Role of BPMN in Business


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The Object Management Group (OMG) has developed a standard Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) to provide a notation that is readily understandable by all business users, from the business analyst who creates the initial drafts of the processes to the technical developer responsible for implementing the technology who will execute those processes, and finally, to the business people who will manage and monitor those processes. Thus, BPMN creates a standardized bridge to fill the gap between business and technology.

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Role of BPMN in Business

  1. 1. BPMN 2.0Business Process Model and Notation
  2. 2. Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is agraphical representation for specifying businessprocesses in a business process model. It waspreviously known as Business Process ModelingNotation.Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI)developed BPMN, which has been maintained by theObject Management Group since the two organizationsmerged in 2005. As of March 2011, the current versionof BPMN is 2.0.
  3. 3. A business process is a collection of related, structured activities or tasks that produce a specific service or product (serve a particular goal) for a particular customer or customers.There are three types of business processes:1.Management processes, the processes that govern the operation of asystem. Typical management processes include "Corporate Governance"and "Strategic Management".2.Operational processes, processes that constitute the core business andcreate the primary value stream. Typical operational processes arePurchasing, Manufacturing, Advertising and Marketing, and Sales.3.Supporting processes, which support the core processes. Examplesinclude Accounting, Recruitment, Call center, Technical support.A business process begins with a mission objective and ends withachievement of the business objective. Process-oriented organizationsbreak down the barriers of structural departments and try to avoidfunctional silos.
  4. 4. Business Processes are designed to add value for the customer andshould not include unnecessary activities. The outcome of a well designedbusiness process is increased effectiveness (value for the customer) andincreased efficiency (less costs for the company). Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is a standard forbusiness process modeling that provides a graphical notation for specifyingbusiness processes in a Business Process Diagram (BPD),based on aflowcharting technique very similar to activity diagrams from UnifiedModeling Language (UML). The objective of BPMN is to support businessprocess management, for both technical users and business users, byproviding a notation that is intuitive to business users, yet able to representcomplex process semantics. The BPMN specification also provides a mapping between thegraphics of the notation and the underlying constructs of executionlanguages, particularly Business Process Execution Language (BPEL).
  5. 5. Example.
  6. 6. Goals. The primary goal of BPMN is to provide a standard notation readilyunderstandable by all business stakeholders. These include the businessanalysts who create and refine the processes, the technical developersresponsible for implementing them, and the business managers whomonitor and manage them. Consequently, BPMN serves as a commonlanguage, bridging the communication gap that frequently occurs betweenbusiness process design and implementation. Currently there are several competing standards for business processmodeling languages used by modeling tools and processes. Widespreadadoption of the BPMN will help unify the expression of basic businessprocess concepts (e.g., public and private processes, choreographies), aswell as advanced process concepts (e.g., exception handling, transactioncompensation).
  7. 7. Scope. BPMN is constrained to support only the concepts of modelingapplicable to business processes. Other types of modeling done byorganizations for non-process purposes are out of scope for BPMN.Examples of modeling excluded from BPMN are: •Organizational structures •Functional breakdowns •Data models In addition, while BPMN shows the flow of data (messages), and theassociation of data artifacts to activities, it is not a data flow diagram.
  8. 8. Elements BPMN models consist of simple diagrams constructed from a limitedset of graphical elements. For both business users and developers, theysimplify understanding business activities flow and process. BPMNs four basic element categories are: 1.Flow objects - Events, activities, gateways 2.Connecting objects - Sequence flow, message flow, association 3.Swim lanes - Pool, lane 4.Artifacts - Data object, group, annotation These four categories enable creation of simple business processdiagrams (BPDs). BPDs also permit making new types of flow object orartifact, to make the diagram more understandable.
  9. 9. Example.
  10. 10. Flow objects and connectingobjectsEventsActivitiesGatewaysConnections
  11. 11. Flow objects(events).EventAn Event is represented with a circle and denotes something that happens (comparedwith an activity, which is something that is done). Icons within the circle denote the typeof event (e.g., an envelope representing a message, or a clock representing time).Events are also classified as Catching (for example, if catching an incoming messagestarts a process) or Throwing (such as throwing a completion message when aprocess ends).Start eventActs as a process trigger; indicated by a single narrow border, and can only be Catch,so is shown with an open (outline) icon.End eventRepresents the result of a process; indicated by a single thick or bold border, and canonly Throw, so is shown with a solid icon.Intermediate eventRepresents something that happens between the start and end events; is indicated bya double border, and can Throw or Catch (using solid or open icons as appropriate).For example, a task could flow to an event that throws a message across to anotherpool, where a subsequent event waits to catch the response before continuing.
  12. 12. Flow objects(activities)ActivityAn activity is represented with a rounded-corner rectangle and describes the kind of workwhich must be done.TaskA task represents a single unit of work that is not or cannot be broken down to a further levelof business process detail without diagramming the steps in a procedure (which is not thepurpose of BPMN)Sub-processUsed to hide or reveal additional levels of business process detail. When collapsed, a sub-process is indicated by a plus sign against the bottom line of the rectangle; when expanded,the rounded rectangle expands to show all flow objects, connecting objects, and artifacts.Has its own self-contained start and end events; sequence flows from the parent processmust not cross the boundary.TransactionA form of sub-process in which all contained activities must be treated as a whole; i.e., theymust all be completed to meet an objective, and if any one of them fails, they must all becompensated (undone). Transactions are differentiated from expanded sub-processes bybeing surrounded by a double border.
  13. 13. Flow objects(gateways)GatewayA gateway is represented with a diamond shape and determinesforking and merging of paths, depending on the conditionsexpressed.
  14. 14. Connecting objects.Sequence FlowA Sequence Flow is represented with a solid line and arrowhead, and shows in which order theactivities are performed. The sequence flow may also have a symbol at its start, a smalldiamond indicates one of a number of conditional flows from an activity, while a diagonalslash indicates the default flow from a decision or activity with conditional flows.Message FlowA Message Flow is represented with a dashed line, an open circle at the start, and an openarrowhead at the end. It tells us what messages flow across organizational boundaries (i.e.,between pools). A message flow can never be used to connect activities or events within thesame pool.AssociationAn Association is represented with a dotted line. It is used to associate an Artifact or text to aFlow Object, and can indicate some directionality using an open arrowhead (toward the artifactto represent a result, from the artifact to represent an input, and both to indicate it is read andupdated). No directionality is used when the Artifact or text is associated with a sequence ormessage flow (as that flow already shows the direction).
  15. 15. Process.
  16. 16. Sequence Flow.Normal FlowConditional flowDefault flowException FlowMessage FlowCompensation Association
  17. 17. Activities.The types of Activities that are a part of a Process are: Task, Sub-Process,and Call Activity.There are different types of Tasks identified within BPMN to separate thetypes of inherent behavior that Tasks might represent.•A Service Task is a Task that uses some sort of service, which could bea Web service or an automated application.•A Send Task is a simple Task that is designed to send a Message to anexternal Participant.•A Receive Task is a simple Task that is designed to wait for a Message toarrive from an external Participant.•A User Task is a typical “workflow” Task where a human performerperforms the Task with the assistance of a software application and isscheduled through a task list manager of some sort.
  18. 18. Activities.• A Manual Task is a Task that is expected to be performed without the aid of any business process execution engine or any application. An example of this could be a telephone technician installing a telephone at a customer location.• A Business Rule Task provides a mechanism for the Process to provide input to a Business Rules Engine and to get the output of calculations that the Business Rules Engine might provide.• A Script Task is executed by a business process engine. The modeler or implementer defines a script in a language that the engine can interpret.
  19. 19. Tasks.Service TaskSend TaskReceive Taskmake instanceUser TaskManual Task
  20. 20. Tasks.Business RuleScript TaskSub-Process
  21. 21. Start events for top level processes.NoneMessageTimerConditionalSignalMultipleParallelMultiple
  22. 22. Sub-Process Start Event Types.NoneCompensationMessageConditionalTimerSignalEscalation MultipleErrorParallelMultiple
  23. 23. End events.NoneCompensationMessageSignalErrorTerminateEscalation MultipleCancel
  24. 24. Intermediate events.NoneLinkMessageSignalTimerMultipleEscalation ParallelMultipleCompensationConditional
  25. 25. Gateways.Exclusive GatewayInclusive Gateway
  26. 26. Gateways.Parallel GatewayComplex Gateway
  27. 27. Gateways.Event-Based Gatewaycan be used to instantiatethe Process
  28. 28. Compensation.Compensation is concerned with undoing steps that were already successfullycompleted, because their results and possibly side effects are no longer desiredand need to be reversed. Compensation is performed by a compensation handler.A compensation handler performs the steps necessary to reverse the effects of anActivity. Compensation is triggered by a throw Compensation Event, which typicallywill be raised by an error handler, as partof cancellation, or recursively by another compensation handler.
  29. 29. Lanes.A Lane is a sub-partition within a Process (often within aPool) and will extend the entire length of the Process level.
  30. 30. Conversations.
  31. 31. Resources.Object Management Group Business Process Model and NotationActiviti is a light-weight workflow and Business Process Management (BPM) PlatfBPMN 2.0 Modeler for Visio from Business Process Incubator