Introduction To Philosophy[1]


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Introduction To Philosophy[1]

  1. 1. What is it all about?
  2. 2. <ul><li>Who are you? </li></ul><ul><li>Why are you here? </li></ul><ul><li>What is real? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>One of the reasons we study philosophy is to search for a better understanding of ourselves both as individuals and as members of groups and wider communities. </li></ul><ul><li>The Core Theme offers candidates the opportunity to do this from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the more epistemological perspective of analytical philosophy and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>from the more ethical perspective of existential philosophy. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Mind and Body </li></ul><ul><li>The Human Condition </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>What is a person? The question of self, the relationship of mind and body. </li></ul><ul><li>Manifestations of personhood: self-consciousness, language, agency, dreams, imagination, intuition, passion, reason and emotion. </li></ul><ul><li>Could animals or machines be persons? </li></ul><ul><li>The universality of human nature and the diversity of individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>The question of self: Is it possible to know oneself? To know others? Solipsism and intersubjectivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom and determinism. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Interpretations of ‘human nature’: language use, sociability, empathy, aggression, creativity, play, reason and autonomy. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretations of ‘the human condition’: our existence in time and space; biological and social necessities; gender and social conditioning. </li></ul><ul><li>Existential anxiety; meaning and meaninglessness. </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom, responsibility and authenticity. </li></ul><ul><li>Nihilism versus the invention of values. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Philosophy of Religion – Is it possible to prove Gods existence? An investigation into the uses and limitations of language. </li></ul><ul><li>Philosophy of Ethics – What does it mean to say something is good? How do we make moral decisions? An investigation into nature of moral behaviour. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>In order to extend your knowledge and understanding of philosophy, you will come into contact with at least some of the recognized and valued texts in philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>Each text presents a unique challenge and it is the teacher’s responsibility to select the text or texts which are most suited to the students. </li></ul><ul><li>The texts are either examples of influential, classical works, or examples of important developments in modern philosophy. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The purpose of the study of a philosophical text is for you to achieve an in-depth knowledge and understanding of a challenging piece of work. </li></ul><ul><li>At the same time, you are expected to develop the skills required to undertake a critical analysis of the text. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Charles Taylor, The Ethics of Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Friedrich Nietzsche, The Genealogy of Morals </li></ul><ul><li>Plato, The Republic, Books V–IX </li></ul><ul><li>Lao Tzu , Tao de Ching </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>There are traditionally 5 main branches </li></ul><ul><li>i.e.:- </li></ul><ul><li>LOGIC </li></ul><ul><li>AESTHETICS </li></ul><ul><li>METAPHYSICS </li></ul><ul><li>ETHICS </li></ul><ul><li>EPISTEMOLOGY </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>This branch of Philosophy deals with the METHOD of argument. </li></ul><ul><li>It offers answers to questions such as: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is that reasoning sound?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is that statement true?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is that conclusion valid ?” </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>This branch deals with beauty in Music and Art. </li></ul><ul><li>It offers answers to questions like: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is that good music?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is that painting better than this one ?” </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>This branch deals with the question of REALITY and BEING. </li></ul><ul><li>It deals with questions about the non-physical world, such as :- </li></ul><ul><li>“ Do angels exist?” and “What do we mean by real ?” </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>This branch is also known as MORAL PHILOSOPHY. </li></ul><ul><li>It deals with questions about right and wrong, e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is morality subjective?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ What makes actions “ right ” and “wrong ”?” </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>This branch deals with the theory of knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>It considers questions like:- </li></ul><ul><li>“ How can we possibly know anything?” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Is there such a thing as certainty?” </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Take a look at the following claims and decide whether they are predominantly epistemological, metaphysical, logical, ethical, or aesthetic in nature. </li></ul>