‘21st-century education’:Entrepreneurial citizenship vs democracy?     Tobey Steeves: BCSSTA 2011 Annual
Setting the stage:Positioning education policy in BCSupreme Court decision: Outcome= ???Arbitrator’s ruling(s): August 28 ...
Background context:
Background     context:•   Vancouver ToC: Secondary         Social Studies
Background       context:•    Vancouver ToC: Secondary          Social Studies•   UBC MA student, Centre for     Cross Fac...
Background       context:•    Vancouver ToC: Secondary          Social Studies•   UBC MA student, Centre for     Cross Fac...
Localizing ‘21st-centuryeducation’: BC borrows an agenda
Localizing ‘21st-centuryeducation’: BC borrows an agenda  • Ministry of Education  • Canadian Council on   Learning  • Joh...
De-localizing ‘21st-century education’: Whose desire?
De-localizing ‘21st-century education’: Whose desire?              •Transnational: OECD,              ATC21S
De-localizing ‘21st-century education’: Whose desire?              •Transnational: OECD,              ATC21S              ...
De-localizing ‘21st-century education’: Whose desire?              •Transnational: OECD,              ATC21S              ...
De-localizing ‘21st-century education’: Whose desire?              •Transnational: OECD,              ATC21S              ...
Unpacking ‘21st-century education’:                “...school learning is abstract, theoretical and                organiz...
Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for   success in the 21st century   workforce”:            ...
Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for   success in the 21st century   workforce”:   (i) commu...
Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for   success in the 21st century   workforce”:   (i) commu...
Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for   success in the 21st century   workforce”:   (i) commu...
Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for   success in the 21st century   workforce”:   (i) commu...
Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for   success in the 21st century   workforce”:   (i) commu...
Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for   success in the 21st century   workforce”:   (i) commu...
Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for   success in the 21st century   workforce”:   (i) commu...
‘21st-century education as national/                     global imperative:“There is a global movement to          “I’m ca...
Essentializing ‘21st-century education’:
Essentializing ‘21st-century education’:                    •Nationalism
Essentializing ‘21st-century education’:                    •Nationalism                    •New package, old             ...
Essentializing ‘21st-century education’:                    •Nationalism                    •New package, old             ...
Essentializing ‘21st-century education’:                    •Nationalism                    •New package, old             ...
Essentializing ‘21st-century education’:                    •Nationalism                    •New package, old             ...
Citizenship as dualistic tradition:                       Liberal                                            Civic Republi...
Contextualizing entrepreneurialism     as neoliberal citizenship:                                                         ...
Contextualizing entrepreneurialism     as neoliberal citizenship:      • Combination of market          fundamentalism and...
Contextualizing entrepreneurialism     as neoliberal citizenship:      • Combination of market          fundamentalism and...
Contextualizing entrepreneurialism     as neoliberal citizenship:      • Combination of market          fundamentalism and...
The 21st-century social imperative: Entrepreneurialism?          “Canada needs a national vision for 21st Century learning...
Citizenship & consumption:“Our enormously productive economy               “One of the most chillingly ironic features of ...
Consumerism & democracy:• “[T]he undivided reign of the  market and the consumer, the  commercial substitute for the  citi...
Re-conceptualizing ‘21st-century Education’:              Ethics:                       Citizenship:•“the empty chair”, Ru...
Considering the Present of our Future:“I’m not sure about the next            “What looms on the horizon today is themille...
‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?:
‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?:  • Democracy?
‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?:  • Democracy?  • Citizenship?
‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?:  • Democracy?  • Citizenship?  • De-professionalization  of teachers?
‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?:  • Democracy?  • Citizenship?  • De-professionalization  of teachers?  • Ethics?
‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?:  • Democracy?  • Citizenship?  • De-professionalization  of teachers?  • Ethic...
‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?:  • Democracy?  • Citizenship?  • De-professionalization  of teachers?  • Ethic...
Can education be re-captured as an     emancipatory agenda?•The Critical ThinkingConsortium (www.tc2.ca)•MeToWe(www.metowe...
References:21st Century Learning Associates. (2011). A national vision for 21st century learning. Accessed Oct. 9, 2011 at...
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'21st-century education': Entrepreneurial citizenship vs. democracy?

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Following governments across the globe, British Columbia has adopted ‘21st-century education’ (21CL) as a comprehensive framework for schooling. In brief, 21CL re-conceptualizes public schooling as a process of vocationalization, legitimated on the basis of ‘economic reality’. In this presentation I will share preliminary results of my thesis research in order to diagram the economic models of democracy and citizenship privileged by 21CL. I conclude by problematizing 21CL’s approach to citizenship, and pose alternative models of citizenship capable of re-capturing education/curriculum policy as an emancipatory agenda and vehicle for affirming social justice and democracy.

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  • '21st-century education': Entrepreneurial citizenship vs. democracy?

    1. 1. ‘21st-century education’:Entrepreneurial citizenship vs democracy? Tobey Steeves: BCSSTA 2011 Annual
    2. 2. Setting the stage:Positioning education policy in BCSupreme Court decision: Outcome= ???Arbitrator’s ruling(s): August 28 &September 2, 2011; outcome =contestationThreat of punitive measures, lock-outTrends in government strategies vis-a-vis labour: Canadian PostGlobal movements: Arab Spring,Greece, UK, Occupy Wall Street+
    3. 3. Background context:
    4. 4. Background context:• Vancouver ToC: Secondary Social Studies
    5. 5. Background context:• Vancouver ToC: Secondary Social Studies• UBC MA student, Centre for Cross Faculty Inquiry in Education
    6. 6. Background context:• Vancouver ToC: Secondary Social Studies• UBC MA student, Centre for Cross Faculty Inquiry in Education• Interested the relationships between education/curricular policies and teachers
    7. 7. Localizing ‘21st-centuryeducation’: BC borrows an agenda
    8. 8. Localizing ‘21st-centuryeducation’: BC borrows an agenda • Ministry of Education • Canadian Council on Learning • John Abbott, 21st Century Learning Initiative • Premier’s Technology Council • BCPSEA
    9. 9. De-localizing ‘21st-century education’: Whose desire?
    10. 10. De-localizing ‘21st-century education’: Whose desire? •Transnational: OECD, ATC21S
    11. 11. De-localizing ‘21st-century education’: Whose desire? •Transnational: OECD, ATC21S •National+: P21, 21CLA
    12. 12. De-localizing ‘21st-century education’: Whose desire? •Transnational: OECD, ATC21S •National+: P21, 21CLA •Corporations: Intel, HP, Microsoft, Ford, Cisco, Disney ...
    13. 13. De-localizing ‘21st-century education’: Whose desire? •Transnational: OECD, ATC21S •National+: P21, 21CLA •Corporations: Intel, HP, Microsoft, Ford, Cisco, Disney ... •Quantitative/ Econometric analysts (a
    14. 14. Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: “...school learning is abstract, theoretical and organized by disciplines while work is concrete, specific to the task, and organized by problems and projects...” OECD, “Learning for jobs”
    15. 15. Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for success in the 21st century workforce”: “...school learning is abstract, theoretical and organized by disciplines while work is concrete, specific to the task, and organized by problems and projects...” OECD, “Learning for jobs”
    16. 16. Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for success in the 21st century workforce”: (i) communication, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration “...school learning is abstract, theoretical and organized by disciplines while work is concrete, specific to the task, and organized by problems and projects...” OECD, “Learning for jobs”
    17. 17. Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for success in the 21st century workforce”: (i) communication, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration (ii) economic/media/civic literacies “...school learning is abstract, theoretical and organized by disciplines while work is concrete, specific to the task, and organized by problems and projects...” OECD, “Learning for jobs”
    18. 18. Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for success in the 21st century workforce”: (i) communication, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration (ii) economic/media/civic literacies (iii) diversity, leadership, ethics “...school learning is abstract, theoretical and organized by disciplines while work is concrete, specific to the task, and organized by problems and projects...” OECD, “Learning for jobs”
    19. 19. Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for success in the 21st century workforce”: (i) communication, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration (ii) economic/media/civic literacies (iii) diversity, leadership, ethics • Lifelong learning “...school learning is abstract, theoretical and organized by disciplines while work is concrete, specific to the task, and organized by problems and projects...” OECD, “Learning for jobs”
    20. 20. Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for success in the 21st century workforce”: (i) communication, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration (ii) economic/media/civic literacies (iii) diversity, leadership, ethics • Lifelong learning “...school learning is abstract, theoretical and • Assessment-driven(?) organized by disciplines while work is concrete, specific to the task, and organized by problems and projects...” OECD, “Learning for jobs”
    21. 21. Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for success in the 21st century workforce”: (i) communication, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration (ii) economic/media/civic literacies (iii) diversity, leadership, ethics • Lifelong learning “...school learning is abstract, theoretical and • Assessment-driven(?) organized by disciplines while work is concrete, specific to the task, and organized • ICT by problems and projects...” OECD, “Learning for jobs”
    22. 22. Unpacking ‘21st-century education’: • “Skills deemed necessary for success in the 21st century workforce”: (i) communication, creativity, critical thinking, collaboration (ii) economic/media/civic literacies (iii) diversity, leadership, ethics • Lifelong learning “...school learning is abstract, theoretical and • Assessment-driven(?) organized by disciplines while work is concrete, specific to the task, and organized • ICT by problems and projects...” • STEM OECD, “Learning for jobs”
    23. 23. ‘21st-century education as national/ global imperative:“There is a global movement to “I’m calling on our nation ... to developtransform education systems to ensure standards and assessments that don’tlearners are prepared for success in simply measure whether students can fillthe 21st century. Increased in a bubble on a test, but whether theycompetition in the global economy possess 21st century skills like problem-makes improving the productivity of solving and critical thinking andB.C.’s workforce a necessary and entrepreneurship and creativity.” - U.S.urgent priority.” - BC Ministry of President Barack Obama,Education, May 2011 March 10, 2009
    24. 24. Essentializing ‘21st-century education’:
    25. 25. Essentializing ‘21st-century education’: •Nationalism
    26. 26. Essentializing ‘21st-century education’: •Nationalism •New package, old song
    27. 27. Essentializing ‘21st-century education’: •Nationalism •New package, old song •Vocationalism
    28. 28. Essentializing ‘21st-century education’: •Nationalism •New package, old song •Vocationalism •Entrepreneurialism
    29. 29. Essentializing ‘21st-century education’: •Nationalism •New package, old song •Vocationalism •Entrepreneurialism •Colonialism
    30. 30. Citizenship as dualistic tradition: Liberal Civic Republican• Focus on rights of individuals • Love & service to State • Constraints to protect (local, provincial, national) others • Focus = “healing” civil society • Redistributionist • ExclusiveAbowitz, K., & Harnish, J. (2006). Contemporary discourses on citizenship. Review of educational research, 76(4), 653-690.
    31. 31. Contextualizing entrepreneurialism as neoliberal citizenship: “Within the neoliberal view, the public sphere - schools, parks, social security, and healthcare included - should be privatized or put into service for the private sphere ... The real triumph of the market-based rhetoric was to shift discussion away from political concerns about the role of public education in preparing citizens for democratic participation and to redefine public schooling as a good or service, like toilet paper or soap, which students and parents consume.” - Kenneth SaltmanAbowitz, K., & Harnish, J. (2006). Contemporary discourses on citizenship. Review of educational research, 76(4), 653-690.
    32. 32. Contextualizing entrepreneurialism as neoliberal citizenship: • Combination of market fundamentalism and aggressive individualism “Within the neoliberal view, the public sphere - schools, parks, social security, and healthcare included - should be privatized or put into service for the private sphere ... The real triumph of the market-based rhetoric was to shift discussion away from political concerns about the role of public education in preparing citizens for democratic participation and to redefine public schooling as a good or service, like toilet paper or soap, which students and parents consume.” - Kenneth SaltmanAbowitz, K., & Harnish, J. (2006). Contemporary discourses on citizenship. Review of educational research, 76(4), 653-690.
    33. 33. Contextualizing entrepreneurialism as neoliberal citizenship: • Combination of market fundamentalism and aggressive individualism • Merges the fields of capitalism and democracy “Within the neoliberal view, the public sphere - schools, parks, social security, and healthcare included - should be privatized or put into service for the private sphere ... The real triumph of the market-based rhetoric was to shift discussion away from political concerns about the role of public education in preparing citizens for democratic participation and to redefine public schooling as a good or service, like toilet paper or soap, which students and parents consume.” - Kenneth SaltmanAbowitz, K., & Harnish, J. (2006). Contemporary discourses on citizenship. Review of educational research, 76(4), 653-690.
    34. 34. Contextualizing entrepreneurialism as neoliberal citizenship: • Combination of market fundamentalism and aggressive individualism • Merges the fields of capitalism and democracy • Homo economicus “Within the neoliberal view, the public sphere - schools, parks, social security, and healthcare included - should be (naturalization of privatized or put into service for the private sphere ... The real triumph of the market-based rhetoric was to shift competition, discussion away from political concerns about the role of public education in preparing citizens for democratic marketization as civic participation and to redefine public schooling as a good or service, like toilet paper or soap, which students and duty) parents consume.” - Kenneth SaltmanAbowitz, K., & Harnish, J. (2006). Contemporary discourses on citizenship. Review of educational research, 76(4), 653-690.
    35. 35. The 21st-century social imperative: Entrepreneurialism? “Canada needs a national vision for 21st Century learning models of public education. There is an urgent need for Canadians to understand the economic and social imperative underlining this debate. The world is shifting to a knowledge economy ... Wealth creation is and will continue to be generated by highly creative and innovative people. Failure to impart 21st Century competencies and skills to a nation’s youth will make that country economically vulnerable[.]” 21st Century Learning Associates, January 30, 2011.
    36. 36. Citizenship & consumption:“Our enormously productive economy “One of the most chillingly ironic features of thisdemands that we make consumption our way of process is the reversal in the meaning of ‘vocation’.life, that we convert the buying and use of That ‘the vocational’ - a religious concept denoting agoods into rituals, that we seek our spiritual divine calling to some special, morally significant worksatisfactions, our ego satisfactions in in life – should have come to convey the preciseconsumption. The measure of social status, of opposite of its established meaning (namely,social acceptance, of prestige, is now to be something purely instrumental and of economic valuefound in our consumptive patterns.” Lebow, alone) epitomizes the current situation: ‘capitalism as(1955) Price competition. religion’.” Osborne, (2010) Privatisation as anti- politics.
    37. 37. Consumerism & democracy:• “[T]he undivided reign of the market and the consumer, the commercial substitute for the citizen, has kidnapped the state: it has made the public good a private good ... What is at stake now is winning back democracy from technocracy.” - Pierre Bourdieu Bourdieu, P. (1998). Acts of resistance: Against the tyranny of the market. p. 25.
    38. 38. Re-conceptualizing ‘21st-century Education’: Ethics: Citizenship:•“the empty chair”, Ruitenberg •Critical: feminist, queer(2011) (Abowitz & Harnish, 2006)•becomings, (1987) Deleuze & •Nomad (Holland, 2011)Guattari
    39. 39. Considering the Present of our Future:“I’m not sure about the next “What looms on the horizon today is themillennium but I think I give us a unprecedented possibility [of] biogenetic50/50 chance of surviving the next mutation, a nuclear or similar military -hundred years. I fear that the speed social catastrophe and so on. No longerof man’s [sic] technological can we rely on the safeguarding role ofdiscoveries is outpacing our wisdom the limited scope of our acts: it no longerand ability to control what we have holds that, whatever we do, history willdiscovered.” - Sir Martin Rees (2003) carry on.” - Slavoj Zizek (2008)
    40. 40. ‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?:
    41. 41. ‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?: • Democracy?
    42. 42. ‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?: • Democracy? • Citizenship?
    43. 43. ‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?: • Democracy? • Citizenship? • De-professionalization of teachers?
    44. 44. ‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?: • Democracy? • Citizenship? • De-professionalization of teachers? • Ethics?
    45. 45. ‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?: • Democracy? • Citizenship? • De-professionalization of teachers? • Ethics? • Equity?
    46. 46. ‘21st-Century Education’ as ‘Public Good’?: • Democracy? • Citizenship? • De-professionalization of teachers? • Ethics? • Equity? • Aesthetics?
    47. 47. Can education be re-captured as an emancipatory agenda?•The Critical ThinkingConsortium (www.tc2.ca)•MeToWe(www.metowe.com)•The Purple Thistle Institute(www.thistleinstitute.ca)•School of Everything(schoolofeverything.com)•Don McDougal: (a/e)ffectivebecomings for ‘at-risk youth’
    48. 48. References:21st Century Learning Associates. (2011). A national vision for 21st century learning. Accessed Oct. 9, 2011 at http://21stcenturylearningassociates.wordpress.com/2011/01/30/hello-world/.Abowitz, K., & Harnish, J. (2006). Contemporary discourses of citizenship. Review of educational research, 76(4), 653-690.British Columbia Ministry of Education. (2011). Revised 2011/12-2013/14 service plan. Victoria, BC: Ministry of Education.Bourdieu, P. (1998). Acts of resistance: Against the tyranny of the market. New York, NY: The New Press.Deleuze, G., & Guattari, F. (1987/2009). A thousand plateaus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. (B. Massumi Trans.). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press. (Original work published in 1980)Holland, E. (2011). Nomad citizenship: Free-market communism and the slow-motion general strike. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.Lebow, V. (1055). Price competition in 1955. Journal of retailing.Osborne, P. (2010). Privatisation as anti-politics. Reclamations, 3. Accessed Oct. 9, 2011 at http://reclamationsjournal.org/issue03_peter_osborne.htm.Rees, M. (2003). Our final hour: A scientist’s warning. New York, NY: Basic Books.Ruitenberg, C. (2011). The empty chair: Education in an ethic of hospitality. In R. Kunzman (Ed.), Philosophy of Education 2011. Urbana, IL: Philosophy of Education Society.Saltman, K. (2007). Capitalizing on disaster: Taking and breaking public schools. Herndon, VA: Paradigm Publishers.Trilling, B., & Fadel, C. (2009). 21st century skills: Learning for life in our times. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Zizek, S. (2008). In defense of lost causes. New York, NY: Verso.

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