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  1. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Groundwater </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The present research project </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental </li></ul><ul><li>Results and Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  2. 3. Introduction <ul><ul><li>Water as a Natural Resource </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Occurrence of Groundwater
  4. 5. The Present Research Project <ul><li>Highly populated. </li></ul><ul><li>U.S.J.P. </li></ul><ul><li>Nawinna garbage </li></ul><ul><li>dumping site. </li></ul><ul><li>Agricultural </li></ul><ul><li>activities. </li></ul>U.S.J.P. Dumping Site Paddy Fields
  5. 6. Objectives <ul><li>Determination of the quality of groundwater in the land area around University of Sri Jayewardenepura and Nawinna garbage dumping site. </li></ul><ul><li>Investigate how the geology and human activities of the area affect to the quality of groundwater. </li></ul><ul><li>To make suggestion to avoid possible contamination of groundwater. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Procedure Adopted in the Investigation <ul><li>Randomly selected 96 domestic wells. </li></ul><ul><li>14 water quality parameters. </li></ul><ul><li>Interpretation of the results. </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis - ANOVA </li></ul>
  7. 9. Physical Parameters <ul><li>Temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Conductivity </li></ul><ul><li>Turbidity </li></ul><ul><li>Total solids </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved oxygen </li></ul>
  8. 10. Chemical Parameters <ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>NO 3 - concentration </li></ul><ul><li>NO 2 - concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Total hardness </li></ul><ul><li>Total iron concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Zn concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Pb concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Cr concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Mn concentration </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical oxygen demand </li></ul>
  9. 11. Biological Parameters <ul><li>Biochemical oxygen demand </li></ul><ul><li>Coliform and E.coli test </li></ul>
  10. 12. Methods Parameter Method Nitrite concentration Colorimetric method Nitrate concentration UV spectrometric screening method Total iron concentration Phenanthroline method Total hardness EDTA titrimetric method Dissolved oxygen Winkler method Total solids Gravimetric method Heavy metals Atomic absorption spectrometry Chemical oxygen demand Open reflux method Biochemical oxygen demand 5-day BOD test Total Coiform and E.coli Multiple fermentation tube method
  11. 14. 1. 0 Interpretation of the pH value <ul><li>Comparatively low pH in cluster A. </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrolysis of heavy metal ions. </li></ul>
  12. 15. 2.0 Interpretation of the Conductivity <ul><li>Low conductivity values. </li></ul>
  13. 16. 3.0 Interpretation of the Turbidity <ul><li>Turbidity has a significant effect on microbial growth. </li></ul>
  14. 17. 4.0 Interpretation of the Total Solids <ul><li>TS and conductivity are high in cluster D. </li></ul>
  15. 18. 5.0 Interpretation of the Total Hardness <ul><li>The land is free from carbonate rocks. </li></ul>
  16. 19. 5.1 Results Obtained from the Statistical Analysis <ul><li>Analysis of Variance </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Source DF SS MS F P </li></ul><ul><li>Regression 1 208489 208489 41.67 0.000 </li></ul><ul><li>The regression equation is </li></ul><ul><li>Conductivity/µS cm -1 = 165 + 1.54 Hardness/ppm </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>R 2 = 51.7% </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately positive </li></ul><ul><li>correlation </li></ul>
  17. 20. 6.0 Interpretation of the NO 2 - concentration <ul><li>About 22% of the samples. </li></ul><ul><li>Low DO level. </li></ul>
  18. 21. 6.1 Results Obtained from the Statistical Analysis <ul><li>One-way ANOVA: Nitrite versus Clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Source DF SS MS F P </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters_3 3 0.0008772 0.0002924 22.72 0.000 </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters_3 -------+---------+---------+---------+-- </li></ul><ul><li>B (----*-----) </li></ul><ul><li>C (-----*-----) </li></ul><ul><li>D (-----*-----) </li></ul><ul><li>-------+---------+---------+---------+-- </li></ul><ul><li>-0.0050 0.0000 0.0050 0.0100 </li></ul><ul><li>p< 0.05 </li></ul><ul><li>There is a significant difference among the mean nitrite concentrations of the clusters . </li></ul>
  19. 22. 7.0 Interpretation of the NO 3 - concentration <ul><li>All the values are below the maximum permissible level. </li></ul>
  20. 23. 7.1 Results Obtained from the Statistical Analysis <ul><li>One-way ANOVA: Nitrate versus Clusters </li></ul><ul><li>Source DF SS MS F P </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters 3 7.417 2.472 3.13 0.030 </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters = A subtracted from: </li></ul><ul><li>Clusters Lower Center Upper ---------+---------+---------+---------+ </li></ul><ul><li>B -0.6635 -0.0117 0.6401 (--------*--------) </li></ul><ul><li>C -1.0504 -0.3523 0.3458 (---------*---------) </li></ul><ul><li>D -1.3165 -0.6584 -0.0003 (---------*--------) </li></ul><ul><li>---------+---------+---------+---------+ </li></ul><ul><li>-0.70 0.00 0.70 </li></ul><ul><li>p< 0.05 </li></ul><ul><li>There is a significant difference among the mean nitrate concentrations of the clusters . </li></ul>
  21. 24. 8.0 Interpretation of Total Iron <ul><li>Iron is present in laterite soil. </li></ul><ul><li>Deposition of soft soil. </li></ul>
  22. 25. 9.0 Interpretation of the Dissolved Oxygen <ul><li>In fresh water DO level at 25°C is 8.4 mg dm -3 . </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater contamination by organic waste. </li></ul>
  23. 26. 10. Interpretation of the Chemical Oxygen Demand <ul><li>Organic and oxidizable inorganic substances. </li></ul>
  24. 27. 11. Interpretation of the Manganese Concentration <ul><li>50% of the samples are above the maximum desirable level. </li></ul><ul><li>Low pH. </li></ul>
  25. 28. 12. Interpretation of the Zinc Concentration <ul><li>High concentrations in cluster A. </li></ul><ul><li>Low pH. </li></ul>
  26. 29. 13. Interpretation of the BOD Values <ul><li>About 40% of the samples. </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of organic materials . </li></ul>
  27. 30. 14. Interpretation of the Results of Coliform and E.coli Test <ul><li>The maximum permissible level is10 coliform organisms per 100 cm 3 . </li></ul><ul><li>Out of 6 samples, 4 samples showed high MPN values. </li></ul><ul><li>2 samples in clusters C and D were detected as contaminated with E.coli bacteria. </li></ul>
  28. 32. <ul><li>Considering the pH value, water of 95.8% of wells is not suitable for drinking. </li></ul><ul><li>With respect to conductivity and turbidity , well water is safe to drink. </li></ul><ul><li>Total solids were moderately low. </li></ul><ul><li>The NO 2 - concentrations were found to be rather high. </li></ul><ul><li>Moderately high concentrations of NO 3 - were found around the university. </li></ul>
  29. 33. <ul><li>The iron concentration and total hardness were found to be low. </li></ul><ul><li>When considering the DO, COD, and BOD values, the groundwater is polluted. </li></ul><ul><li>Zn and Mn concentrations were significant in the area around the university. </li></ul><ul><li>Pb and Cr were found to be absent. </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater contamination by Coliform and E.coli bacteria was significant around the garbage dumping site. </li></ul>
  30. 34. <ul><li>Some wells located in the direction of natural water flow from the dumping site have been affected adversely. </li></ul><ul><li>Human activities have been adversely affected on the groundwater quality. </li></ul><ul><li>The deterioration of the quality of groundwater takes time because undesirable products take time to penetrate through the soil layers. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, groundwater in the area is not suitable to be considered as potable water. </li></ul>
  31. 35. Suggestions for further work <ul><li>Carrying out investigations during both dry and wet seasons. </li></ul><ul><li>Identification of the variation of the contamination level with the distance from any significant location by GPS measurements. </li></ul><ul><li>The wells that were highly polluted can be studied separately. </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitary landfill sites should be designed. </li></ul><ul><li>3R concept. </li></ul>
  32. 36. References <ul><li>1. Chow V.T., Fried J.J., Developments in water science -Ground water pollution, Elsevier publishers, 1 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nevendorf K.K.E., Mehl J.P., Jackson J.A., Glossary of Geology, American Geological Institute, 5 th edition, 311 </li></ul><ul><li>3. Appelo C.A.J., Postma D., Geochemistry, Groundwater and Pollution, 2 nd edition, 1 </li></ul><ul><li>4. Dr. Raymond L. S., Jr., &quot;What Is Groundwater?” New York State Water Resources Institute, Cornell University. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Somasekaram T., Prof M.P. Perera, Arjuna's Atlas of Sri Lanka, Arjuna’s Consulting Company Limited, 30. </li></ul><ul><li>6. C. R. Panabokke, A.P.G.R.L. Perera, Groundwater Resources of Sri Lanka, Water Resources Board. </li></ul><ul><li>7. Lide D.R., CRC Hand book of Chemistry and Physics, CRC Press, 8-37 </li></ul><ul><li>8. Environmental Chemistry: Asian lessons, Dirking Waters, Spinger Netherlands Publishers. </li></ul>
  33. 37. References cont.. <ul><li>9. Skei, Jon K.; Dolmen, Dag, Effects of pH, aluminium, and soft water on larvae of the amphibians Bufo bufo and Triturus vulgaris. Canadian Journal of Zoology Articals, November 2006. </li></ul><ul><li>10. WHO, Revised background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, pH in Drinking-water </li></ul><ul><li>11. Argenal R, Gomez R., The Effects of Turbidity on Dissolved Oxygen Levels in Various Water Samples, California State Science Fair, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>12. National Academy of Sciences, Geochemistry of water in relation to Cardiovascular Disease, 1979 </li></ul><ul><li>13. Environmental Fact Sheet, New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services, 2008 </li></ul><ul><li>14. Bryson P.D., Comprehensive Review in Toxicology for Emergency Clinicians, 3 rd edition, Taylor and Francis Publishers, 373 </li></ul><ul><li>15. Nollet L.M.L., Hand Book of Water Analysis, Taylor and Francis publishers, 61 </li></ul>
  34. 38. References cont.. <ul><li>16. World Health Organization, Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality , 3 rd edition. Volume 1, 390. </li></ul><ul><li>17. Anderson, J.E; Mueller, S.A; Kim, B. R, Incomplete Oxidation of Ethylenediaminetetraacetic Acid in Chemical Oxygen Demand Analysis, Water Environment Federation, Volume 79, Number 9, September 2007 , 1043-1049(7) </li></ul><ul><li>18. Cohen JM et al. Taste threshold concentrations of metals in drinking water. Journal of the American Water Works Association , 1960, 52:660. </li></ul><ul><li>19. Julie Du, Ph.D., Drinking Water Health Advisory for Manganese, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, January 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>20. Yong R.N., Mulligan C.N., Fukue M., Geoenvironmental Sustainability, Taylor and Francis Publishers, 37-39 </li></ul><ul><li>21. Monlgomery C.W., Environmental Geology, 5 th edition, Mc-Graw-Hill, 2000, 225-270. </li></ul><ul><li>22. Dissanayaka C.B, Weerasooriya S.V.R., The Hydrological Atlas of Sri Lanka, Natural Resources Energy and Science Authority of Sri Lanka. </li></ul>
  35. 39. References cont.. <ul><li>23. Clescen L.S., Arnold E, Andrew G., Ealton D., Standard methods for the examination of water & waste water, American Public Health Association, American Water Works Association, Water Environment Federation, 20 th edition, 1998. </li></ul><ul><li>24. Mendham J. , Denney R.C., Barnes J.D., Thomas M.J.K., VOGEL’S Textbook of Quantitative Chemical Analysis, 6 th edition, Pearson Education Limited, 2004. </li></ul><ul><li>25. World Health Organization, Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, 2 nd edition. Volume 2 </li></ul><ul><li>26. Rajmohan N.,Elango L., Distribution of Iron, Manganese, Zinc and Atrazine in Groundwater in Parts of Palar and Cheyyar River Basins, South India, Enviromnental Monitoring and Assesment, Spinger Netherlands,115-131. </li></ul><ul><li>27. </li></ul><ul><li>28. </li></ul><ul><li>29. Sri Lanka Standards Institution, Specification for Potable Water, Sri Lanka Standard 614:1983 UDC 663.6+53.08. </li></ul>