "orphan," related to astiepan, bestiepan "to bereave, to deprive of parents or children," from P.Gmc. *steupa- "bereft" (cf. O.Fris. stiap-, O.N. stjup-, Swed. styv-, M.L.G. stef-, Du. stief-, O.H.G. stiof-, Ger. stief-), lit. "pushed out," from PIE *steup-, from base *(s)teu- (see steep (adj.)). Etymologically, a stepfather or stepmother is one who becomes father or mother to an orphan, but the notion of orphanage faded in 20c. For sense evolution, cf. L. privignus "stepson," related to privus "deprived.” O.E. steppa (Mercian), stæpe, stepe (W.Saxon) "stair, act of stepping," from the source of step (v.). Meaning "action which leads toward a result" is recorded from 1549. Stepladder (one with steps instead of rungs) is from 1751. Warning phrase watch your step is attested from 1934. Step-dancing first recorded 1886. stair O.E. stæger "flight of steps," also "a single step," from P.Gmc. *staigri (cf. O.N., O.Fris. stiga, M.Du. stighen, O.H.G. stigan, Ger. steigen, Goth. steigan "to go up, ascend;" O.E. stigan "to climb, go;" Ger. Steig "path," O.E. stig "narrow path"), from PIE *steigh- "go, rise, stride, step, walk" (cf. Gk. steikhein "to go, march in order," stikhos "row, line, rank, verse;" Skt. stighnoti "mounts, rises, steps;" O.C.S. stignati "to overtake," stigna "place;" Lith. staiga "suddenly;" O.Ir. tiagaim "I walk;" Welsh taith "going, walk, way").
  54. 54. stage c.1300, "story of a building, raised floor for exhibitions," from O.Fr. estage "a story or floor of a building, stage for performance," from V.L. *staticum "a place for standing," from L. statum, pp. of stare "to stand" (see stet). Meaning "platform for presentation of a play" is attested from 1548; generalized for "profession of an actor" from 1589. Sense of "period of development or time in life" first recorded 1608, probably from M.E. sense of "degree or step on the 'ladder' of virtue, 'wheel' of fortune, etc.," in parable illustrations and morality plays. The verb meaning "to put (a play) on the stage" first recorded 1879; general sense of "to mount" (a comeback, etc.) is attested from 1924. Stage-coach is 1658, from the sense of "division of a journey without stopping for rest" (1603). Stage mother is from 1919. Stage-Door Johnny "young man who frequents stage doors seeking the company of actresses, chorus girls, etc." is attested from 1912. Stage-struck is from 1813; earlier stage-smitten (1682). Stage-whisper first attested 1865. trust c.1200, from O.N. traust "help, confidence," from P.Gmc. *traust- (cf. O.Fris. trast, Du. troost "comfort, consolation," O.H.G. trost "trust, fidelity," Ger. Trost "comfort, consolation," Goth. trausti "agreement, alliance"). Related to O.E. treowian "to believe, trust," and treowe "faithful, trusty" (see true). Meaning "businesses organized to reduce competition" is recorded from 1877. The verb (early 13c.) is from O.N. treysta "to trust." Trust-buster is recorded from 1903. Trustee in the sense of "person who is responsible for the property of another" is attested from 1650s. Trustworthy is first attested 1808. thrust c.1175, from O.N. þrysta "to thrust, force," from P.Gmc. *thrustijanan, perhaps from PIE *trud- "push, press" (see threat), but OED finds this derivation doubtful. The noun is recorded from 1513; fig. sense of "principal theme, aim, point, purpose" is recorded from 1968.
  56. 56. end O.E. ende, from P.Gmc. *andja (cf. O.Fris. enda, O.N. endir, O.H.G. enti), originally "the opposite side," from PIE *antjo "end, boundary," from base anta-/*anti- "opposite, in front of, before" (see ante). Original sense of "outermost part" is obsolete except in phrase ends of the earth. Sense of "destruction, death" was in O.E. Meaning "division or quarter of a town" was in O.E. The verb is from O.E. endian. The end "the last straw, the limit" (in a disparaging sense) is from 1929. The phrase end run is first attested 1902 in U.S. football; extended to military tactics in World War II; general fig. sense is from 1968. End time in ref. to the end of the world is from 1917. Be-all and end-all is from Shakespeare ("Macbeth" I.vii.5). and O.E. and, ond, orig. meaning "thereupon, next," from P.Gmc. *unda (cf. O.S. endi, O.Fris. anda, M.Du. ende, O.H.G. enti, Ger. und, O.N. enn), cognate with L. ante, Gk. anti (see ante). Phrase and how as an exclamation of emphatic agreement dates from early 1900s. aim early 14c., "to estimate, calculate," from O.Fr. esmar, from L. aestimare "appraise" (see estimation); current meaning apparently developed from "esteem," to "calculate," through "calculate with a view to action" (c.1400), then "calculate the direction of a missile" (1570s). The noun is recorded from c.1400, originally "guess;" meaning "action of aiming" is from early 15c. (to take aim, originally make aim); that of "thing intended, purpose" is from 1620s. Related: Aimless (1620s).
  57. 57. end & aim
  58. 58. Form Follow Function Flow
  59. 59. Flow Follow Form Function
  60. 60. alternating current An electric current that repeatedly changes its direction or strength, usually at a certain frequency or range of frequencies. The term is also used to describe alternating voltages. Power stations generate alternating current because it is easy to raise and lower the voltage of such current using transformers; thus the voltage can be raised very high for transmission (high voltages lose less power as heat than do low voltages), and lowered to safe levels for domestic and industrial use. In North America, the frequency of alternation of the direction of flow is 60 Hz, or 60 cycles per second. In other parts of the world it is 50 Hz. attach early 14c., "to take or seize (property or goods) by law," a legal term, from O.Fr. estachier "to attach" (Fr. attacher, It. attaccare), perhaps from a- "to" + Frank. *stakon "a post, stake" or a similar Gmc. word (see stake (n.)). Meaning "to fasten, affix, connect" is first attested 1802, from French. control early 14c., "to check, verify, regulate," from Anglo-Norm. contreroller "exert authority," from M.L. contrarotulus "a counter, register," from L. contra- "against" (see contra) + rotulus, dim. of rota "wheel" (see roll). From a medieval method of checking accounts by a duplicate register. Sense of "dominate, direct" is c.1450. Related: Controllable (1570s); controlled (1580s; of rent, from c.1930); controlling (1520s). Control group in scientific experiments is attested from 1952 (from a sense of control attested since 1875). Control freak is late 1960s slang. axial "pertaining to an axis," 1842 (in axially), from axis + -al. axis 1540s, "imaginary straight line around which a body (such as the Earth) rotates," from L. axis "axle, pivot, axis of the earth or sky," from PIE *aks- "axis" (cf. O.E. eax, O.H.G. ahsa "axle;" Gk. axon "axis, axle, wagon;" Skt. aksah "an axle, axis, beam of a balance;" Lith. aszis "axle"). Fig. sense in world history of "alliance between Germany and Italy" (later extended to include Japan) is from 1936. Original reference was to a "Rome-Berlin axis" in central Europe. The word later was used in ref. to a London-Washington axis (World War II) and a Moscow-Peking axis (early Cold War).
  61. 61. attach & control
  62. 62. direct current An electric current that moves in one direction with constant strength. Batteries are a source of direct current. Direct current is not used for long-distance power transmission because it is difficult to step up the voltage to a level that is efficient for energy transfer and then to step the voltage back down again for safe domestic use. direct late 14c., from L. directus "straight," pp. of dirigere "set straight," from dis- "apart" + regere "to guide" (see regal). The adj. is from late 14c. Related: Directed; directing. connect 1670s, from L. connectere (see connection). Earlier was connex (1540s), from Fr. connexer, from L. *connexare, freq. of conectere (pp. stem connex-). A similar change took place in Fr., where connexer was superseded by connecter. Meaning "to establish a relationship" (with) is from 1881. Slang meaning "get in touch with" is attested by 1926, from telephone connections. Meaning "awaken meaningful emotions, establish rapport" is from 1942. Of a hit or blow, "to reach the target," from c.1920. Related: Connecting (1680s); connectedness (1690s). connection 14c., connexion, from O.Fr. connexion, from L. connexionem, from *connexare, freq. of connectere "to fasten together, to tie, join together," from com- "together" + nectere "to bind, tie" (see nexus). Spelling shifted to connection mid-18c. under infl. of connect, abeted by affection, direction, etc. radial 1570, from M.L. radialis, from L. radius "beam of light" (see radius). As a type of tire, attested from 1965, short for radial-ply (tire). radius 1597, "cross-shaft," from L. radius "staff, spoke of a wheel, beam of light," of unknown origin. Perhaps related to radix "root," but Tucker suggests connection to Skt. vardhate "rises, makes grow," via root *neredh- "rise, out, extend forth;" or else Gk. ardis "sharp point." The geometric sense first recorded 1611. Plural is radii. Meaning "circular area of defined distance around some place" is attested from 1953. Meaning "shorter bone of the forearm" is from 1615 in Eng.; it was used thus by Roman writer Aulus Cornelius Celsus (1c.).
  63. 63. direct & connect
  64. 64. consultation early 15c., from M.Fr. consultation, from L. consultationem, from consultare "consult," frequentative of consulere "to deliberate, consider," originally probably "to call together," as in consulere senatum "to gather the senate" (to ask for advice), from com- "with" + *selere "take, gather (the Senate) together," from PIE base *sal- "to take, seize.” author c.1300, autor "father," from O.Fr. auctor, from L. auctorem (nom. auctor) "enlarger, founder, master, leader," lit. "one who causes to grow," agent noun from auctus, pp. of augere "to increase" (see augment). Meaning "one who sets forth written statements" is from late 14c. The -t- changed to -th- on mistaken assumption of Gk. origin. The verb is attested from 1590s. respond c.1300, respound, from O.Fr. respondere "respond, correspond," from L. respondere "respond, answer to, promise in return," from re- "back" + spondere "to pledge" (see spondee). Modern spelling and pronunciation is from c.1600. inform early 14c., "to train or instruct in some specific subject," from L. informare "to shape, form, train, instruct, educate," from in- "into" + forma "form." Sense of "report facts or news" first recorded late 14c. Informative "instructive" is from 1650s. Informer "one who gives information against another" (especially in ref. to law-breaking) is from c.1500. own O.E. agen "one's own," lit. "possessed by," from P.Gmc. *aigana- "possessed, owned" (cf. O.S. egan, O.Fris. egin, O.N. eiginn, Du. eigen, Ger. eigen "own"), from pp. of PIE *aik- "to be master of, possess," source of O.E. agan "to have" (see owe). evolved in early M.E. from O.E. geagnian, from root agan "to have, to own" (see own), and in part from own (adj.) (q.v.). It became obsolete after c.1300, but was revived early 17c., in part as a back-formation of owner (mid-14c.), which continued. To own up "make full confession" is from 1853. delegate late 14c., from L. delegatus, pp. of delegare "to send as a representative," from de- "from, away" + legare "send with a commission." The verb is from 1520s.
  66. 66. more O.E. mara (adj.) "greater, more," used as a comp. of micel "great" (see mickle), from P.Gmc. *maizon (cf. O.S. mera, O.N. meiri, O.Fris. mara, M.Du. mere, O.H.G. mero, Ger. mehr), from PIE *meis (cf. Avestan mazja "greater," O.Ir. mor "great," Gk. -moros "great," Oscan mais "more"). O.E. used related ma "more" as adv., n., from P.Gmc. *mais; this became M.E. mo, but more in this sense began to predominate in later M.E.
  68. 68. contract early 14c., from L. contractus, pp. of contrahere "to draw together," metaphorically, "to make a bargain," from com- "together" + trahere "to draw" (see tract (1)). Noun came first, then verb and variant meaning "become narrowed, get smaller," especially of a withered limb (both 17c.). U.S. underworld slang sense of "arrangement to kill someone" first recorded 1940. Related: Contracting (1580s). @ the @-sign is not a new invention. Some researchers even believe it was used as early as in the sixth or seventh century, probably as a ligature (combination) of the two letters a and d for Latin ad, meaning to. In England it is called at-sign or commercial at, in Germany Klammeraffe (hanging monkey), in France arobas or petit escargot (small snail), in Spain arroba (an entity for weight) and in Italy chiocciolina (small snail). Common names: at sign, at, strudel. Rare: each, vortex, whorl, INTERCAL: whirlpool, cyclone, snail, ape, cat, rose, cabbage, amphora. ITU-T: commercial at. It is ironic that @ has become a trendy mark of Internet awareness since it is a very old symbol, derived from the latin preposition "ad" (at). Giorgio Stabile, a professor of history in Rome, has traced the symbol back to the Italian Renaissance in a Roman mercantile document signed by Francesco Lapi on 1536-05-04. In Dutch it is called "apestaartje" (little ape-tail), in German "affenschwanz" (ape tail). The French name is "arobase". In Spain and Portugal it denotes a weight of about 25 pounds, the weight and the symbol are called "arroba". Italians call it "chiocciola" (snail).
  70. 70. ship O.E. scip "ship, boat," from P.Gmc. *skipan (cf. O.N., O.S., Goth. skip , Dan. skib , Swed. skepp , M.Du. scip , Du. schip , O.H.G. skif , Ger. Schiff ), perhaps originally "tree cut out or hollowed out," and derived from PIE base *skei- "to cut, split." The O.E. word was used for small craft as well; in 19c., distinct from a boat in having a bowsprit and three masts, each with a lower, top, and topgallant mast. Fr. esquif , It. schifo are Gmc. loan- words. Ship-board "side of a ship" is from c.1200. Ship-shape "properly arranged" first attested 1644. Phrase ships that pass in the night is from Longfellow's poem "Aftermath" (1873). Phrase runs a tight ship is attested from 1971. harbor c.1150, from O.E. herebeorg, from here "army, host" (see harry) + beorg "refuge, shelter" (related to beorgan "save, preserve"); perhaps modeled on O.N. herbergi, from P.Gmc. *kharjaz + *berg-. Sense shifted in M.E. to "refuge, lodgings," then to "place of shelter for ships." safe "chest for keeping valuables," c.1430, save, from M.Fr. en sauf "in safety," from sauf (see safe (adj.)). Spelling with -f- first recorded 1688, from infl. of safe (adj.) . late 13c., "uninjured, unharmed," from O.Fr. sauf , from L. salvus "uninjured, healthy, safe," related to salus "good health," saluber "healthful," all from PIE *solwos from base *sol- "whole" (cf. L. solidus "solid," Skt. sarvah "uninjured, intact, whole," Avestan haurva- "uninjured, intact," O.Pers. haruva- , Gk. holos "whole"). Meaning "not exposed to danger" is attested from late 14c.; of actions, etc., "free from risk," first recorded 1580s. Safe-conduct (late 13c.) is from O.Fr. sauf-conduit (13c.). build late O.E. byldan "construct a house," verb form of bold "house," from P.Gmc. *buthlam (cf. O.Fris. bodel "building, house"), from PIE *bhu- "to dwell," from base *bheue- "to be, exist, grow." Rare in O.E.; in M.E. it won out over more common O.E. timbran . Modern spelling is unexplained. pp. of build. Meaning "physically well-developed" is by 1940s ( well-built in reference to a woman is from 1871); Built-in (adj.) is from 1898.
  71. 71. A ship in harbour is safe, but that is not what ships are built for. BYJOHNAUGUSTUSSHEDD BYJOHNAUGUSTUSSHEDD
  73. 73. SIGHT
  76. 76. ?
  77. 77. perceive c.1300, via Anglo-Fr. parceif, O.N.Fr. *perceivre, O.Fr. perçoivre, from L. percipere "obtain, gather," also, metaphorically, "to grasp with the mind," lit. "to take entirely," from per "thoroughly" + capere "to grasp, take" (see capable). Replaced O.E. ongietan. Both the L. senses were in O.Fr., though the primary sense of Mod.Fr. percevoir is literal, "to receive, collect" (rents, taxes, etc.), while Eng. uses the word almost always in the metaphorical sense. questioning 1795–1805; question + -ing price early 13c., pris, from O.Fr. pris "price, value, wages, reward," also "honor, praise, prize" (Fr. prix), from L.L. precium, from L. pretium "reward, prize, value, worth," from PIE *preti- "back," on notion of "recompense" (cf. Skt. aprata "without recompense, gratuitously," Gk. protei "toward, to, upon," Lett. pret "opposite," O.C.S. protivu "in opposition to, against"). Praise, price, and prize began to diverge in O.Fr., with praise emerging in M.E. by early 14c. and prize being evident by late 1500s with the rise of the -z- spelling. Having shed the extra O.Fr. and M.E. senses, the word now again has the base sense of the L. original. The verb meaning "to set the price of" is attested from late 14c. Priceless (1590s) logically ought to mean the same as worthless, but it doesn't. Price-tag is recorded from 1881. Pricey "expensive" first attested 1932. part c.1000, "part of speech," from O.Fr. part, from L. partem (nom. pars, gen. partis) "part, piece, side, share," related to L. portio "share, portion," from PIE base *per- "to assign, allot" (cf. Gk. peprotai "it has been granted," Skt. purtam "reward," Hittite parshiya- "fraction, part"). It has replaced native deal in most senses. Theatrical sense (1495) is from an actor's "share" in a performance. Meaning "the parting of the hair" is 1890, Amer.Eng. late 13c., "to divide into parts," from O.Fr. partir "to divide, separate," from L. partire, from pars (see part (n.)). Sense of "to separate (someone from someone else)" is from early 14c.; that of "to take leave" is from early 15c. Meaning "to separate the hair" is attested from 1610s. variable late 14c., of persons, from O.Fr. variable, from L. variabilis "changeable," from variare "to change" (see vary). Of weather, seasons, etc., attested from late 15c.; of stars, from 1788. The noun meaning "quantity that can vary in value" first recorded 1816, from the adj.
  79. 79. perspective c.1380, "science of optics," from O.Fr. perspective, from M.L. perspectiva ars "science of optics," from fem. of perspectivus "of sight, optical" from L. perspectus, pp. of perspicere "inspect, look through," from per- "through" + specere "look at" (see scope ). Sense of "art of drawing objects so as to give appearance of distance or depth" is first found 1598, influenced by It. prospettiva, an artists' term. The fig. meaning "mental outlook over time" is first recorded 1762. scope "extent," 1534, "room to act," from It. scopo "aim, purpose, object, thing aimed at, mark, target," from L. scopus, from Gk. skopos "aim, target, watcher," from PIE *spek- "to observe" (cf. Skt. spasati "sees;" Avestan spasyeiti "spies;" Gk. skopein "behold, look, consider," skeptesthai "to look at;" L. specere "to look at;" O.H.G. spehhon "to spy," Ger. spähen "to spy"). Sense of "distance the mind can reach, extent of view" first recorded c.1600.
  80. 80. understand O.E. understandan "comprehend, grasp the idea of," probably lit. "stand in the midst of," from under + standan "to stand" (see stand). If this is the meaning, the under is not the usual word meaning "beneath," but from O.E. under, from PIE *nter- "between, among" (cf. Skt. antar "among, between," L. inter "between, among," Gk. entera "intestines;" see inter-). But the exact notion is unclear. Perhaps the ult. sense is "be close to," cf. Gk. epistamai "I know how, I know," lit. "I stand upon." Similar formations are found in O.Fris. (understonda), M.Dan. (understande), while other Gmc. languages use compounds meaning "stand before" (cf. Ger. verstehen, represented in O.E. by forstanden ). For this concept, most I.E. languages use fig. extensions of compounds that lit. mean "put together," or "separate," or "take, grasp." quest c.1300, "a search for something" (esp. of judicial inquiries or hounds seeking game), from O.Fr. queste (Fr. quête), prop. "the act of seeking," from M.L. questa "search, inquiry," alteration of L. quæsitus, pp. of quærere "seek, gain, ask" (see query). Romance sense of "adventure undertaken by a knight" is attested from late 14c. The verb is first recorded mid- 14c. expense late 14c., from Anglo-Fr. expense, O.Fr. espense "money provided for expenses," from L.L. expensa "disbursement, outlay, expense," prop. neut. pl. pp. of L. expendere "to weigh out money, to pay down" (see expend). Related: Expenses. Latin spensa also yielded M.L. spe(n)sa, whose sense specialized to "outlay for provisions," then "provisions, food," which was borrowed into O.H.G. as spisa and is the root of Ger. Speise "food," now mostly meaning prepared food, and speisen "to eat.” total late 14c., from O.Fr. total, from M.L. totalis "entire, total" (as in summa totalis "sum total"), from L. totus "all, whole, entire," of unknown origin. The noun is 1557, from the adj.; the verb is 1716, from the noun; meaning "to destroy one's car" first recorded 1954. Totality is from 1598; in the eclipse sense, 1842. Total war is attested from 1937, in ref. to a concept developed in Germany. constant late 14c., "steadfast, resolute," from L. constantem (nom. constans) "standing firm, stable, steadfast," prp. of constare, from com- "together" + stare "to stand," from PIE base *sta- "to stand" (see stet). Of actions and conditions from 1653.
  81. 81. ?
  82. 82. realize 1611, "bring into existence," from Fr. réaliser "make real," from M.Fr. real "actual," from O.Fr. (see real (adj.)). Sense of "understand clearly" is first recorded 1775. question c.1300, from Anglo-Fr. questiun, O.Fr. question "legal inquest," from L. quæstionem (nom. quæstio) "a seeking, inquiry," from root of quærere (pp. quæsitus) "ask, seek" (see query). The verb is first recorded 1470, from O.Fr. questionner (13c.). Question mark is from 1869, earlier question stop (1862). Depreciatory sense of questionable is attested from 1806. cost c.1200, from O.Fr. coster, from V.L. *costare, from L. constare "to stand at" (or with), from com- "with" + stare "to stand," from PIE base *sta- "to stand" (see stet). The idiom is the same one we use in Mod.E. when we say something "stands at X dollars" to mean it sells for X dollars. Cost effective (also cost effective) attested from 1967. whole O.E. hal "entire, unhurt, healthy," from P.Gmc. *khailaz "undamaged" (cf. O.S. hel, O.N. heill, O.Fris. hal, M.Du. hiel, Du. heel, O.H.G., Ger. heil "salvation, welfare"), from PIE *koilas (cf. O.S.C. celu "whole, complete;" see health). The spelling with wh- developed c.1420. Whole-hearted is first recorded 1840. For phrase whole hog, see hog. function 1530s, from M.Fr. fonction, from O.Fr. function, from L. functio (gen. functionis) "performance, execution," from functus, pp. of fungi "perform, execute, discharge." Use in mathematics probably begun by Leibnitz (1692). As a verb, from 1856. Related: Functioned; functioning.
  84. 84. vision late 13c., "something seen in the imagination or in the supernatural," from Anglo-Fr. visioun, O.Fr. vision, from L. visionem (nom. visio) "act of seeing, sight, thing seen," from pp. stem of videre "to see," from PIE base *weid- "to know, to see" (cf. Skt. veda "I know;" Avestan vaeda "I know;" Gk. oida, Doric woida "I know," idein "to see;" O.Ir. fis "vision," find "white," i.e. "clearly seen," fiuss "knowledge;" Welsh gwyn, Gaulish vindos, Breton gwenn "white;" Goth., O.Swed., O.E. witan "to know;" Goth. weitan "to see;" Eng. wise, Ger. wissen "to know;" Lith. vysti "to see;" Bulg. vidya "I see;" Pol. widzieć "to see," wiedzieć "to know;" Rus. videt' "to see," vest' "news," O.Russ. vedat' "to know"). The meaning "sense of sight" is first recorded late 15c. Meaning "statesman-like foresight, political sagacity" is attested from 1926. mission 1598, originally of Jesuits sending members abroad, from L. missionem (nom. missio) "act of sending," from mittere "to send," oldest form probably *smittere, of unknown origin. Diplomatic sense of "body of persons sent to a foreign land on commercial or political business" is from 1626. In Amer.Eng., sometimes "an embassy" (1805). Meaning "dispatch of an aircraft on a military operation" (1929, Amer.Eng.) later extended to spacecraft flights (1962), hence, mission control (1964). As a style of furniture, said to be imitative of furniture of original Sp. missions to N.America, it is attested from 1900. maneuver late 15c., "hand-labor," from M.Fr. manoeuvre "manipulation, maneuver," from O.Fr. maneuvre "manual labor" (13c.), from M.L. manuopera, from manuoperare "work with the hands," from L. manu operari, from manu, abl. of manus "hand" (see manual) + operari (see operation). The military sense of "planned movement of troops or warship" is attested from 1758; general meaning "artful plan, adroit movement" is from 1774. The verb is first attested 1777. eye O.E. ege (Mercian), eage (W. Saxon), from P.Gmc. *augon, from PIE *oqw- "to see" (cf. Skt. akshi "the eye, the number two," Gk. opsis "a sight," Goth. augo, O.C.S. oko, Lith. akis, L. oculus, Armenian aku). Until late 14c. the plural was in -an, hence modern dial. plural een, ene. The verb is first recorded 1560s. Related: Eyed; eyeing. The eye of a needle was in O.E.; to see eye to eye is from Isa. lii.8. Eye contact attested by 1965. Eye-opener "anything that informs and enlightens" is from 1863. Have an eye on "keep under supervision" is attested from early 15c.
  86. 86. FORESIGHT
  88. 88. If you're Volunteer Artist or Athlete, or if you defend the Home, You sacrifice "Ease" for "Attention," and march like a metronome; But of all elementary movements you learn in your Volunteer Corps The one that is really perplexing is known as the Forming of Fours. Imagine us numbered off from the right: the Sergeant faces the squad, And says that the odd files do not move -- I never seem to be odd! And then his instructions run like this (very simple in black and white) -- "A pace to the rear with the left foot, and one to the right with the right." Of course if you don't think deeply, you do it without a hitch; You have only to know your right and left, and remember which is which; But as soon as you try to be careful, you get in the deuce of a plight, With "a pace to the right with the left foot, and one to the rear with the right!" Besides, when you're thoroughly muddled the Sergeant doubles your doubt By saying that rules reverse themselves, as soon as you're "turned about"; So round you go on your right heel, and practice until you are deft At "a pace to the front with the right foot, and one to the left with the left." In my dreams the Sergeant, the Kaiser, and Kipling mix my feet, Saying "East is left, and Right is Might, and never the twain shall meet!" In my nightmare squad all files are odd, and their Fours are horribly queer, With "a pace to the left with the front foot, and one to the right with the rear!" FORMINGFOURSBYFRANKSIDGWICK
  89. 89. agent . handle . operational . data
  90. 90. agent late 15c., "one who acts," from L. agentem (nom. agens, gen. agentis), prp. of agere "to set in motion, drive, lead, conduct" (see act). Meaning "any natural force or substance which produces a phenomenon" is first recorded 1570s. handle O.E. handle, formed from hand in the sense of a tool in the way thimble was formed from thumb. The verb is O.E. handlian "to touch or move with the hands." Akin to O.N. höndla "th seize, capture," Dan. handle "to trade, deal," Ger. handeln "to bargain, trade." The commercial sense was weaker in Eng. than in some other Gmc. languages, but it emerged in Amer.Eng. (1888) from the notion of something passing through one's hands. The slang sense of "nickname" is first recorded 1870. Handlebar first recorded 1887 (as two words), in reference to bicycles; of mustaches, it is first recorded 1933. To fly off the handle (1843) is a figurative reference to an axe head. To get a handle on "get control of" is first recorded 1972. Handler "boxer's assistant" (1950) was originally in dogfights or cockfights (1825). operation late 14c., "action, performance, work," also "the performance of some science or art," from O.Fr. operacion, from L. operationem (nom. operatio) "a working, operation," from operari "to work, labor" (in L.L. "to have effect, be active, cause"), from opera "work, effort," related to opus (gen. operis) "a work" (see opus). The surgical sense is first attested 1597. Military sense of "series of movements and acts" is from 1749. data 1640s, plural of datum, from L. datum "(thing) given," neuter pp. of dare "to give" (see date (1)). Meaning "transmittable and storable computer information" first recorded 1946. Data processing is from 1954.
  91. 91. supervisor . monitor . tactical . information
  92. 92. supervise 1588, "to look over," from M.L. supervisus, pp. of supervidere "oversee, inspect," from L. super "over" (see super-) + videre "see" (see vision). Meaning "to oversee and superintend the work or performance of others" is attested from c.1645; supervisor in this sense of "one who inspects and directs the work of others" is first recorded 1454. monitor 1540s, "senior pupil at a school charged with keeping order, etc.," from L. monitor "one who reminds, admonishes, or checks," from monere "to admonish, warn, advise," related to memini "I remember, I am mindful of," and to mens "mind," from PIE base *men- "to think" (see mind (n.)). The lizard so called because it is supposed to give warning of crocodiles (1826). Meaning "squat, slow-moving type of ironclad warship" (1862) so called from name of the first vessel of this design, chosen by Capt. Ericsson because it was meant to "admonish" the Confederate leaders in the U.S. Civil War. Broadcasting sense of "a device to continuously check on the technical quality of a transmission" (1931) led to special sense of "a TV screen displaying the picture from a particular camera." The verb is attested from 1924. Related: Monitored; monitoring. tactics 1620s, from Mod.L. tactica (17c.), from Gk. taktike techne "art of arrangement," noun use of fem. of taktikos "of or pertaining to arrangement," especially "tactics in war," adj. to taxis "order," verbal noun of tassein "arrange," from PIE base *tag- "to set aright.” information late 14c., "act of informing," from O.Fr. informacion, from L. informationem (nom. informatio) "outline, concept, idea," noun of action from informare (see inform). Meaning "knowledge communicated" is from c.1450. Short form info is attested from 1906. Infomercial (with commercial) and infotainment (with entertainment) are from 1983. Before infomercial was the print form, advertorial (1961). metric "pertaining to the system of measures based on the meter," 1864, from Fr. Métrique.
  93. 93. manager . perform . strategic . knowledge
  94. 94. manage 1560s, probably from It. maneggiare "to handle," esp. "to control a horse," from L. manus "hand" (see manual). Influenced by Fr. manège "horsemanship" (earliest English sense was of handling horses), which also was from the Italian. Extended to other objects or business from 1570s. Slang sense of "get by" first recorded 1650s. Related: Managed; managing. perform c.1300, "carry into effect, fulfill, discharge," via Anglo-Fr. performir, altered (by infl. of O.Fr. forme "form") from O.Fr. parfornir "to do, carry out, finish, accomplish," from par- "completely" + fornir "to provide" (see furnish). Theatrical/musical sense is from 1610. strategy 1810, "art of a general," from Fr. stratégie, from Gk. strategia "office or command of a general," from strategos "general," from stratos "multitude, army, expedition," lit. "that which is spread out" (see structure) + agos "leader," from agein "to lead" (see act). Strategic "pertaining to strategy" is from 1825. know 1250–1300; ME knouleche, equiv. to know(en) to know1 + -leche, perh. akin to OE -lāc suffix denoting action or practice, c. ON (-)leikr; cf. wedlock M.E. cnawlece. For first element see know. Second element obscure, perhaps cognate with the -lock "action, process," found in wedlock indication 1540s, from L. indicationem (nom. indicatio) "valuation," from indicare "point out, show," from in- "in" + dicare "proclaim," from stem of dicere "to speak, to say" (see diction).
  95. 95. executive . succeed . visionary . wisdom
  96. 96. executive 1640s, adj., "of the branch of government that carries out the laws," from M.Fr. executif, from L. executivus, from pp. stem of exequi (see execution). The noun in this sense is from 1790. Meaning "businessman" is 1902 in Amer.Eng. Executive privilege is first attested 1940. succeed late 14c., "come next after, take the place of another," from O.Fr. succeder (14c.), from L. succedere "come after, go near to," from sub "next to, after" + cedere "go, move" (see cede). The sense of "turn out well, have a favorable result" is first recorded late 15c., with ellipsis of adverb (succeed well). visionary "able to see visions," 1651, from vision (q.v.). Meaning "impractical" is attested from 1727. The noun is attested from 1702, from the adj., originally "one who indulges in impractical fantasies.” wisdom O.E. wisdom, from wis (see wise (adj.)) + -dom. A common Gmc. compound (cf. O.S., O.Fris. wisdom, O.N. visdomr, O.H.G. wistuom "wisdom," Ger. Weistum "judicial sentence serving as a precedent"). Wisdom teeth so called from 1848 (earlier teeth of wisdom, 1668), a loan-translation of L. dentes sapientiæ, itself a loan-transl. of Gk. sophronisteres (used by Hippocrates, from sophron "prudent, self-controlled"), so called because they usually appear ages 17-25, when a person reaches adulthood. wise O.E. wis, from P.Gmc. *wisaz (cf. O.S., O.Fris. wis, O.N. viss, Du. wijs, Ger. weise "wise"), from pp. adj. *wittos of PIE base *woid-/*weid-/*wid- "to see," hence "to know" (see vision). Slang meaning "aware, cunning" first attested 1896. Related to the source of O.E. witan "to know, wit." factor early 15c., "agent, deputy," from M.Fr. facteur "agent, representative," from L. factor "doer or maker," from facere "to do" (see factitious). Sense of "circumstance producing a result" is from 1816; the v. use in mathematics is attested from 1837. Related: Factored; factoring.
  97. 97. satisfaction SET MEET GET
  98. 98. set O.E. settan "cause to sit, put in some place, fix firmly," from P.Gmc. *satjanan (cf. O.N. setja, O.Fris. setta, Du. zetten, Ger. setzen), causative form of P.Gmc. root *set- (cf. O.E. sittan "to sit," see sit). Confused with sit since early 14c. Of the sun, moon, etc., "to go down," recorded from c.1300. Set-to "bout, fight" is 1743, originally pugilistic slang. Setup "arrangement" is from 1890. Setback (n.) is from 1674; to set (someone) back "cost" is from 1900. "fixed," from M.E. sett, prop. pp. of setten "to set" (see set (v.)). Meaning "ready, prepared" first recorded 1844. meet O.E. gemæte "suitable, having the same dimensions," from P.Gmc. *ga-mætijaz (cf. O.N. mætr, O.H.G. gimagi, Ger. gemäß "suitable"), from collective prefix *ga- + PIE *med- "to measure." The root sense is thus the same as commensurate. get c.1200, from O.N. geta "to obtain, reach" (p.t. gatum, pp. getenn), from P.Gmc. *getan (cf. O.E. begietan "to beget," O.Swed. gissa "to guess," lit. "to try to get"), from PIE base *ghe(n)d- "seize" (cf. Gk. khandanein "to hold, contain," Lith. godetis "be eager," second element in L. prehendere "to grasp, seize," Welsh gannu "to hold, contain," O.C.S. gadati "to guess, suppose"). Meaning "to seize mentally, grasp" is from 1892. O.E., as well as Du. and Fris., had the root only in compounds (cf. beget, forget). Vestiges of O.E. cognate *gietan remain obliquely in pp. gotten and original pt. gat. The word and phrases built on it take up 29 columns in the OED 2nd edition. Slang get over "recover, rebound" is from 1687. Getaway "escape" is from 1852. Get-up "equipment or costume" is from 1847. Get-rich-quick (adj.) is from 1902. Get wind of "become acquainted with" is from 1840, from earlier to get wind "to get out, become known" (1722). satisfaction c.1300, "performance of an act set forth by a priest or other Church authority to atone for sin," from L. satisfactionem (nom. satisfactio) "a satisfying of a creditor," from satisfacere (see satisfy). Sense of "contentment" first recorded 1382; not common before 16c. Satisfactory is attested from 1547, from L.L. satisfactorius, from L. satisfactus, pp. of satisfacere.
  99. 99. BACKSIGHT
  101. 101. draft c.1500, spelling variant of draught (q.v.) to reflect change in pronunciation. Meaning "rough copy of a writing" (something "drawn") is attested from 14c.; that of "preliminary sketch from which a final copy is made" is from 1520s. The meaning "to draw off a group for special duty" is from 1703, in U.S. especially of military service; the v. in this sense first recorded 1714. Draftee is from 1866. Sense in bank draft is from 1745. design 1540s, from L. designare "mark out, devise," from de- "out" + signare "to mark," from signum "a mark, sign." Originally in English with the meaning now attached to designate; many modern uses of design are metaphoric extensions. develop 1650s, "unroll, unfold," from Fr. developper, replacing English disvelop (1590s, from M.Fr. desveloper), both from O.Fr. desveloper, from des- "undo" + veloper "wrap up," of uncertain origin, possibly Celtic or Germanic. Modern figurative use is 18c. The photographic sense is from 1845; the real estate sense is from 1890. deliver early 13c., from O.Fr. delivrer, from L.L. deliberare, from L. de- "away" + liberare "to free" (see deliberation). Sense of "hand over" is late 13c., which brings it in opposition to its root. Meaning "bring to childbirth" (unburden) is c.1300; that of "project, throw" is 1590s. Related: Deliverable (1755). project c.1400, "a plan, draft, scheme," from L. projectum "something thrown forth," noun use of neuter of projectus, pp. of projicere "stretch out, throw forth," from pro- "forward" + combining form of jacere (pp. jactus) "to throw" (see jet (v.)). Meaning "scheme, proposal, mental plan" is from 1601. Meaning "group of low-rent apartment buildings" first recorded c.1958, from housing project (1932). c.1477, "to plan," from L. projectus (see project (n.)). Sense of "to stick out" is from 1718. Meaning "to cast an image on a screen" is recorded from 1865. Psychoanalytical sense, "to convey to others," is first recorded 1895 (implied in projective). Projection is from 1557, originally cartographical, "drawing of a map or chart according to scale;" Projector "one who forms a project" is from 1596; in the optical, camera sense it is from 1884; projectionist is from 1922.
  103. 103. stress c.1300, "hardship, adversity, force, pressure," in part a shortening of M.Fr. destresse (see distress), in part from O.Fr. estrece "narrowness, oppression," from V.L. *strictia, from L. strictus "compressed," pp. of stringere "draw tight" (see strain (v.)). The purely psychological sense is attested from 1942. c.1300, "to subject (someone) to force or compulsion," from the source of stress (n.). The fig. meaning "put emphasis on" is first recorded 1896, from notion of laying pressure on something by relying on it. performance 1530s, "carrying out of a promise, duty, etc.," from perform + -ance. Meaning "a thing performed" is from 1590s; that of "action of performing a play, etc." is from 1610s; that of "a public entertainment" is from 1709. Performance art is attested from 1971. flexible early 15c., from L. flexibilis "that may be bent, pliant," from flexus, pp. of flectere "to bend," of uncertain origin. permanent early 15c., from M.Fr. permanent (14c.), from L. permanentem (nom. permanens) "remaining," prp. of permanere "endure, continue, stay to the end," from per- "through" + manere "stay" (see mansion). revert c.1300, "to come to oneself again," from O.Fr. revertir, from V.L. *revertire, variant of L. revertere "turn back," from re- "back" + vertere "to turn" (see versus). Of position or property from 1447; application to customs and ideas is from 1612. peak "pointed top," 1530, variant of pike (2) "sharp point." Meaning "top of a mountain" first recorded 1634, though pike was used in this sense c.1400. Figurative sense is 1784. Meaning "point formed by hair on the forehead" is from 1833. The verb is first recorded 1577, in sense of "to rise in a peak;" meaning "reach highest point" first recorded 1958. The Peak in Derbyshire is O.E. Peaclond, apparently a reference to elf-denizen Peac "Puck."
  105. 105. revenue 1433, "income from property or possessions," from M.Fr. revenue, from O.Fr., "a return," prop. fem. pp. of revenir "come back," from L. revenire "return, come back," from re- "back" + venire "come" (see venue). Meaning "public income" is first recorded 1690. Revenuer "U.S. Department of Revenue agent," the bane of Appalachian moonshiners, first attested 1880. cost c.1200, from O.Fr. coster, from V.L. *costare, from L. constare "to stand at" (or with), from com- "with" + stare "to stand," from PIE base *sta- "to stand" (see stet). The idiom is the same one we use in Mod.E. when we say something "stands at X dollars" to mean it sells for X dollars. Cost effective (also cost effective) attested from 1967. profit early 14c., from O.Fr. prufit (c.1140), from L. profectus "profit, progress," prop. pp. of proficere (see proficiency). As the opposite of loss, it replaced O.E. gewinn. The verb is attested from c.1300, from O.Fr. prufiter, from the noun. Profiteer first recorded 1797 as a verb, but dormant until revived in World War I; 1912 as a noun. Profitable is from early 14c., "yielding benefit, useful; " in specific sense of "money-making," it is attested from 1758. formula 1630s, from L. formula "form, rule, method, formula," lit. "small form," dim. of forma "form." Originally, "words used in a ceremony or ritual." Modern sense is colored by Carlyle's use of the word for "rule slavishly followed without understanding" (1837).
  107. 107. sentence late 13c., "doctrine, authoritative teaching," from O.Fr. sentence (12c.), from L. sententia "thought, meaning, judgment, opinion," from sentientem, prp. of sentire "be of opinion, feel, perceive" (see sense). Loss of first -i- in L. by dissimilation. Meaning "punishment imposed by a court" is from c.1300; that of "grammatically complete statement" is attested from mid-15c., from notion of "meaning," then "meaning expressed in words." The verb meaning "to pass judgment" is recorded from c.1400. system 1610s, "the whole creation, the universe," from L.L. systema "an arrangement, system," from Gk. systema "organized whole, body," from syn- "together" + root of histanai "cause to stand" from PIE base *sta- "to stand" (see stet). Meaning "set of correlated principles, facts, ideas, etc." first recorded 1630s. Meaning "animal body as an organized whole, sum of the vital processes in an organism" is recorded from 1680s; hence figurative phrase to get (something) out of one's system (1900). Computer sense of "group of related programs" is recorded from 1963. All systems go (1962) is from U.S. space program. technology 1615, "discourse or treatise on an art or the arts," from Gk. tekhnologia "systematic treatment of an art, craft, or technique," originally referring to grammar, from tekhno- (see techno-) + -logia. The meaning "science of the mechanical and industrial arts" is first recorded 1859. High technology attested from 1964; short form high-tech is from 1972. Tech as a short form of Technical College (Institute, etc.) is Amer.Eng., attested from 1906. integrate 1630s, "to render (something) whole," from L. integratus, pp. of integrare "make whole," from integer "whole" (see integer). Meaning "to put together parts or elements and combine them into a whole" is from 1802. Integrate in the "racially desegregate" sense is a back formation from integration, dating to the 1948 to U.S. presidential contest.
  108. 108. decision RESULT REASON RIGHT
  109. 109. reason early 13c., "statement in an argument," also "intellectual faculty that adopts actions to ends," from Anglo-Fr. resoun, O.Fr. raison, from L. rationem (nom. ratio) "reckoning, understanding, motive, cause," from ratus, pp. of reri "to reckon, think," from PIE base *rei- "to reason, count" (cf. O.E. rædan "to advise; see read). Meaning "sanity" is recorded from, late 14c. The verb (c.1300) is from O.Fr. raisoner, from L.L. rationare "to discourse." Originally "to question (someone)," sense of "employ reasoning (with someone)" is from 1847, and that of "to think in a logical manner" is from 1590s. Phrase it stands to reason is from 1630s. Age of Reason "the Enlightenment" is first recorded 1794, as the title of Tom Paine's book. result early 15c., from M.L. resultare "to result," in classical L. "to spring forward, rebound," frequentative of pp. of resilire "to rebound" (see resilience). The noun is 1620s, from the verb. decide late 14c., from O.Fr. decider, from L. decidere "to decide," lit. "to cut off," from de- "off" + cædere "to cut" (see cement). For L. vowel change, see acquisition. Sense is of resolving difficulties "at a stroke." Originally "to settle a dispute;" meaning "to make up one's mind" is attested from 1830. Decided in the adj. sense of "resolute" is from 1790. Decisive is c.1600. A decided victory is one whose reality is not in doubt; a decisive one goes far toward settling some issue. Related: Decidedly (1790). right "morally correct," O.E. riht "just, good, fair, proper, fitting, straight," from P.Gmc. *rekhtaz (cf. O.H.G. reht, Ger. recht, O.N. rettr, Goth. raihts), from PIE base *reg- "move in a straight line," also "to rule, to lead straight, to put right" (see regal; cf. Gk. orektos "stretched out, upright;" L. rectus "straight, right;" O.Pers. rasta- "straight, right," arta- "rectitude;" O.Ir. recht "law;" Welsh rhaith, Breton reiz "just, righteous, wise"). Cf. slang straight "honest, morally upright," and L. rectus "right," lit. "straight," Lith. teisus "right, true," lit. "straight." Gk. dikaios "just" (in the moral and legal sense) is from dike "custom." The noun sense of "just claim" was in O.E. and P.Gmc. As an emphatic, meaning "you are right," it is recorded from 1588; use as a question meaning "am I not right?" is from 1961. The phrase to rights "at once, straightway" is 1663, from sense "in a proper manner" (M.E.). The sense in right whale is "justly entitled to the name." Phrase right off the bat is 1914, earlier hot from the bat (1888), probably a baseball metaphor; right stuff "best human ingredients" is from 1848, popularized by Tom Wolfe's 1979 book about the first astronauts. Right on! as an exclamation of approval first recorded 1925 in black slang, popularized mid-1960s by Black Panther movement. Right of way is attested from 1768.
  111. 111. learn O.E. leornian "to get knowledge, be cultivated," from P.Gmc. *liznojan (cf. O.Fris. lernia, O.H.G. lernen, Ger. lernen "to learn," Goth. lais "I know), with a base sense of "to follow or find the track," from PIE *leis- "track." Related to Ger. Gleis "track," and to O.E. læst "sole of the foot" (see last (n.)). The transitive sense (He learned me how to read), now vulgar, was acceptable from c.1200 until early 19c., from O.E. læran "to teach" (cf. M.E. lere, Ger. lehren "to teach;" see lore), and is preserved in the adj. learned "having knowledge gained by study" (c.1340).
  113. 113. INSIGHT
  121. 121. nature c.1300, "essential qualities, innate disposition," also "creative power in the material world," from O.Fr. nature, from L. natura "course of things, natural character, the universe," lit. "birth," from natus "born," pp. of nasci "to be born," from PIE *gene- "to give birth, beget" (see genus). Original sense is in human nature. Meaning "inherent, dominating power or impulse" of a person or thing is from c.1386. Contrasted with art since 1704. Nature and nurture have been contrasted since 1874. culture mid-15c., "the tilling of land," from L. cultura, from pp. stem of colere "tend, guard, cultivate, till" (see cult). The figurative sense of "cultivation through education" is first attested c.1500. Meaning "the intellectual side of civilization" is from 1805; that of "collective customs and achievements of a people" is from 1867. structure c.1440, "action or process of building or construction," from L. structura "a fitting together, adjustment, building," from structus, pp. of struere "to pile, build, assemble," related to strues "heap," from PIE *stere- "to spread, extend, stretch out" (cf. Skt. strnoti "strews, throws down;" Avestan star- "to spread out, stretch out;" Gk. stornymi "strew," stroma "bedding, mattress," sternon "breast, breastbone;" L. sternere "to stretch, extend;" O.C.S. stira, streti "spread," strama "district;" Rus. stroji "order;" Goth. straujan, O.H.G. strouwen, O.E. streowian "to sprinkle, strew;" O.E. streon "strain," streaw "straw, that which is scattered;" O.H.G. stirna "forehead," strala "arrow, lightning bolt;" O.Ir. fo-sernaim "spread out," srath "a wide river valley;" Welsh srat "plain"). Meaning "that which is constructed, a building or edifice" is from 1615. Structured "organized so as to produce results" is from 1959.
  122. 122. in-struct
  123. 123. in O.E. in "in," inne "within," from P.Gmc. *in (cf. O.Fris, Du., Ger., Goth. in, O.N. i), from PIE *en-/*n (cf. Gk. en, L. in, O.Ir. in, Welsh yn-, O.C.S. on-). Sense of "holding power" (the in party) first recorded 1605; that of "exclusive" (the in-crowd, an in-joke) is from 1907; that of "stylish, fashionable" (the in thing) is from 1960. The noun sense of "influence, access" (have an in with) first recorded 1929 in Amer.Eng. In-and-out "copulation" is attested from 1610s. suffix attached to a verb originated 1960 with sit-in (which was probably influenced by sit-down strike), used first of protests, extended c.1965 to any gathering. prefix meaning "into, in, on, upon" (also im-; il-; ir- by assimilation of -n- with following consonant), from L. in- "in" (see in). In O.Fr. this often became en-, which was usually respelled in Eng. to conform with L., but not always, which accounts for pairs like enquire/inquire. There was a native form, which in W.Saxon usually appeared as on- (cf. O.E. onliehtan "to enlighten"), and some verbs survived into M.E. (cf. inwrite "to inscribe"), but all now seem to be extinct. instruct 1375–1425; late ME < L instructus ptp. of instruere to equip, train, set in order. f. L. instruct-, ppl. stem of instruĕre to build, erect, set up, set in order, prepare, furnish, furnish with information, teach.
  125. 125. de- active prefix in English and in many words inherited from Fr. and Latin, from L. de "down, down from, from, off, concerning," also used as a prefix in Latin usually meaning "down, off, away, from among, down from," but also "down to the bottom, totally" hence "completely" (intensive or completive), which is its sense in many English words. As a Latin prefix it also had the function of undoing or reversing a verb's action, and hence it came to be used as a pure privative -- "not" -- which is its primary function as a living prefix in English, as in defrost (1895), defuse (1943), etc. Cf. also dis-. destroy earlly 13c., from O.Fr. destruire, from V.L. *destrugerie (infl. by destructos), from L. destruere "tear down, demolish," lit. "un-build," from de- "un-, down" + struere "to pile, build" (see structure).
  126. 126. de-con-struct DRAWINGHANDSBYM.C.ESCHER