THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE The present perfect simple is have/has + past participle. The past participle often ends in –ed (finished) but many important verbs are irregular (lost - done) I/you/we/they + have + Verb3 (finished-lost) He/she/it + has +Verb3 (done – been)
Positive form;I have lived in İstanbul for two yearsEfe has had this car for three years Negative form;I haven’t lived in İstanbul for two years.Efe hasn’t had this car for three years. Question form;Have you lived in İstanbul for two years?Has Efe had this car for three years?
When we say that “something has happened” this is usually new informationOw! I have cut my finger. When we use the present perfect, there is a connection with now. The action in the past has a result nowWhere’s your key?I don’t know. I have lost it.
We can use the present perfect with just/ already/ yet Just: a short time agoI have just had lunch Already: to say that happened sooner than expectedHe has already gone Yet: until now.use only in questions and negative sentencesI have written the letter, but I haven’t sent it yet.
Note:Gone:Jim is on holiday. He has gone to Italy (he is there now)Been:Jane is back home now. She has been to Italy. (she has now come back)