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Afrique de l’ouest:eau douce

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Afrique de l’ouest:eau douce

  1. 1. Afrique de l’Ouest : Situation de l’eau douce Marie-Andrée Sylvestre
  2. 2. Situation géographique • Couvrant la partie occidentale du continent, l’Afrique de l’Ouest se situe entre l’océan Atlantique à l’ouest et au sud et le Sahara au nord.
  3. 3. Cours d’eau Les principaux plans d’eau de l’Afrique de l’Ouest sont : • Le Niger • Lac Tchad • Volta • Sénégal
  4. 4. Situation en Afrique Image tirée du site: www.geobunnik.over-blog.fr
  5. 5. Situation en Afrique de l’ouest En plus de son extrême pauvreté, l’Afrique de l’ouest doit composer depuis les dernières années avec: • Une croissance démographique importante • Une industrialisation plutôt anarchique • Des sécheresses et des inondations dues aux des changements climatiques
  6. 6. Situation en Afrique de l’ouest
  7. 7. Situation en Afrique de l’ouest
  8. 8. Maîtrise de l’eau «Capacité des sociétés à mobiliser et contrôler l’eau (douce) à travers l’espace et le temps» (Grey et Sadoff, 2006). La maîtrise humaine des ressources en eau se pose comme vecteur de développement durable via au moins trois grandes résultantes: – Survie et développement social – Agriculture et industrie – Protection et développement durable
  9. 9. Survie et développement social Sans maîtrise Conditions d’hygiène difficile Installations sanitaires déficientes Avec maîtrise Meilleure bilan santé Économie de temps et d’énergie Maladies hydriques Augmente la disponibilité «travail» Dépense en temps et énergie Permet la poursuite du développement
  10. 10. Agriculture et Industrie Sans maîtrise Avec maîtrise Agriculture de survie Irrigation des terres dépendante des Augmentation des conditions extrêmes de rendements et stabilité la météo. de la disponibilité Développement industriel impossible Disponibilité industriel importance dans divers procédés
  11. 11. Protection de développement durable Sans maîtrise Retour à la case départ Disponibilité Instable Avec maîtrise Encadrement Faire durer le développement
  12. 12. Mission hydraulique • Mise en valeur des ressources hydriques d’un pays afin de satisfaire les besoins domestiques, agricoles et industriels. RESPECT DES POPULATIONS DU PAYS
  13. 13. Contraintes • Division de la ressources entre différents pays ayant des idéologies, des politiques et des cultures différentes. • Manque d’infrastructures de bases • Manque de gestion général de la ressource. Enjeux: À quel échelle doit se gérer le partage de l’eau, et selon quelles règles?
  14. 14. Propositions 1-La gestion intégrée des ressources en eau (GIRE) • Harmoniser les politiques sectorielle • Faire converger les politiques nationales • Remplacer la gestion bureaucratique par un mode de gestion plus participatif en mettant en place des organismes tel que ceux des bassins versants
  15. 15. Propositions 2-Complexe hydropolitique • Mettre en place une politique générale sur l’eau pour tous les États et sous une seule gouvernance • Existe lorsque les relations internationales entre des états deviennent assez cohérentes et significatives dans leur recherche de solutions de gestion de ressources transfrontalières qu'un modèle discernable d'amitié et d'hostilité peut être détecté au fil du temps.
  16. 16. Conclusion Objectifs d’une meilleure gestion de l’eau en Afrique de l’Ouest: 1) Égalité de l’accès à la ressource pour tous 2) Améliorer l’hygiène 3) Recherche de solutions durables 3) Meilleure gestion transfrontalière
  17. 17. Références • Barbier, B., Yacouba, H., Maiga, A-H., Mahé, G. et Paturel, J-E. 2009. Le retour des grands investissements hydrauliques en Afrique de l’Ouest : les perspectives et les enjeux. Géocarrefour. Volume 84-1-2. Pages 31-41. • Briand, A., Lemaitre, A. 2004. Privatisation de la distribution de l’eau potable en Afrique: une aubaine? Journée d’études Les territoires de l’eau, Université d’Artois, Arras, 26 mars 2004, p. 98-115. • Daddy Gaoh, A. et Dassargues, A. 1995. Exploitation de la nappe alluviale du dallol Maouri pour des cultures irriguées au Niger. Sécheresse. Numéro 3, Volume 6. Pages 257-263. • Hellendorf, Bruno. 2013. L’eau, les conflits et la coopérrations--Gestion de l’eau en Afrique de l’Ouest:Risques et opportunités. Note d’analuse du GRIP. Bruxelles. 16 pages • Julien, Frédéric, 2006. Maîtrise de l’eau et de dvveloppement durable en Afrique de l’ouest:de la nécessité d’une coopération régionale autour des systèmes hydrologiques transfrontaliers. VertiGo-la revue électronique en sciences de l’environnement (en ligne). Volume 7 Numoré2. – Mise en ligne le 28 avril 2006, consulté le 18 janvier 2013.
  18. 18. Références • Kinzelbach, W., Bauer, P., Siegfried, T. et Brunner, P. 2003. Sustainable groundwater management-problems and scientific tools. Episod. Numéro 4, Volume 26. Pages 279-284. • Niasse, M., Afouda, A. et Amani, A., (éds). 2003. Eau, zone humides et désertification en Afrique de l’Ouest. Stratégie régionale de préparation et d’adaptation à la variabilité et au changement climatique. CILSSGWP/WAWP-UICN/BRAO. Ouagadoudou. 75 pages. • Niasse, M. 2004. Prévenir les conflits et promouvoir la coopération dans la gestion des fleuves transfrontaliers en Afrique de l’Ouest. VertigO-La revue en sciences de l’environnement. Numéro 1, Volume 5. 13 pages. • Tessier, S. 1992. Les maladies de l’enfant liées à l’eau en milieu urbain. Cahiers d'études et de recherches francophones/Santé 2: 77-84. • Vincent, I. 2003. Le prix de l'eau pour les pauvres : comment concilier droit d’accès et paiement d'un service? Afrique contemporaine 205: 119134.
  19. 19. MERCI ET BONNE JOURNÉE

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