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Presidency School of Management & Comp.Sc.
Affiliated to Osmania University
Approved by All India Council for Technical Education –AICTE-New Delhi
Dept of Business Management -MBA-III-Semester
Sub: E-Global Business Paper Code: MB 302
Prepared by
Dr. Syed Valiullah Bakhtiyari
Professor-Business Management
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Course Objectives
1. To understand the fundamentals of e-commerce and its impact on global business.
2. To explore the challenges and opportunities associated with
conducting business in adigital environment.
3. To analyze the strategies and technologies used in e-global business.
4. To develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills in the context of e-global
business.
5.
Learning Outcomes:
By the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. Identify and explain the key concepts and principles of e-global business.
2. Evaluate the impact of e-commerce on global business operations.
3. Analyze and develop strategies for conducting business in a digital environment.
Apply critical thinking skills to solve problems and make informed decisions related to e-
global business
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Unit-I
Ecommerce is a method of buying and selling goods and services online. The definition of ecommerce
business can also include tactics like affiliate marketing. You can use ecommerce channels such as your
own website, an established selling website like Amazon, or social media to drive online sales.
Globalization is a term used to describe how trade and technology have made the world into a more
connected and interdependent place. Globalization also captures in its scope the economic and social
changes that have come about as a result
Characteristics of Globalization
1. Free Trade Liberalization
2. Increase in Employment Increased connectivity between nations –
3. Interdependence – CulturalExchange.
4. Urbanization Standard of Living Outsourcing
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The digital economy is the worldwide network of economic activities, commercial transactions and
professional interactions that are enabled by information and communications technologies (ICT). It
can be succinctly summed up as the economy based on digital technologies
Digital economy has given rise to many new trends and start-up ideas. Almost all of the biggest
companies in the world (Google, Apple, Microsoft, Amazon) are from the digital world. Let us look at
some important merits of the digital economy
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Global Market entry strategies
Digital transformation
Digital transformation is the integration of digital technologies into all aspects of business operations.
That means identifying how to use technologies to deliver new products and services, to improve
existing products and services, and to streamline processes Digital transformation is the process of
adoption and implementation of digital technology by an organization in order to create new or modify
existing products, services and operations by the means of translating business processes into a digital
format. The digital transformation Increases efficiency, agility and, ultimately, delivers value to
customers and employees.
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An online marketplace is an e-commerce site that connects sellers with buyers. It's often known as an
electronic marketplace and all transactions are managed by the website owner. Companies use online
marketplaces to reach customers who want to purchase their products and services.
An online marketplace is an ecommerce platform where third parties sell products or services. Examples
of online marketplaces include Amazon, Walmart, and eBay.
Role of E-market place in E global Business
Through electronic marketplaces, firms can collaborate effectively, forecast demand, and share strategic
information across companies. If firms want to participate in electronic marketplaces fully, they must
initially integrate internal and external supply chain activities
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Role of artificial intelligence in e business
 Artificial intelligence
What is artificial intelligence? Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of a computer or a robot
controlled by a computer to do tasks that are usually done by humans because they require human
intelligence and discernment
AI plays a crucial role in e-commerce by enabling businesses to analyze and understand customer
behavior patterns, enhance the shopping experience, and streamline various processes. AI can help in
product recommendations, chatbots, personalized promotions, fraud detection, and more.
Legal Requirements of E-commerce business in India
 Company or LLP Registration-[Limited liability partnership]
Every business is required to get registered with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs under the applicable
laws. Such a business shall either be incorporated under the (Indian) Companies Act, 2013 or a foreign
company or an office, branch or an agency outside India and necessarily be owned or controlled by an
Indian resident. Such registration ensures that the bank account is opened in the name of the company/
LLP which in return shall make the process of GST registration convenient and quicker.
 2. GST Registration
For a successful establishment of an E-commerce business, GST registration is mandatory. Every E-
commerce business irrespective of its turnover is required to be compulsorily registered under the
Central Goods & Service Tax (CGST) Act.
 3. Bank Account
Opening a bank account in the name of the business is a convenient process. In case of a Proprietorship
firm, the first step is to obtain a GST registration in the name of the business in order to open a bank
account. An active bank account is the bare minimum requirement to be able to list a business on an E-
commerce marketplace or to obtain a payment gateway for a proprietary E-commerce website.
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 4. Payment Gateway
A payment gateway is mandatory for a proprietary E-commerce website to process the payments. It
allows the website to accept payments through credit card(s), debit card(s), net banking, internet banking
from multiple banks.
5. Legal Documents
If any business operates through online marketplaces, then the marketplace provides the seller with a
legal document or sellers’ agreement and the seller must abide by the sellers’ agreement. It is important
for any business to go through the sellers’ agreement(s) in detail before the execution as it is the legal
binding agreement between the seller and the marketplace.
Compliances for E-commerce business in India
The trend of E-commerce has been rapidly increasing since the last decade. Many players with new
business ideas have entered the market, be it Zomato/Swiggy delivering food from various restaurants or
Flipkart/Amazon delivering products or Grofers delivering groceries.
The scenario is such that you name the service and there is an E-commerce platform for it available at
the doorstep. The swift development of the E-commerce industry has called for the attention of the
government towards forming regulations and policies with respect to the same. India has various laws
that monitor E-commerce business in terms of data privacy, security of consumers, settlement
transaction safety, quality of products etc.
 2. Information Technologies Act, 2000
The E-commerce sellers conduct business in the same manner as the physical sellers with the only
distinction of non-availability of the physical body in order to sell things. Through E-commerce, the
vendors are required to generate bills, file returns, pay taxes, prepare ledgers and maintain records. They
must perform all the same on the online platform.
The Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act) is the primary legislation that governs the use of the
internet, cybercrime as well as the digital business in India. The IT Act governs online behavior and
related aspects of E-commerce and recognizes electronic contracts and digital signatures. The
Information Technology Act, 2000 is based on the Model Law of E-commerce adopted by the United
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Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and acts as a developing E-commerce
enabling legislation in India. The Act targets regulating the use of the internet by punishing the person
for publishing any obscene information or hacking or altering the data from devices of another person.
The salient features of the Act are:
 E-contracts
 Transaction Security
 Digital signature
3. Payment and Settlements Systems Act, 2007
As per the Payment and Settlements Systems Act, the E-commerce business shall succeed as a payment
system if it follows the Rules specified by RBI, it is compulsory for an intermediary that is receiving
payments through digital modes to have an active account
4. Consumer Protection Act, 2019
The E-commerce industry is also monitored by the Consumer Protection Act . In order to safeguard the
consumers from unfair trade practices and solve their problems, the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food
and Public Distribution on May 17, 2021, has notified the Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) Rules,
2021.
Innovations in E-Commerce
1. Real-Time Location-Based Mobile Selling
Real-time location-based selling technology allows retailers to target customers based on their precise
location and deliver personalized messages and offers in real time.
2. Super-Fast Delivery and Instant Pickup Counter
3. AI-Powered Personalization Leads generated by AI are boosting sales by 50%. Top-rated firms
tailor their advertising with AI 28% of the time. Here are some benefits of AI.
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4. Voice-Powered Shopping
Voice-powered shopping is an emerging trend in e-commerce. According to a study, 51% of mobile
buyers look up things using their voice assistants. Here’s how it can be advantageous –
5. Shopping using AR Technology-[Augmented Reality]
 Enables customers to visualize products using their smartphones or tablets in a real-world
environment.
 Shopping using AR technology is an emerging trend in e-commerce that has the potential to
revolutionize the way customers shop and interact with retailers.
6. Blockchain Blockchain is a shared, immutable ledger that facilitates the process of recording
transactions and tracking assets in a business network. An asset can be tangible or intangible
8. Chatbots
A chatbot is a software application or web interface that aims to mimic human conversation through text
or voice interactions
9. Social Commerce
Social commerce (a subset of ecommerce) is the use of social media platforms like Facebook and
Instagram to market and sell products and services. This type of selling model lets customers
11. Remarketing
Remarketing is a powerful tool for e-commerce innovation that allows you to target customers who have
previously shown interest in your products or services.
12. Website Analytics
Web analytics is the collection, reporting, and analysis of website data.
13. E-wallet
E-wallet stands for electronic wallet. It is a type of electronic card which is used for transactions made
online through a computer or a Smartphone.
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Digital entrepreneurs
An Internet entrepreneur is an owner, founder or manager of an Internet-based business. This list
includes Internet company founders and people brought on to companies for their general business or
accounting acumen, as is the case with some CEOs hired by companies started by entrepreneurs. Digital
entrepreneurs rely on digital technologies to establish and run their businesses. They set up online
storefronts to sell their goods, use social media platforms such as Facebook to advertise, and monitor
customer trends using tools such as Google Analytics. The digital entrepreneur must understand the five
pillars they are content, technology,user experience, process, and organization. Digitalization improves
productivity and efficiency, lowering the cost of economic transactions.
Digital Startup
The revolution in mobile and internet opens the door for digital startups. If you have an awesome idea
convert it into mobile app or website, you will be a digital startup. Many digital startups are playing to
role of facilitator between two parties or helping hand for some services.Digital startups are
characterized by strong, fast, and scalable growth. It exploit the maximum potential of digital marketing
strategies and tools.
Digital startup process
 Assess the viability of your new business idea
 Develop a business plan and name it
 Take care of all the legal tasks
 Build your website and choose affiliate
 Develop and implement marketing strategies
 Launch your new business
Cyber Security
Computer security, cyber security, digital security or information technology security (IT security) is the
protection of computer systems, mobile and networks from attacks by malicious actors that may result in
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unauthorized information disclosure, theft of, or damage to hardware, software, or data, as well as from
the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
Types of cyber threats and challenges
1. Cybercrime includes single actors or groups targeting systems for financial gain
2. Cyber-attack often involves politically motivated information gathering.
3. Cyber terrorism is intended to undermine electronic systems to cause panic or fear.
4. Malware Malware means malicious software. One of the most common cyber threats, malware is
software that a cybercriminal or hacker has created to disrupt or damage a legitimate user’s computer.
5. Virus: A self-replicating program that attaches itself to clean file and spreads throughout a computer
system, infecting files with malicious code.
6. Trojans: A type of malware that is disguised as legitimate software
7. Spyware: A program that secretly records what a user does, so that cybercriminals can make use of
this information. For example, spyware could capture credit card details.
8. Ransomware: Malware which locks down a user’s files and data
9. Adware: Advertising software which can be used to spread malware.·
10.BotnetsNetworks of malware infected computers which cybercriminals use to perform tasks online
without the user’s permission.
Types of Cyber security soft wares
 Network security is the practice of securing a computer network from intruder
 Application security focuses on keeping software and devices free of threats
 ·Information security protects the integrity and privacy of data,
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 ·Operational security includes the processes and decisions for handling and protecting data
assets.
Protect Yourself from Cyber Crime
1. Ensure your system is Up-to-date. ...
2. Use a Secure Internet Connection. ...
3. Use Strong Password. , Be Aware of Pop-ups and Fraudulent Emails. ...
4. Protect yourself from identity threats, Manage Your Social Media Settings. ...
5. Get Right Cyber Insurance Policy.
Impact of social media on global business
Social media refers to the means of interactions among people in which they create, share, and/or
exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. The Office of Communications
and Marketing manages the main Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn and YouTube accounts.
The Impacts are as follows
 Allows Businesses to Become Omni-Present
 Increases Personalization
 Generates More Loyalty
 Increases Industry Collaboration
 Adds Credibility
 Increases Referrals
 Helps You Build a Personal Brand
 Helps You get Audience Feedback
 Brand-loyalty, Easy-communication, Increased-customer-power
 Attract-bigger-audience, Creates-word-of-mouth
 Reducing-marketing-and-promotional-costs
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Customer engagement
Customer engagement is the way a company creates a relationship with its customer base to foster brand
loyalty and awareness. This can be accomplished via marketing campaigns and web content as well as
outreach using social media, mobile devices and wearable devices. The purpose of customer
engagement is improving customer experience and satisfaction, building customer loyalty and trust, and
harnessing the power of customer feedback and insights, which ultimately decreases the customer
migration.
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Unit-II
Types E-business models
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E- Marketplace and Online platforms
E-marketplace is a virtual online market platform where companies can register as buyers and
sellers to conduct business to business (B2B) or Business to Consumers (B2C) transactions over
the internet. It enables the buyers to compare various products and services by different measures
like performance, quality, price etc.
Famous e-Commerce marketplaces
 Amazon, eBay, Walmart , Decathlon , Flipkart , Meesho
 Myntra, Snapdeal, ShopClues, Limeroad
Types of E-market Places
 Business-to-business (B2B): In this marketplace, one business offers its services and products to
other businesses. The aim is not to find as many clients as possible but to create robust supply
chains and long-term relationships. Examples of such marketplaces are Justdial.com and
Indiamart.com.
 Business-to-customer (B2C): B2C marketplaces deal directly with the end customers. Here, the
main goal is to acquire as many customers as they can to generate sales. Examples are
Amazon.com, eBay.com, and Aliexpress.com.
 Customer-to-customer (C2C): This marketplace connects the seller directly with the buyer and
lets them negotiate for the products or services. An example of a C2C marketplace is
Semexe.com.
Challenges for e-market places
 Data security: Online marketplaces hold the personal data of millions of customers, which are
susceptible to cyber-attacks. Marketplaces need robust security systems to avoid data breaches
through brute force attacks.
 Customer loyalty: It is difficult and expensive to acquire customers, but it is easy to lose them if
you lack a retention strategy. With a bunch of choices available, it is a buyer’s market.
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 Price competition: Marketplaces not only have to compete with other marketplaces but also
provide the right balance of price so that they can serve both the supplier and the customer
appropriately.
 Inventory management: Businesses must forecast the demand in real time to prevent shortfall
or overstocking products in their warehouses.
 Return, refunds, and fulfilment: Fulfilment is just the first step. Managing refunds and returns
and taking care of possible fraud is another. Marketplaces need technology to track returns and
refunds and avoid fraud.
Digital marketing and Customer relationship Management
Digital marketing, also called online marketing, is the promotion of brands to connect with
potential customers using the internet and other forms of digital communication. This includes
not only email, social media, and web-based advertising, but also text and multimedia messages
as a marketing channel
7 C's of digital marketing
The 7 Cs- customer, content, context, community, convenience, cohesion, conversion.
Various types of digital marketing
Digital marketing can be broadly classified into eight main categories
1. Affiliate marketing, 2.content marketing, 3.email marketing, 4.marketing analytics, 5.mobile
marketing, 6.pay-per-click, 7.search engine optimization and 8.social media marketing.
CRM in digital marketing
Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a strategy that companies use to manage
interactions with customers and potential customers. CRM helps organizations streamline
processes, build customer relationships, increase sales, improve customer service, and increase
profitability, the application of digitization in CRM helps in targeting only potential customers,
saving time and effort and improving marketing campaign efficiency.
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Benefits of using CRM in Digital Marketing
1. Personalization, Increased
2. ROI ,Improved customer engagement.
3. Additional data for sales
4. Attribution –Revenue by sales and marketing teams
5. Marketing Automation - Automate some of your marketing tasks to focus on the things that
matter.
E-commerce Payment System in Global Business
A List of E-commerce Payment Systems
Debit--Card
A debit card is a card with unique credentials and is linked to the customer’s bank account. A debit card
deducts money from the user's bank account instantly at the time of the transaction
Credit--Cards
Credit cards are the most popular form of payment for e-commerce transactions. Enabling credit card
payments on your website can enable customers to shop without having to worry about paying upfront.
E-Wallet
The E-Wallet can be thought of as a prepaid account that enables users to store a variety of debit cards,
credit cards, and other payment methods in a safe environment without having to enter their credentials
each time they wish to make a purchase
Smart--Card
It has the ability to store money as well as a person's personal and professional information. Faster
processing is possible with smart cards at lower rates.
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Online—banking
Customers can conveniently make purchases by paying with a bank account directly.
Mobile--Payment
Customers may easily and quickly use mobile payment to make purchases using their smartphones. A
user only needs to download a mobile payment app from the applications store.
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Subscription based business models
A subscription business model is a recurring revenue model in which customers pay a weekly, monthly,
or yearly fee in exchange for your products or services. Customers can renew their subscription after a
certain period of time. The fees paid for subscriptions is called as recurring revenues for the company
Benefits of a subscription business model
o Predictable revenue stream
o Recurring revenue
o Stronger & long-term customer relationships
o Lower customer retention spend
o Easier demand forecasting
Examples
Netflix and Spotify, Adobe and Microsoft, Magazine subscriptions, Zomato, Uber, Swiggyetc
Recurring Revenue
Recurring revenues through billing is an amount usually fixed for a product or service regularly. The
billing cycle frequency can be monthly, quarterly, or annually or more
Recurring revenue Strategies
 Predetermined Service Charges over a Specific Period
 Automatic Renewal of Subscriptions
 Scheduled Billing Based on Product Usage
 Per-User Billing Model
 Free Lifetime Access to Basic Product or Service Plan
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Collaborative consumption or sharing economy
 Collaborative consumption is considered part of the sharing economy, Collaborative
consumption is the shared use of a good or service by a group. Collaborative consumption
differs from conventional consumption in that resources, goods, or services are shared by a
group rather than individuals. Ex: Airbnb, Airbnb,[Air Bed and Breakfast,” is a service that lets
property owners rent out their spaces to travelers looking for a place to stay]and ride-sharing
applications, car pooling
Benefits of the collaborative economy
 Greater supply: Individuals who market goods and services increase options for people looking
to travel or buy items like household appliances, clothing and bicycles.
 Savings: The items we find in collaborative consumption businesses are usually cheaper.
 Sustainability: This exchange between consumers increases the useful life of the items we buy.
Because we reuse them, there’s no need to manufacture new things.
 Care for the environment: Choosing services like collaborative transport and giving new life to
used items to prevent overproduction and use finite resources more efficiently helps us care for
the environment.
Digital marketing
Digital marketing, also called online marketing, is the promotion of brands to connect with potential
customers using the internet and other forms of digital communication. This includes not
only email, social media, and web-based advertising, but also text and multimedia messages as a
marketing channel.
Digital marketing strategies
Search engine optimization
Defines it as “the art and science of making web pages attractive to search engines.” the most important
elements to consider when optimizing a web page for search engines include:
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 Quality of content
 Level of user engagement
 Mobile-friendliness
 Number and quality of inbound links
Content marketing
A strategy based on the distribution of relevant and valuable content to a target audience, the goal of
content marketing is to attract leads that ultimately convert into customers. Blog posts
 E-books
 Newsletters
 Video or audio transcripts
Social media marketing
Social media marketing means driving traffic and brand awareness by engaging people in discussion
online. The most popular digital platforms for social media marketing are Face book, Twitter,
and Instagram, with LinkedIn and YouTube not far behind.
Pay-per-click marketing
Pay-per-click, or PPC, is a form of digital marketing in which you pay a fee every time someone clicks
on your digital ads. So, instead of paying a set amount to constantly run targeted ads on online channels,
you only pay for the ads individuals interact with.
Affiliate marketing
Affiliate marketing is a digital marketing tactic that lets someone make money by promoting another
person's business. You could be either the promoter or the business who works with the promoter, but
the process is the same in either case.
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Influencer marketing
Like affiliate marketing, influencer marketing relies on working with an influencer–an individual with a
large following, such as a celebrity
Marketing automation
Marketing automation uses software to power digital marketing campaigns, improving the efficiency
and relevance of advertising.
Email marketing
The concept of email marketing is simple—you send a promotional message and hope that your
prospect clicks on it. However, the execution is much more complex.
Mobile marketing
Mobile marketing is a digital marketing strategy that allows you to engage with your target audience on
their mobile devices, such as smart phones and tablets. This can be via SMS and MMS messages, social
media notifications, mobile app alerts, and more.
The benefits of digital marketing
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Strategies for online communities to drive customers’ loyalty
Online communities have become a necessary business asset that contributes to the agile growth of an
organization. They serve as a major source of information for all participants. Through this network,
businesses can easily address their customers’ queries, acknowledge their inputs, and receive
constructive feedback. The online communities can increase customer satisfaction, retention, and
lifetime value by creating a sense of belonging, recognition, and reward. Moreover, it can generate
positive word-of-mouth, referrals, and testimonials by encouraging customers to share their experiences.
 Invest in curating engaging content:
 Be responsive to change
 Be a part of the customer’s journey
 Reward your customers (gamification
 Encourage self-support
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Unit-III
Supply Chain management in a digital environment
A digital supply chain is a supply chain that leverages digital technologies and data analytics to guide
decision-making, optimize performance, and quickly respond to changing conditions. At their core, digital
supply chains are powered by the data produced by existing supply chains, which are stored in data
warehouses and analyzed for actionable insights A digital supply chain is a set of processes that use
advanced technologies and better insights into the functions of each stakeholder along the chain to let
each participant make better decisions about the sources of materials they need, the demand for their
products and all of the relationship in between
Fully integrating legacy supply chain management technologies — demand planning, asset
management, warehouse management, transportation and logistics management, procurement, order
fulfillment— is a needed first step. But truly digitizing a supply chain also involves mining data from
those processes and incrementing the equipment that enables them to produce the needed data. With a
digital supply chain, in contrast, shared quality and control data from the supplier can enable companies
to anticipate issues and proactively respond without laborious preplanning. For obtaining effective digital
supply chain the requirements are it must be connected, collaborative, cyber aware, cognitively
enabled, and comprehensive
The benefits of Digital Supply Chain Management
The digitization of supply chain management will have many positive impacts on business performance
and it will enhance the value delivery system at the customers point. Some of the significant outcomes
of digital SCM are as follows
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Logistics and fulfillments in E-Commerce
Logistics
Logistics refers to the overall process of managing how resources are acquired, stored, and transported
to their final destination. Logistics management involves identifying prospective distributors and
suppliers and determining their effectiveness and accessibility. Logistics managers are referred to as
logisticians.
In logistics, fulfillment refers to the process of managing and completing an order from start to finish,
including receiving the order, inventory management, order preparation, packing, shipping and delivery
to the end customer.
Fulfillment focuses on ensuring that products are delivered in a timely and efficient manner, and that
customers receive the products they have ordered in perfect condition. To achieve this, logistics
companies use various techniques and technologies, such as inventory management systems or
warehouse automation software, among others.
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In summary, fulfillment is a critical aspect of logistics and focuses on ensuring a satisfactory shopping
experience for the customer by meeting their delivery and product quality expectations.
Good fulfillment management is closely related to final customer satisfaction, one of the most important
challenges to be met by online businesses
Logistics Fulfillment phases
 Receipt of order
 Inventory management
 Order preparation.
 Shipment of the order:
 Tracking and delivery:
 Returns.
Advantages of Logistics fulfillment in e-commerce
 Increased efficiency:
 Cost reduction
 Improved customer experience:
 Greater flexibility:
 Market expansion
 Customer satisfaction:
 Profitability
 Scalability:
International Trade and Legal Considerations
The International trade law includes the rules and customs governing trade between countries. Some of
the most significant legal consideration for doing international trade are as follows. The most impacting
factors on international trade are Political, Social, cultural. Legal, technological, Economical and Ethical
factors
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Cross Cultural management and Customer service
Cross-cultural management is the study of management in a cross-cultural context. It includes the study
of the influence of societal culture on managers and management practice as well as the study of the
cultural orientations of individual managers and organization members. The cross-cultural management
includes cultural norms and values, communication styles, nonverbal behavior, etiquette and protocol,
leadership and management styles, cultural sensitivity and awareness.
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Reverse logistics/Returns management
Reverse logistics is the set of activities that is conducted after the sale of a product to recapture value
and end the product's lifecycle. It typically involves returning a product to the manufacturer or
distributor or forwarding it on for servicing, refurbishment or recycling
The process of reverse logistics involves 7 R’s they are Right product, in the Right quantity, in the Right
condition, at the Right place, at the Right time, to the Right customer, at the Right price.
Examples: Returns, Remanufacturing, Refurbishing, Unsold goods, End-of-life, Delivery Failure,
Repairs & maintenance
Returns management in global e-commerce
Ecommerce returns, the process of reverse logistics in which products are returned to the sender, are
common. The rate of return for ecommerce sales hovers in the 20% to 30% range. They are commonly
higher than brick-and-mortar stores and should be accounted for as part of common business practices.
Rules of e-commerce returns management
1. Creating a Precise Returns Policy
 The number of days a return policy is applicable after final delivery.
 What are the products that are covered under returns policy
 Reimbursement, whether it will be offered in payment or credit.
 How fast is the refund process estimated to be?
 In case of an exchange, how many days would it take?
 Does the seller cover shipping
 Mention returns policy specific to products on discount.
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2. Understanding the cost involved in returns management
Fundamentally, you should be thorough about your product costing so that it also includes the possibility
of expenses for the return or exchange of products. The additional costs involved in reverse logistics
would be picking, packing, and reverse logistics for returning the product to the origin warehouse. If not
appropriately calculated, your company would be dissipating money through your returns
management, and your profit margin would take a heavy hit. As for customer service, providing
product tracking and attending to customer queries would also be of immense importance in managing
reverse logistics.
3. Multi-Carriers and Shipping Tracking Software Simplify Returns Management
Not all carriers handle the returns process efficiently so, using different carriers for reverse logistics
would keep the end-to-end supply chain very smooth. And a shipping tracking software provides
dynamic support in managing multiple carriers simultaneously with separate portals for returns
management. Your business can monitor and analyze all the shipping data to improve operations and
avoid unnecessary expenses. Shipping tracking software also simplifies the pick-up of returned products
by empowering customers to initiate reverse logistics through automated solutions.
4. Shipping Tracking Visibility Puts the Customers Mind at Ease
Shipping tracking software is configured with API integrations to provide end-to-end visibility with
real-time tracking and customer notifications for returned products. This versatile feature offers a
satisfying post-purchase service experience to retain and attract more customers. And an essential
feature in today’s e-commerce practices with many people demanding shipping visibility for their
orders.
5. Offering Automated customer support and optimized pick-up services
Multi-carrier shipping or shipping tracking software offers automated customer support through
Autobots that empower customers to manage their order queries, considerably reducing WISMO calls.
Additionally, shipping tracking software enables customers to optimize pick-up services for returning
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products according to their convenience. Furthermore, your business can utilize this software to
customize returns policy for the return and exchange of various products.
6. Other important aspects in returns management
 Making sure the returned products are checked for quality when they are picked up from the
customer is paramount in reverse logistics. And this has to be taken care of by the carrier
designated for reverse logistics.
 Reimbursement in case of refund should be carried out quickly to sustain the customer’s
loyalty.
 Managing inventory consistently to allow quick exchanges of products and delivery.
 Always analyze returns operations to improve your business operations.
Intellectual property rights in e- global business
Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works;
designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce. Digital Intellectual Property Rights
(DIPR) safeguard the intangible creations and innovations Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) have
always been important in various industries, and with the digital world, their strategic importance has
increased even more. In a digital world, where information and data are the currency, protecting one’s
intellectual property becomes even more critical.
Types of intellectual property
Patents
A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention. Generally speaking, a patent provides the patent
owner with the right to decide how - or whether - the invention can be used by others
Copyright
Copyright is a legal term used to describe the rights that creators have over their literary and artistic
works. Works covered by copyright range from books, music, paintings, sculpture and films, to
computer programs, databases, advertisements, maps and technical drawings.
33
Trademarks
A trademark is a sign capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one enterprise from those of
other enterprises.
Industrial designs
An industrial design constitutes the ornamental or aesthetic aspect
Geographical indications
Geographical indications are signs used on goods that have a specific geographical origin and possess
qualities, a reputation or characteristics that are essentially attributable to that place of origin. Most
commonly, a geographical indication includes the name of the place of origin of the goods.
Trade secrets Trade secrets are IP rights on confidential information which may be sold or licensed.
The core benefits of Intellectual property rights in e global business
Protecting innovation: IPR plays a vital role in protecting innovation in a digital world. With the ease
of copying and sharing digital content, innovators need to protect their ideas and inventions from being
stolen or misused. Patents, trademarks, and copyrights provide legal protection to creators and
innovators, allowing them to protect their ideas and inventions from being copied or stolen.
1. Business competitiveness: By protecting their intellectual property, companies can differentiate
themselves from their competitors, and offer unique products or services. In a digital world,
2. Revenue generation: IPR can be a significant source of revenue for businesses. By protecting
their intellectual property, companies can charge licensing fees for the use of their patents or
trademarks, generating a new stream of revenue.
3. Brand reputation: IPR protection can help companies build and maintain a strong brand
reputation. Trademarks,
4. Legal protection: IPR can provide legal protection to businesses, allowing them to take legal
action against those who infringe on their intellectual property rights. In a digital world, where
copyright infringement and other forms of intellectual property theft are prevalent, businesses
need to protect their intellectual property to take legal action against those who misuse their
property.
34
Customer data privacy and compliance with data protection regulations
Data privacy defines who has access to data, while data protection provides tools and policies to actually
restrict access to the data. Compliance regulations help ensure that user's privacy requests are carried out
by companies, and companies are responsible to take measures to protect private user data.
Data Governance: Data governance requires organizations to know what data they have, where it’s
stored, how it flows through their IT systems, and how it’s used. Data governance best practices allow
organizations to maintain data integrity and trust in their data
The important types of digital privacies.
 Privacy of Correspondence
 Privacy of Data
 Privacy of Finance
 Privacy of
 Privacy of Location and Territory
General Data Protection Rights GDPR
General data protection regulation (GDPR) is the strongest privacy and security law in the world.
The GDPR encompasses the following
 Individuals’ fundamental rights in the digital age
 The obligations of those processing data
 Methods for ensuring compliance
 Sanctions for those in breach of the rules
The GDPR functions on the following principles
 Lawfulness,
 Fairness, and Transparency;
 Purpose Limitation;
35
 Data Minimization and Accuracy;
 Storage Limitations;
 Integrity and Confidentiality;
 Accountability.
.
Cloud computing and its role in supporting scalable and flexible e-commerce operations
Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services—including servers, storage, databases,
networking, software, analytics, and intelligence. The internet itself is consider as cloud and any services
delivered through cloud is called cloud computing
36
Advantages of cloud computing
The cloud computing has numerous applications and benefits in day-to-day life and covers almost every
walk of life, the cloud computing eases and enhances business performances
Examples of what’s possible with cloud services from a cloud provider
 Create customized applications
 Store, back up, and recover data
 Stream audio and video
 Deliver software on demand
 Test and build application
 Analyze data
 Embed intelligence
37
Supply chain sustainability and responsible e-sourcing-global business
The supply chain is the interconnected journey that raw materials, components, and goods take before
their assembly and sale to customers. The goal of supply chain management is to provide customers
with the right bundle of time, place, form, and possession utilities. Meeting this goal efficiently,
effectively, and sustainably is a challenge. Managers employ a variety of approaches to maximize
capabilities and create network synergies. The only outcome of SCM is value delivery
The Supply chain sustainability refers to companies' efforts to consider the environmental and human
impact of their products' journey through the supply chain, from raw materials sourcing to production,
storage, delivery and every transportation link in between. For example, recycling and reusing water
consumed in operations. Optimization of the Supply Chain Network. This reduces the negative
environmental effects of the movement of materials and finished goods across the supply chain. An
example is increased localized sourcing.
Global sourcing is a procurement strategy in which a business buys goods and services from
international markets across geopolitical boundaries to save money by using cheap raw materials or
skilled labor from low-cost countries. E-Sourcing, sometimes called electronic sourcing, uses web-based
systems to collect and compare information about several suppliers to help the buyer select a preferred
provider. The technology offers several benefits; it is designed to assist organizations in generating
savings from their supply chains, increase the visibility of key business information, and reduce the time
it takes for procurement professionals to do their day-to-day tasks
 E Sourcing process
 Pre-purchase questionnaire
 Invitation to tender
 Request for quotation
 Evaluation
 E-Auction
 Contract signing
38
Risk management in e-global business operations
Risk management is the process of identifying risk, assessing risk, and taking steps to reduce risk to an
acceptable level. The risk management is an important component of e-global sourcing process. The
process of e- global sourcing involves four basic types of risk they are
 Operational risks,
 Financial risks,
 Compliance risks, and
 Reputational risks.
Various Risks involved in e- global business operations
Security Breaches
 Online security breaches and cyber attacks
These are very common in the e-commerce world. The best ways to conquer security
vulnerabilities are to add additional security layers and use proper security tools for your
website.
 Refunds and client disputes
Refunds and client disputes have become a common risk for all e-commerce stores due to issues
such as wrong product delivery, defective products, or a customer having been charged for the
same product twice. To protect against these risks, you should have a clear refund and return
policy mentioned on your e-commerce site.
 Intellectual property violation
Your website content, logo, taglines, and images are all part of your intellectual property. One of
the most common mistakes made by businesses is copying data from competitors, which can
lead to copyright claims, lawsuits, bad press, and loss of business. The solution is simple: don’t
steal.
39
 Low SEO ranking
Low SEO ranking is bad. It means that potential customers won’t be able to find your business
through search engine It’s important to analyze product demand to determine search traffic and
keyword difficulty
 Stolen credit card information Credit card information stolen from your site can lead to
unauthenticated transactions, costing customers’ money and putting your reputation on the line.
You need to have several layers of security to prevent attempts to steal your customers’ credit
card data.
Poor customer service
 Customer satisfaction is the backbone of any e-commerce business. If customers are satisfied,
the chances of repeat purchases are higher, and your products may be recommended to more
potential customers You need to invest in quality customer service. Response times need to be
short, customer service agents need to actively listen to customer complaints and try to solve
their issues with minimal steps and transfers.
 Inadequate authentication methods
Username and password isn’t enough anymore. Savvy malicious actors can increasingly break
through these simple authentication methods – either through a stolen password or through
resetting a password.
 Currency exchange risks and Customer expectations
Currency exchange rates are not static; they change constantly. Fluctuating exchange rates can
risk your business losing profits – or even losing money on transactions. You can reduce this risk
by invoicing exclusively in one currency – ideally your local currency.
40
Unit-IV
E-global business strategy
E-Global business strategies refer to the plans and techniques used by global organizations to conduct
business activities online, (e-way) by leveraging the power of the internet, technology, and digital
media. The company tries to attract the customers across the globe without its physical presence. The e-
global strategy involves several major components like business intelligence (BI), customer relationship
management (CRM), supply chain management (SCM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), e-
commerce, conducting electronic transactions within the firm, collaboration, and online activities among
businesses.
The e-Global business strategy is consist of following elements, which means the strategy is designed by
considering the following aspects
41
E-marketing and online advertising
E-marketing is an advertising discipline that includes all marketing activities conducted by a business
online using an electronic device or the internet. Other names for this type of marketing include internet
marketing, online marketing, digital marketing or web marketing
Online Advertising
Online advertising, also known as online marketing, Internet advertising, digital advertising or web
advertising, is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to promote products and
services to audiences and platform users
42
Data analytics and Business intelligence
Data analytics converts raw data into actionable insights. It includes a range of tools, technologies, and
processes used to find trends and solve problems by using data. Data analytics can shape business
processes, improve decision-making, and foster business growth
Data analytics is a multidisciplinary field that employs a wide range of analysis techniques, including
math, statistics, and computer science, to draw insights from data sets. Data analytics is a broad term that
includes everything from collecting data, analyzing data, and creating the frameworks needed to store it.
Data analytics is important across many industries, as many business leaders use data to make informed
decisions
43
 Descriptive analytics
As the name suggests, the purpose of descriptive analytics is to simply describe what has happened; it
doesn’t try to explain why this might have happened or to establish cause-and-effect relationships. The
aim is solely to provide an easily digestible snapshot.
 Diagnostic
Diagnostic analytics seeks to delve deeper in order to understand why something happened. The main
purpose of diagnostic analytics is to identify and respond to anomalies within your data.
 Predictive analytics
seeks to predict what is likely to happen in the future. Based on past patterns and trends, data analysts
can devise predictive models which estimate the likelihood of a future event or outcome. This is
especially useful as it enables businesses to plan ahead.
44
 Prescriptive analytics
It looks what has happened, why it happened, and what might happen in order to determine what should
be done next. In other words, prescriptive analytics shows you how you can best take advantage of the
future outcomes that have been predicted. What steps can you take to avoid a future problem? What can
you do to capitalize on an emerging trend
Business intelligence
Business intelligence (BI) refers to the procedural and technical infrastructure that collects, stores, and
analyzes the data produced by a company's activities. BI is a broad term that encompasses data mining,
process analysis, performance benchmarking, and descriptive analytics.
45
Types of BI Tools and Software
 Spreadsheets: Spreadsheets like Microsoft Excel and Google Docs are some of the most
widely used BI tools.
 Reporting software: Reporting software is used to report, organize, filter, and display data.
 Data visualization software: Data visualization software translates datasets into easy-to-read,
visually appealing graphical representations to quickly gain insights.
 Data mining tools: Data mining tools "mine" large amounts of data for patterns using things
like artificial intelligence, machine learning, and statistics.
 Online analytical processing (OLAP): OLAP tools allow users to analyze datasets from a
wide variety of angles based on different business perspectives.
Social Media and Online reputation management
Social media reputation management is the practice of observing and shaping how people perceive your
brand on social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and TikTok. Your organization's online
reputation is built on the references people make about your company. It involves monitoring social
media channels, responding to customer feedback, creating positive content and addressing negative
feedback. It's important because it helps to maintain a positive online presence, engage with your
customers and prevent damage to your reputation Social media reputation management relies on
performing audit, monitoring and listening to learn what your audience says and thinks about your
brand. Your brand's reputation depends on the way you interact with your audience. One of your
business purposes is to increase brand awareness through positive feedback
46
Unit V
Emerging Trends in E-Global Business
Mobile commerce and the rise of m-commerce
M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless
handheld devices such as smart phones and tablets. Over time, content delivery through wireless devices
has become faster, more secure and scalable. As a result, mobile commerce has grown rapidly. M-
commerce lets users transact anywhere, provided that there's a wireless Internet provider available in
that area.
Various features of M-Commerce
47
Disadvantages of M-Commerce
Even though the M-Commerce has many advantages and benefits for the users, it is not without certain
negative points, some of them are as follows
Block chain technology and its application
A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and public digital ledger that is used to record transactions
across many computers so that the record cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all
subsequent blocks and the consensus of the network. Blockchain is a shared, immutable ledger that
facilitates the process of recording transactions and tracking assets in a business network. An asset can
be tangible (a house, car, cash, land) or intangible (intellectual property, patents, copyrights, branding).
There are four main types of blockchain networks: public blockchains, private blockchains, consortium
blockchains and hybrid blockchains.
48
Ethics and sustainability in Global E-Business
Ethical Issues in e-Commerce
Online Piracy. This is a great challenge for online businesses. ...
Vulnerability Data Leaks.
Web Tracking
Web tracking is the collection and sharing of information about an individual's activity on the
internet
Cyber-Squatting:
Cyber-Squatting refers to the act of registering or using a domain name to profit from a
trademark, corporate name, or personal name of an individual.
Web Spoofing
Spoofing is the act of disguising a communication from an unknown source as being from a
known, trusted source. Spoofing can apply to emails, phone calls, and websites
Email Spamming Spam email is unsolicited and unwanted junk email sent out in bulk to an
indiscriminate recipient list. Typically, spam is sent for commercial purposes, Counterfeit Products,
Unreliable Customer Service
49
Sustainability in business
Sustainability in business refers to a company's strategy to reduce negative environmental impact
resulting from their operations in a particular market. An organization's sustainability practices are
typically analyzed against environmental, social, and governance . E-commerce Sustainability is a
concept like minimizing waste, reducing your carbon footprint, and practicing fair trade are often
associated with the concept of sustainability. Online e-Commerce businesses choose sustainable
materials (organic, recycled, natural) to make, package, and ship their products, support local suppliers
and vendors to reduce carbon emissions, and run their actual offices and stores efficiently
Benefits of sustainability in e business
Voice commerce
Voice commerce is the process or action where consumers use voice commands to search and purchase
products online. This helps to reduce the end-users' dependence on hardware like keyboards and screens.
Among the best-known voice assistants are Alexa (Amazon), Google Assistant (Google), Siri (Apple),
and Cortana (Microsoft)
50
Benefits of voice commerce are as follows
1- It is convenient
Customers can shop while they are multitasking, cooking, or even driving. Hands-free voice commerce
has made internet shopping simpler than ever. The easier the experience is, the more likely consumers
will come back to
2- It is fast
Voice searches can be conducted in less than a minute. It is currently the quickest method for online
shopping, That obviously applies to e-commerce websites and apps that provide consumers the option to
make voice-based purchases.
3- It provides a personalized experience
Personalization is a crucial component of the customer experience, Voice shopping enables e-commerce
customers to have a personalized shopping experience that completely meets their needs.
4- It is always available
The voice commerce technology enables users to shop easily and swiftly without engaging in a boring
browsing procedure, allowing for a 24/7 purchasing process.
5- It is frictionless
The voice commerce benefits are applicable at every stage of the consumer journey, from looking
through products and making purchases to interacting with customer support representatives. Using
voice commerce can definitely boost your brand image, positioning, and engagement. Moreover, it can
place your brand way ahead of your competitors if you start using it now.
51
Challenges associated with voice commerce
 It requires technology adoption
 It causes a lack of trust with your customers
 Has limited network integration
 It risks possible vendor instability
 Resistance to change
 Actual voice recognitions
Role of Virtual and Augmented reality in e-commerce
Virtual Reality (VR)
Virtual Reality (VR) is a computer-generated environment with scenes and objects that appear to be real,
making the user feel they are immersed in their surroundings. This environment is perceived through a
device known as a Virtual Reality headset Virtual reality is most commonly used in entertainment
applications such as video games, 3D cinema, amusement park rides including dark rides and social
virtual worlds.
52
Augmented reality
Augmented reality is an interactive experience that enhances the real world with computer-generated
perceptual information. Using software, apps, and hardware such as AR glasses, augmented reality
overlays digital content onto real-life environments and objects.
Cryptocurrency
The cryptocurrency is a digital currency, which is an alternative form of payment created using
encryption algorithms. The use of encryption technologies means that cryptocurrencies function both as
a currency and as a virtual accounting system. To use cryptocurrencies, you need a cryptocurrency
wallet Cryptocurrency is a digital currency (i.e. lines of computer code) not issued by a bank or
government, allowing users to spend money anonymously. Bitcoin is one of the most prominent
cryptocurrencies, which can be traded on crypto exchanges like Coinbase. Bitcoins are stored in a digital
wallet, available online through cryptocurrency exchanges or offline in a flash drive-like device. You
use this wallet in crypto transactions by transferring funds from your digital wallet to the vendor. These
cypto-currencies are four types
 Bitcoin: The most well-known modern cryptocurrency
 Ethereum: An energy-efficient alternative to Bitcoin and the second-most valuable
cryptocurrency
53
 XRP (Ripple): Boasts lower transaction fees and often used for international fund transfers
 Bitcoin Cash: Offers an unlimited supply unlike Bitcoin, which makes it a better choice for
transactions
Benefits of cryptocurrencies for e-commerce
One of the main benefits of using cryptocurrencies for e-commerce transactions is that they can reduce
transaction costs and increase efficiency. Unlike traditional payment systems, cryptocurrencies do not
require intermediaries, such as banks, payment processors, or third-party platforms, to facilitate
transactions. This can lower the fees and commissions that online businesses have to pay, as well as the
processing time and the risk of fraud. Additionally, cryptocurrencies can enable cross-border
transactions without currency conversion or exchange rate fluctuations, expanding the global reach and
customer base of online businesses. Following are the some of the advantages and disadvantages of
using crypto in e –commerce.
54
Various benefits of using AI and Automation in e-commerce
Ethical implications of using AI and Automation in E-Commerce
The use of AI and Automation in business is becoming increasingly common as it brings innovation,
efficiency, and growth. However, there are few important ethical considerations are must and needs to
be addressed while using these features in e-commerce
 Ensuring Transparency
The lack of transparency in AI algorithms can lead to mistrust and skepticism. Businesses must
prioritize the development of AI systems that can provide clear explanations for their decisions and
actions.
 The Human-AI Collaboration
Responsible AI implementation involves fostering a harmonious collaboration between humans and
machines. Rather than replacing human workers,
55
 Regulatory Frameworks and Industry Standards:
Regulatory frameworks and industry standards are crucial. Governments and regulatory bodies must
collaborate with technology experts and business leaders to establish guidelines that address privacy,
fairness, transparency, and accountability in AI and automation deployment.
 Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation
Ethical considerations should be an ongoing process rather than a one-time checklist. Businesses must
establish mechanisms for continuous monitoring and evaluation of their AI and automation systems.
This proactive approach ensures that AI remains aligned with ethical principles and adapts to evolving
societal values.
 Promoting Ethical AI Ecosystems
Collaboration among businesses, academia, policymakers, and civil society is essential in promoting
ethical ecosystems. Sharing knowledge, research findings, and best practices can foster collective
learning and accelerate responsible
 Data Privacy and Security
The widespread adoption of AI in business requires the collection and utilization of large amounts of
data. Safeguarding data privacy and security is paramount to ensure ethical AI practices. Businesses
must adhere to robust data protection measures, including secure data storage, encryption, and strict
access controls.
 Impact on Employment and Workforce
The integration of AI technologies in business processes has raised concerns about job displacement
and the future of work. While AI has the potential to automate certain tasks, it also presents
opportunities for job augmentation and the creation of new roles. Businesses must proactively address
these concerns by reskilling and upskilling their workforce to adapt to AI-driven environments.
 Responsible AI in Decision-Making
AI algorithms are increasingly used in decision-making processes, ranging from credit scoring and
hiring to predictive analytics in criminal justice. It is crucial to ensure that these algorithms are free from
biases and discriminatory outcomes. Businesses should implement rigorous testing and validation
processes to identify and rectify biases during the development and deployment of AI systems.

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E-Global Business.doc

  • 1. 1 Presidency School of Management & Comp.Sc. Affiliated to Osmania University Approved by All India Council for Technical Education –AICTE-New Delhi Dept of Business Management -MBA-III-Semester Sub: E-Global Business Paper Code: MB 302 Prepared by Dr. Syed Valiullah Bakhtiyari Professor-Business Management
  • 2. 2 Course Objectives 1. To understand the fundamentals of e-commerce and its impact on global business. 2. To explore the challenges and opportunities associated with conducting business in adigital environment. 3. To analyze the strategies and technologies used in e-global business. 4. To develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills in the context of e-global business. 5. Learning Outcomes: By the end of this course, students will be able to: 1. Identify and explain the key concepts and principles of e-global business. 2. Evaluate the impact of e-commerce on global business operations. 3. Analyze and develop strategies for conducting business in a digital environment. Apply critical thinking skills to solve problems and make informed decisions related to e- global business
  • 3. 3 Unit-I Ecommerce is a method of buying and selling goods and services online. The definition of ecommerce business can also include tactics like affiliate marketing. You can use ecommerce channels such as your own website, an established selling website like Amazon, or social media to drive online sales. Globalization is a term used to describe how trade and technology have made the world into a more connected and interdependent place. Globalization also captures in its scope the economic and social changes that have come about as a result Characteristics of Globalization 1. Free Trade Liberalization 2. Increase in Employment Increased connectivity between nations – 3. Interdependence – CulturalExchange. 4. Urbanization Standard of Living Outsourcing
  • 4. 4 The digital economy is the worldwide network of economic activities, commercial transactions and professional interactions that are enabled by information and communications technologies (ICT). It can be succinctly summed up as the economy based on digital technologies Digital economy has given rise to many new trends and start-up ideas. Almost all of the biggest companies in the world (Google, Apple, Microsoft, Amazon) are from the digital world. Let us look at some important merits of the digital economy
  • 5. 5 Global Market entry strategies Digital transformation Digital transformation is the integration of digital technologies into all aspects of business operations. That means identifying how to use technologies to deliver new products and services, to improve existing products and services, and to streamline processes Digital transformation is the process of adoption and implementation of digital technology by an organization in order to create new or modify existing products, services and operations by the means of translating business processes into a digital format. The digital transformation Increases efficiency, agility and, ultimately, delivers value to customers and employees.
  • 6. 6 An online marketplace is an e-commerce site that connects sellers with buyers. It's often known as an electronic marketplace and all transactions are managed by the website owner. Companies use online marketplaces to reach customers who want to purchase their products and services. An online marketplace is an ecommerce platform where third parties sell products or services. Examples of online marketplaces include Amazon, Walmart, and eBay. Role of E-market place in E global Business Through electronic marketplaces, firms can collaborate effectively, forecast demand, and share strategic information across companies. If firms want to participate in electronic marketplaces fully, they must initially integrate internal and external supply chain activities
  • 7. 7 Role of artificial intelligence in e business  Artificial intelligence What is artificial intelligence? Artificial intelligence (AI) is the ability of a computer or a robot controlled by a computer to do tasks that are usually done by humans because they require human intelligence and discernment AI plays a crucial role in e-commerce by enabling businesses to analyze and understand customer behavior patterns, enhance the shopping experience, and streamline various processes. AI can help in product recommendations, chatbots, personalized promotions, fraud detection, and more. Legal Requirements of E-commerce business in India  Company or LLP Registration-[Limited liability partnership] Every business is required to get registered with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs under the applicable laws. Such a business shall either be incorporated under the (Indian) Companies Act, 2013 or a foreign company or an office, branch or an agency outside India and necessarily be owned or controlled by an Indian resident. Such registration ensures that the bank account is opened in the name of the company/ LLP which in return shall make the process of GST registration convenient and quicker.  2. GST Registration For a successful establishment of an E-commerce business, GST registration is mandatory. Every E- commerce business irrespective of its turnover is required to be compulsorily registered under the Central Goods & Service Tax (CGST) Act.  3. Bank Account Opening a bank account in the name of the business is a convenient process. In case of a Proprietorship firm, the first step is to obtain a GST registration in the name of the business in order to open a bank account. An active bank account is the bare minimum requirement to be able to list a business on an E- commerce marketplace or to obtain a payment gateway for a proprietary E-commerce website.
  • 8. 8  4. Payment Gateway A payment gateway is mandatory for a proprietary E-commerce website to process the payments. It allows the website to accept payments through credit card(s), debit card(s), net banking, internet banking from multiple banks. 5. Legal Documents If any business operates through online marketplaces, then the marketplace provides the seller with a legal document or sellers’ agreement and the seller must abide by the sellers’ agreement. It is important for any business to go through the sellers’ agreement(s) in detail before the execution as it is the legal binding agreement between the seller and the marketplace. Compliances for E-commerce business in India The trend of E-commerce has been rapidly increasing since the last decade. Many players with new business ideas have entered the market, be it Zomato/Swiggy delivering food from various restaurants or Flipkart/Amazon delivering products or Grofers delivering groceries. The scenario is such that you name the service and there is an E-commerce platform for it available at the doorstep. The swift development of the E-commerce industry has called for the attention of the government towards forming regulations and policies with respect to the same. India has various laws that monitor E-commerce business in terms of data privacy, security of consumers, settlement transaction safety, quality of products etc.  2. Information Technologies Act, 2000 The E-commerce sellers conduct business in the same manner as the physical sellers with the only distinction of non-availability of the physical body in order to sell things. Through E-commerce, the vendors are required to generate bills, file returns, pay taxes, prepare ledgers and maintain records. They must perform all the same on the online platform. The Information Technology Act, 2000 (IT Act) is the primary legislation that governs the use of the internet, cybercrime as well as the digital business in India. The IT Act governs online behavior and related aspects of E-commerce and recognizes electronic contracts and digital signatures. The Information Technology Act, 2000 is based on the Model Law of E-commerce adopted by the United
  • 9. 9 Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and acts as a developing E-commerce enabling legislation in India. The Act targets regulating the use of the internet by punishing the person for publishing any obscene information or hacking or altering the data from devices of another person. The salient features of the Act are:  E-contracts  Transaction Security  Digital signature 3. Payment and Settlements Systems Act, 2007 As per the Payment and Settlements Systems Act, the E-commerce business shall succeed as a payment system if it follows the Rules specified by RBI, it is compulsory for an intermediary that is receiving payments through digital modes to have an active account 4. Consumer Protection Act, 2019 The E-commerce industry is also monitored by the Consumer Protection Act . In order to safeguard the consumers from unfair trade practices and solve their problems, the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution on May 17, 2021, has notified the Consumer Protection (E-Commerce) Rules, 2021. Innovations in E-Commerce 1. Real-Time Location-Based Mobile Selling Real-time location-based selling technology allows retailers to target customers based on their precise location and deliver personalized messages and offers in real time. 2. Super-Fast Delivery and Instant Pickup Counter 3. AI-Powered Personalization Leads generated by AI are boosting sales by 50%. Top-rated firms tailor their advertising with AI 28% of the time. Here are some benefits of AI.
  • 10. 10 4. Voice-Powered Shopping Voice-powered shopping is an emerging trend in e-commerce. According to a study, 51% of mobile buyers look up things using their voice assistants. Here’s how it can be advantageous – 5. Shopping using AR Technology-[Augmented Reality]  Enables customers to visualize products using their smartphones or tablets in a real-world environment.  Shopping using AR technology is an emerging trend in e-commerce that has the potential to revolutionize the way customers shop and interact with retailers. 6. Blockchain Blockchain is a shared, immutable ledger that facilitates the process of recording transactions and tracking assets in a business network. An asset can be tangible or intangible 8. Chatbots A chatbot is a software application or web interface that aims to mimic human conversation through text or voice interactions 9. Social Commerce Social commerce (a subset of ecommerce) is the use of social media platforms like Facebook and Instagram to market and sell products and services. This type of selling model lets customers 11. Remarketing Remarketing is a powerful tool for e-commerce innovation that allows you to target customers who have previously shown interest in your products or services. 12. Website Analytics Web analytics is the collection, reporting, and analysis of website data. 13. E-wallet E-wallet stands for electronic wallet. It is a type of electronic card which is used for transactions made online through a computer or a Smartphone.
  • 11. 11 Digital entrepreneurs An Internet entrepreneur is an owner, founder or manager of an Internet-based business. This list includes Internet company founders and people brought on to companies for their general business or accounting acumen, as is the case with some CEOs hired by companies started by entrepreneurs. Digital entrepreneurs rely on digital technologies to establish and run their businesses. They set up online storefronts to sell their goods, use social media platforms such as Facebook to advertise, and monitor customer trends using tools such as Google Analytics. The digital entrepreneur must understand the five pillars they are content, technology,user experience, process, and organization. Digitalization improves productivity and efficiency, lowering the cost of economic transactions. Digital Startup The revolution in mobile and internet opens the door for digital startups. If you have an awesome idea convert it into mobile app or website, you will be a digital startup. Many digital startups are playing to role of facilitator between two parties or helping hand for some services.Digital startups are characterized by strong, fast, and scalable growth. It exploit the maximum potential of digital marketing strategies and tools. Digital startup process  Assess the viability of your new business idea  Develop a business plan and name it  Take care of all the legal tasks  Build your website and choose affiliate  Develop and implement marketing strategies  Launch your new business Cyber Security Computer security, cyber security, digital security or information technology security (IT security) is the protection of computer systems, mobile and networks from attacks by malicious actors that may result in
  • 12. 12 unauthorized information disclosure, theft of, or damage to hardware, software, or data, as well as from the disruption or misdirection of the services they provide. Types of cyber threats and challenges 1. Cybercrime includes single actors or groups targeting systems for financial gain 2. Cyber-attack often involves politically motivated information gathering. 3. Cyber terrorism is intended to undermine electronic systems to cause panic or fear. 4. Malware Malware means malicious software. One of the most common cyber threats, malware is software that a cybercriminal or hacker has created to disrupt or damage a legitimate user’s computer. 5. Virus: A self-replicating program that attaches itself to clean file and spreads throughout a computer system, infecting files with malicious code. 6. Trojans: A type of malware that is disguised as legitimate software 7. Spyware: A program that secretly records what a user does, so that cybercriminals can make use of this information. For example, spyware could capture credit card details. 8. Ransomware: Malware which locks down a user’s files and data 9. Adware: Advertising software which can be used to spread malware.· 10.BotnetsNetworks of malware infected computers which cybercriminals use to perform tasks online without the user’s permission. Types of Cyber security soft wares  Network security is the practice of securing a computer network from intruder  Application security focuses on keeping software and devices free of threats  ·Information security protects the integrity and privacy of data,
  • 13. 13  ·Operational security includes the processes and decisions for handling and protecting data assets. Protect Yourself from Cyber Crime 1. Ensure your system is Up-to-date. ... 2. Use a Secure Internet Connection. ... 3. Use Strong Password. , Be Aware of Pop-ups and Fraudulent Emails. ... 4. Protect yourself from identity threats, Manage Your Social Media Settings. ... 5. Get Right Cyber Insurance Policy. Impact of social media on global business Social media refers to the means of interactions among people in which they create, share, and/or exchange information and ideas in virtual communities and networks. The Office of Communications and Marketing manages the main Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, LinkedIn and YouTube accounts. The Impacts are as follows  Allows Businesses to Become Omni-Present  Increases Personalization  Generates More Loyalty  Increases Industry Collaboration  Adds Credibility  Increases Referrals  Helps You Build a Personal Brand  Helps You get Audience Feedback  Brand-loyalty, Easy-communication, Increased-customer-power  Attract-bigger-audience, Creates-word-of-mouth  Reducing-marketing-and-promotional-costs
  • 14. 14 Customer engagement Customer engagement is the way a company creates a relationship with its customer base to foster brand loyalty and awareness. This can be accomplished via marketing campaigns and web content as well as outreach using social media, mobile devices and wearable devices. The purpose of customer engagement is improving customer experience and satisfaction, building customer loyalty and trust, and harnessing the power of customer feedback and insights, which ultimately decreases the customer migration.
  • 16. 16 E- Marketplace and Online platforms E-marketplace is a virtual online market platform where companies can register as buyers and sellers to conduct business to business (B2B) or Business to Consumers (B2C) transactions over the internet. It enables the buyers to compare various products and services by different measures like performance, quality, price etc. Famous e-Commerce marketplaces  Amazon, eBay, Walmart , Decathlon , Flipkart , Meesho  Myntra, Snapdeal, ShopClues, Limeroad Types of E-market Places  Business-to-business (B2B): In this marketplace, one business offers its services and products to other businesses. The aim is not to find as many clients as possible but to create robust supply chains and long-term relationships. Examples of such marketplaces are Justdial.com and Indiamart.com.  Business-to-customer (B2C): B2C marketplaces deal directly with the end customers. Here, the main goal is to acquire as many customers as they can to generate sales. Examples are Amazon.com, eBay.com, and Aliexpress.com.  Customer-to-customer (C2C): This marketplace connects the seller directly with the buyer and lets them negotiate for the products or services. An example of a C2C marketplace is Semexe.com. Challenges for e-market places  Data security: Online marketplaces hold the personal data of millions of customers, which are susceptible to cyber-attacks. Marketplaces need robust security systems to avoid data breaches through brute force attacks.  Customer loyalty: It is difficult and expensive to acquire customers, but it is easy to lose them if you lack a retention strategy. With a bunch of choices available, it is a buyer’s market.
  • 17. 17  Price competition: Marketplaces not only have to compete with other marketplaces but also provide the right balance of price so that they can serve both the supplier and the customer appropriately.  Inventory management: Businesses must forecast the demand in real time to prevent shortfall or overstocking products in their warehouses.  Return, refunds, and fulfilment: Fulfilment is just the first step. Managing refunds and returns and taking care of possible fraud is another. Marketplaces need technology to track returns and refunds and avoid fraud. Digital marketing and Customer relationship Management Digital marketing, also called online marketing, is the promotion of brands to connect with potential customers using the internet and other forms of digital communication. This includes not only email, social media, and web-based advertising, but also text and multimedia messages as a marketing channel 7 C's of digital marketing The 7 Cs- customer, content, context, community, convenience, cohesion, conversion. Various types of digital marketing Digital marketing can be broadly classified into eight main categories 1. Affiliate marketing, 2.content marketing, 3.email marketing, 4.marketing analytics, 5.mobile marketing, 6.pay-per-click, 7.search engine optimization and 8.social media marketing. CRM in digital marketing Customer Relationship Management (CRM) is a strategy that companies use to manage interactions with customers and potential customers. CRM helps organizations streamline processes, build customer relationships, increase sales, improve customer service, and increase profitability, the application of digitization in CRM helps in targeting only potential customers, saving time and effort and improving marketing campaign efficiency.
  • 18. 18 Benefits of using CRM in Digital Marketing 1. Personalization, Increased 2. ROI ,Improved customer engagement. 3. Additional data for sales 4. Attribution –Revenue by sales and marketing teams 5. Marketing Automation - Automate some of your marketing tasks to focus on the things that matter. E-commerce Payment System in Global Business A List of E-commerce Payment Systems Debit--Card A debit card is a card with unique credentials and is linked to the customer’s bank account. A debit card deducts money from the user's bank account instantly at the time of the transaction Credit--Cards Credit cards are the most popular form of payment for e-commerce transactions. Enabling credit card payments on your website can enable customers to shop without having to worry about paying upfront. E-Wallet The E-Wallet can be thought of as a prepaid account that enables users to store a variety of debit cards, credit cards, and other payment methods in a safe environment without having to enter their credentials each time they wish to make a purchase Smart--Card It has the ability to store money as well as a person's personal and professional information. Faster processing is possible with smart cards at lower rates.
  • 19. 19 Online—banking Customers can conveniently make purchases by paying with a bank account directly. Mobile--Payment Customers may easily and quickly use mobile payment to make purchases using their smartphones. A user only needs to download a mobile payment app from the applications store.
  • 20. 20 Subscription based business models A subscription business model is a recurring revenue model in which customers pay a weekly, monthly, or yearly fee in exchange for your products or services. Customers can renew their subscription after a certain period of time. The fees paid for subscriptions is called as recurring revenues for the company Benefits of a subscription business model o Predictable revenue stream o Recurring revenue o Stronger & long-term customer relationships o Lower customer retention spend o Easier demand forecasting Examples Netflix and Spotify, Adobe and Microsoft, Magazine subscriptions, Zomato, Uber, Swiggyetc Recurring Revenue Recurring revenues through billing is an amount usually fixed for a product or service regularly. The billing cycle frequency can be monthly, quarterly, or annually or more Recurring revenue Strategies  Predetermined Service Charges over a Specific Period  Automatic Renewal of Subscriptions  Scheduled Billing Based on Product Usage  Per-User Billing Model  Free Lifetime Access to Basic Product or Service Plan
  • 21. 21 Collaborative consumption or sharing economy  Collaborative consumption is considered part of the sharing economy, Collaborative consumption is the shared use of a good or service by a group. Collaborative consumption differs from conventional consumption in that resources, goods, or services are shared by a group rather than individuals. Ex: Airbnb, Airbnb,[Air Bed and Breakfast,” is a service that lets property owners rent out their spaces to travelers looking for a place to stay]and ride-sharing applications, car pooling Benefits of the collaborative economy  Greater supply: Individuals who market goods and services increase options for people looking to travel or buy items like household appliances, clothing and bicycles.  Savings: The items we find in collaborative consumption businesses are usually cheaper.  Sustainability: This exchange between consumers increases the useful life of the items we buy. Because we reuse them, there’s no need to manufacture new things.  Care for the environment: Choosing services like collaborative transport and giving new life to used items to prevent overproduction and use finite resources more efficiently helps us care for the environment. Digital marketing Digital marketing, also called online marketing, is the promotion of brands to connect with potential customers using the internet and other forms of digital communication. This includes not only email, social media, and web-based advertising, but also text and multimedia messages as a marketing channel. Digital marketing strategies Search engine optimization Defines it as “the art and science of making web pages attractive to search engines.” the most important elements to consider when optimizing a web page for search engines include:
  • 22. 22  Quality of content  Level of user engagement  Mobile-friendliness  Number and quality of inbound links Content marketing A strategy based on the distribution of relevant and valuable content to a target audience, the goal of content marketing is to attract leads that ultimately convert into customers. Blog posts  E-books  Newsletters  Video or audio transcripts Social media marketing Social media marketing means driving traffic and brand awareness by engaging people in discussion online. The most popular digital platforms for social media marketing are Face book, Twitter, and Instagram, with LinkedIn and YouTube not far behind. Pay-per-click marketing Pay-per-click, or PPC, is a form of digital marketing in which you pay a fee every time someone clicks on your digital ads. So, instead of paying a set amount to constantly run targeted ads on online channels, you only pay for the ads individuals interact with. Affiliate marketing Affiliate marketing is a digital marketing tactic that lets someone make money by promoting another person's business. You could be either the promoter or the business who works with the promoter, but the process is the same in either case.
  • 23. 23 Influencer marketing Like affiliate marketing, influencer marketing relies on working with an influencer–an individual with a large following, such as a celebrity Marketing automation Marketing automation uses software to power digital marketing campaigns, improving the efficiency and relevance of advertising. Email marketing The concept of email marketing is simple—you send a promotional message and hope that your prospect clicks on it. However, the execution is much more complex. Mobile marketing Mobile marketing is a digital marketing strategy that allows you to engage with your target audience on their mobile devices, such as smart phones and tablets. This can be via SMS and MMS messages, social media notifications, mobile app alerts, and more. The benefits of digital marketing
  • 24. 24 Strategies for online communities to drive customers’ loyalty Online communities have become a necessary business asset that contributes to the agile growth of an organization. They serve as a major source of information for all participants. Through this network, businesses can easily address their customers’ queries, acknowledge their inputs, and receive constructive feedback. The online communities can increase customer satisfaction, retention, and lifetime value by creating a sense of belonging, recognition, and reward. Moreover, it can generate positive word-of-mouth, referrals, and testimonials by encouraging customers to share their experiences.  Invest in curating engaging content:  Be responsive to change  Be a part of the customer’s journey  Reward your customers (gamification  Encourage self-support
  • 25. 25 Unit-III Supply Chain management in a digital environment A digital supply chain is a supply chain that leverages digital technologies and data analytics to guide decision-making, optimize performance, and quickly respond to changing conditions. At their core, digital supply chains are powered by the data produced by existing supply chains, which are stored in data warehouses and analyzed for actionable insights A digital supply chain is a set of processes that use advanced technologies and better insights into the functions of each stakeholder along the chain to let each participant make better decisions about the sources of materials they need, the demand for their products and all of the relationship in between Fully integrating legacy supply chain management technologies — demand planning, asset management, warehouse management, transportation and logistics management, procurement, order fulfillment— is a needed first step. But truly digitizing a supply chain also involves mining data from those processes and incrementing the equipment that enables them to produce the needed data. With a digital supply chain, in contrast, shared quality and control data from the supplier can enable companies to anticipate issues and proactively respond without laborious preplanning. For obtaining effective digital supply chain the requirements are it must be connected, collaborative, cyber aware, cognitively enabled, and comprehensive The benefits of Digital Supply Chain Management The digitization of supply chain management will have many positive impacts on business performance and it will enhance the value delivery system at the customers point. Some of the significant outcomes of digital SCM are as follows
  • 26. 26 Logistics and fulfillments in E-Commerce Logistics Logistics refers to the overall process of managing how resources are acquired, stored, and transported to their final destination. Logistics management involves identifying prospective distributors and suppliers and determining their effectiveness and accessibility. Logistics managers are referred to as logisticians. In logistics, fulfillment refers to the process of managing and completing an order from start to finish, including receiving the order, inventory management, order preparation, packing, shipping and delivery to the end customer. Fulfillment focuses on ensuring that products are delivered in a timely and efficient manner, and that customers receive the products they have ordered in perfect condition. To achieve this, logistics companies use various techniques and technologies, such as inventory management systems or warehouse automation software, among others.
  • 27. 27 In summary, fulfillment is a critical aspect of logistics and focuses on ensuring a satisfactory shopping experience for the customer by meeting their delivery and product quality expectations. Good fulfillment management is closely related to final customer satisfaction, one of the most important challenges to be met by online businesses Logistics Fulfillment phases  Receipt of order  Inventory management  Order preparation.  Shipment of the order:  Tracking and delivery:  Returns. Advantages of Logistics fulfillment in e-commerce  Increased efficiency:  Cost reduction  Improved customer experience:  Greater flexibility:  Market expansion  Customer satisfaction:  Profitability  Scalability: International Trade and Legal Considerations The International trade law includes the rules and customs governing trade between countries. Some of the most significant legal consideration for doing international trade are as follows. The most impacting factors on international trade are Political, Social, cultural. Legal, technological, Economical and Ethical factors
  • 28. 28 Cross Cultural management and Customer service Cross-cultural management is the study of management in a cross-cultural context. It includes the study of the influence of societal culture on managers and management practice as well as the study of the cultural orientations of individual managers and organization members. The cross-cultural management includes cultural norms and values, communication styles, nonverbal behavior, etiquette and protocol, leadership and management styles, cultural sensitivity and awareness.
  • 29. 29
  • 30. 30 Reverse logistics/Returns management Reverse logistics is the set of activities that is conducted after the sale of a product to recapture value and end the product's lifecycle. It typically involves returning a product to the manufacturer or distributor or forwarding it on for servicing, refurbishment or recycling The process of reverse logistics involves 7 R’s they are Right product, in the Right quantity, in the Right condition, at the Right place, at the Right time, to the Right customer, at the Right price. Examples: Returns, Remanufacturing, Refurbishing, Unsold goods, End-of-life, Delivery Failure, Repairs & maintenance Returns management in global e-commerce Ecommerce returns, the process of reverse logistics in which products are returned to the sender, are common. The rate of return for ecommerce sales hovers in the 20% to 30% range. They are commonly higher than brick-and-mortar stores and should be accounted for as part of common business practices. Rules of e-commerce returns management 1. Creating a Precise Returns Policy  The number of days a return policy is applicable after final delivery.  What are the products that are covered under returns policy  Reimbursement, whether it will be offered in payment or credit.  How fast is the refund process estimated to be?  In case of an exchange, how many days would it take?  Does the seller cover shipping  Mention returns policy specific to products on discount.
  • 31. 31 2. Understanding the cost involved in returns management Fundamentally, you should be thorough about your product costing so that it also includes the possibility of expenses for the return or exchange of products. The additional costs involved in reverse logistics would be picking, packing, and reverse logistics for returning the product to the origin warehouse. If not appropriately calculated, your company would be dissipating money through your returns management, and your profit margin would take a heavy hit. As for customer service, providing product tracking and attending to customer queries would also be of immense importance in managing reverse logistics. 3. Multi-Carriers and Shipping Tracking Software Simplify Returns Management Not all carriers handle the returns process efficiently so, using different carriers for reverse logistics would keep the end-to-end supply chain very smooth. And a shipping tracking software provides dynamic support in managing multiple carriers simultaneously with separate portals for returns management. Your business can monitor and analyze all the shipping data to improve operations and avoid unnecessary expenses. Shipping tracking software also simplifies the pick-up of returned products by empowering customers to initiate reverse logistics through automated solutions. 4. Shipping Tracking Visibility Puts the Customers Mind at Ease Shipping tracking software is configured with API integrations to provide end-to-end visibility with real-time tracking and customer notifications for returned products. This versatile feature offers a satisfying post-purchase service experience to retain and attract more customers. And an essential feature in today’s e-commerce practices with many people demanding shipping visibility for their orders. 5. Offering Automated customer support and optimized pick-up services Multi-carrier shipping or shipping tracking software offers automated customer support through Autobots that empower customers to manage their order queries, considerably reducing WISMO calls. Additionally, shipping tracking software enables customers to optimize pick-up services for returning
  • 32. 32 products according to their convenience. Furthermore, your business can utilize this software to customize returns policy for the return and exchange of various products. 6. Other important aspects in returns management  Making sure the returned products are checked for quality when they are picked up from the customer is paramount in reverse logistics. And this has to be taken care of by the carrier designated for reverse logistics.  Reimbursement in case of refund should be carried out quickly to sustain the customer’s loyalty.  Managing inventory consistently to allow quick exchanges of products and delivery.  Always analyze returns operations to improve your business operations. Intellectual property rights in e- global business Intellectual property (IP) refers to creations of the mind, such as inventions; literary and artistic works; designs; and symbols, names and images used in commerce. Digital Intellectual Property Rights (DIPR) safeguard the intangible creations and innovations Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) have always been important in various industries, and with the digital world, their strategic importance has increased even more. In a digital world, where information and data are the currency, protecting one’s intellectual property becomes even more critical. Types of intellectual property Patents A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention. Generally speaking, a patent provides the patent owner with the right to decide how - or whether - the invention can be used by others Copyright Copyright is a legal term used to describe the rights that creators have over their literary and artistic works. Works covered by copyright range from books, music, paintings, sculpture and films, to computer programs, databases, advertisements, maps and technical drawings.
  • 33. 33 Trademarks A trademark is a sign capable of distinguishing the goods or services of one enterprise from those of other enterprises. Industrial designs An industrial design constitutes the ornamental or aesthetic aspect Geographical indications Geographical indications are signs used on goods that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities, a reputation or characteristics that are essentially attributable to that place of origin. Most commonly, a geographical indication includes the name of the place of origin of the goods. Trade secrets Trade secrets are IP rights on confidential information which may be sold or licensed. The core benefits of Intellectual property rights in e global business Protecting innovation: IPR plays a vital role in protecting innovation in a digital world. With the ease of copying and sharing digital content, innovators need to protect their ideas and inventions from being stolen or misused. Patents, trademarks, and copyrights provide legal protection to creators and innovators, allowing them to protect their ideas and inventions from being copied or stolen. 1. Business competitiveness: By protecting their intellectual property, companies can differentiate themselves from their competitors, and offer unique products or services. In a digital world, 2. Revenue generation: IPR can be a significant source of revenue for businesses. By protecting their intellectual property, companies can charge licensing fees for the use of their patents or trademarks, generating a new stream of revenue. 3. Brand reputation: IPR protection can help companies build and maintain a strong brand reputation. Trademarks, 4. Legal protection: IPR can provide legal protection to businesses, allowing them to take legal action against those who infringe on their intellectual property rights. In a digital world, where copyright infringement and other forms of intellectual property theft are prevalent, businesses need to protect their intellectual property to take legal action against those who misuse their property.
  • 34. 34 Customer data privacy and compliance with data protection regulations Data privacy defines who has access to data, while data protection provides tools and policies to actually restrict access to the data. Compliance regulations help ensure that user's privacy requests are carried out by companies, and companies are responsible to take measures to protect private user data. Data Governance: Data governance requires organizations to know what data they have, where it’s stored, how it flows through their IT systems, and how it’s used. Data governance best practices allow organizations to maintain data integrity and trust in their data The important types of digital privacies.  Privacy of Correspondence  Privacy of Data  Privacy of Finance  Privacy of  Privacy of Location and Territory General Data Protection Rights GDPR General data protection regulation (GDPR) is the strongest privacy and security law in the world. The GDPR encompasses the following  Individuals’ fundamental rights in the digital age  The obligations of those processing data  Methods for ensuring compliance  Sanctions for those in breach of the rules The GDPR functions on the following principles  Lawfulness,  Fairness, and Transparency;  Purpose Limitation;
  • 35. 35  Data Minimization and Accuracy;  Storage Limitations;  Integrity and Confidentiality;  Accountability. . Cloud computing and its role in supporting scalable and flexible e-commerce operations Cloud computing is the delivery of computing services—including servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence. The internet itself is consider as cloud and any services delivered through cloud is called cloud computing
  • 36. 36 Advantages of cloud computing The cloud computing has numerous applications and benefits in day-to-day life and covers almost every walk of life, the cloud computing eases and enhances business performances Examples of what’s possible with cloud services from a cloud provider  Create customized applications  Store, back up, and recover data  Stream audio and video  Deliver software on demand  Test and build application  Analyze data  Embed intelligence
  • 37. 37 Supply chain sustainability and responsible e-sourcing-global business The supply chain is the interconnected journey that raw materials, components, and goods take before their assembly and sale to customers. The goal of supply chain management is to provide customers with the right bundle of time, place, form, and possession utilities. Meeting this goal efficiently, effectively, and sustainably is a challenge. Managers employ a variety of approaches to maximize capabilities and create network synergies. The only outcome of SCM is value delivery The Supply chain sustainability refers to companies' efforts to consider the environmental and human impact of their products' journey through the supply chain, from raw materials sourcing to production, storage, delivery and every transportation link in between. For example, recycling and reusing water consumed in operations. Optimization of the Supply Chain Network. This reduces the negative environmental effects of the movement of materials and finished goods across the supply chain. An example is increased localized sourcing. Global sourcing is a procurement strategy in which a business buys goods and services from international markets across geopolitical boundaries to save money by using cheap raw materials or skilled labor from low-cost countries. E-Sourcing, sometimes called electronic sourcing, uses web-based systems to collect and compare information about several suppliers to help the buyer select a preferred provider. The technology offers several benefits; it is designed to assist organizations in generating savings from their supply chains, increase the visibility of key business information, and reduce the time it takes for procurement professionals to do their day-to-day tasks  E Sourcing process  Pre-purchase questionnaire  Invitation to tender  Request for quotation  Evaluation  E-Auction  Contract signing
  • 38. 38 Risk management in e-global business operations Risk management is the process of identifying risk, assessing risk, and taking steps to reduce risk to an acceptable level. The risk management is an important component of e-global sourcing process. The process of e- global sourcing involves four basic types of risk they are  Operational risks,  Financial risks,  Compliance risks, and  Reputational risks. Various Risks involved in e- global business operations Security Breaches  Online security breaches and cyber attacks These are very common in the e-commerce world. The best ways to conquer security vulnerabilities are to add additional security layers and use proper security tools for your website.  Refunds and client disputes Refunds and client disputes have become a common risk for all e-commerce stores due to issues such as wrong product delivery, defective products, or a customer having been charged for the same product twice. To protect against these risks, you should have a clear refund and return policy mentioned on your e-commerce site.  Intellectual property violation Your website content, logo, taglines, and images are all part of your intellectual property. One of the most common mistakes made by businesses is copying data from competitors, which can lead to copyright claims, lawsuits, bad press, and loss of business. The solution is simple: don’t steal.
  • 39. 39  Low SEO ranking Low SEO ranking is bad. It means that potential customers won’t be able to find your business through search engine It’s important to analyze product demand to determine search traffic and keyword difficulty  Stolen credit card information Credit card information stolen from your site can lead to unauthenticated transactions, costing customers’ money and putting your reputation on the line. You need to have several layers of security to prevent attempts to steal your customers’ credit card data. Poor customer service  Customer satisfaction is the backbone of any e-commerce business. If customers are satisfied, the chances of repeat purchases are higher, and your products may be recommended to more potential customers You need to invest in quality customer service. Response times need to be short, customer service agents need to actively listen to customer complaints and try to solve their issues with minimal steps and transfers.  Inadequate authentication methods Username and password isn’t enough anymore. Savvy malicious actors can increasingly break through these simple authentication methods – either through a stolen password or through resetting a password.  Currency exchange risks and Customer expectations Currency exchange rates are not static; they change constantly. Fluctuating exchange rates can risk your business losing profits – or even losing money on transactions. You can reduce this risk by invoicing exclusively in one currency – ideally your local currency.
  • 40. 40 Unit-IV E-global business strategy E-Global business strategies refer to the plans and techniques used by global organizations to conduct business activities online, (e-way) by leveraging the power of the internet, technology, and digital media. The company tries to attract the customers across the globe without its physical presence. The e- global strategy involves several major components like business intelligence (BI), customer relationship management (CRM), supply chain management (SCM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), e- commerce, conducting electronic transactions within the firm, collaboration, and online activities among businesses. The e-Global business strategy is consist of following elements, which means the strategy is designed by considering the following aspects
  • 41. 41 E-marketing and online advertising E-marketing is an advertising discipline that includes all marketing activities conducted by a business online using an electronic device or the internet. Other names for this type of marketing include internet marketing, online marketing, digital marketing or web marketing Online Advertising Online advertising, also known as online marketing, Internet advertising, digital advertising or web advertising, is a form of marketing and advertising which uses the Internet to promote products and services to audiences and platform users
  • 42. 42 Data analytics and Business intelligence Data analytics converts raw data into actionable insights. It includes a range of tools, technologies, and processes used to find trends and solve problems by using data. Data analytics can shape business processes, improve decision-making, and foster business growth Data analytics is a multidisciplinary field that employs a wide range of analysis techniques, including math, statistics, and computer science, to draw insights from data sets. Data analytics is a broad term that includes everything from collecting data, analyzing data, and creating the frameworks needed to store it. Data analytics is important across many industries, as many business leaders use data to make informed decisions
  • 43. 43  Descriptive analytics As the name suggests, the purpose of descriptive analytics is to simply describe what has happened; it doesn’t try to explain why this might have happened or to establish cause-and-effect relationships. The aim is solely to provide an easily digestible snapshot.  Diagnostic Diagnostic analytics seeks to delve deeper in order to understand why something happened. The main purpose of diagnostic analytics is to identify and respond to anomalies within your data.  Predictive analytics seeks to predict what is likely to happen in the future. Based on past patterns and trends, data analysts can devise predictive models which estimate the likelihood of a future event or outcome. This is especially useful as it enables businesses to plan ahead.
  • 44. 44  Prescriptive analytics It looks what has happened, why it happened, and what might happen in order to determine what should be done next. In other words, prescriptive analytics shows you how you can best take advantage of the future outcomes that have been predicted. What steps can you take to avoid a future problem? What can you do to capitalize on an emerging trend Business intelligence Business intelligence (BI) refers to the procedural and technical infrastructure that collects, stores, and analyzes the data produced by a company's activities. BI is a broad term that encompasses data mining, process analysis, performance benchmarking, and descriptive analytics.
  • 45. 45 Types of BI Tools and Software  Spreadsheets: Spreadsheets like Microsoft Excel and Google Docs are some of the most widely used BI tools.  Reporting software: Reporting software is used to report, organize, filter, and display data.  Data visualization software: Data visualization software translates datasets into easy-to-read, visually appealing graphical representations to quickly gain insights.  Data mining tools: Data mining tools "mine" large amounts of data for patterns using things like artificial intelligence, machine learning, and statistics.  Online analytical processing (OLAP): OLAP tools allow users to analyze datasets from a wide variety of angles based on different business perspectives. Social Media and Online reputation management Social media reputation management is the practice of observing and shaping how people perceive your brand on social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and TikTok. Your organization's online reputation is built on the references people make about your company. It involves monitoring social media channels, responding to customer feedback, creating positive content and addressing negative feedback. It's important because it helps to maintain a positive online presence, engage with your customers and prevent damage to your reputation Social media reputation management relies on performing audit, monitoring and listening to learn what your audience says and thinks about your brand. Your brand's reputation depends on the way you interact with your audience. One of your business purposes is to increase brand awareness through positive feedback
  • 46. 46 Unit V Emerging Trends in E-Global Business Mobile commerce and the rise of m-commerce M-commerce (mobile commerce) is the buying and selling of goods and services through wireless handheld devices such as smart phones and tablets. Over time, content delivery through wireless devices has become faster, more secure and scalable. As a result, mobile commerce has grown rapidly. M- commerce lets users transact anywhere, provided that there's a wireless Internet provider available in that area. Various features of M-Commerce
  • 47. 47 Disadvantages of M-Commerce Even though the M-Commerce has many advantages and benefits for the users, it is not without certain negative points, some of them are as follows Block chain technology and its application A blockchain is a decentralized, distributed and public digital ledger that is used to record transactions across many computers so that the record cannot be altered retroactively without the alteration of all subsequent blocks and the consensus of the network. Blockchain is a shared, immutable ledger that facilitates the process of recording transactions and tracking assets in a business network. An asset can be tangible (a house, car, cash, land) or intangible (intellectual property, patents, copyrights, branding). There are four main types of blockchain networks: public blockchains, private blockchains, consortium blockchains and hybrid blockchains.
  • 48. 48 Ethics and sustainability in Global E-Business Ethical Issues in e-Commerce Online Piracy. This is a great challenge for online businesses. ... Vulnerability Data Leaks. Web Tracking Web tracking is the collection and sharing of information about an individual's activity on the internet Cyber-Squatting: Cyber-Squatting refers to the act of registering or using a domain name to profit from a trademark, corporate name, or personal name of an individual. Web Spoofing Spoofing is the act of disguising a communication from an unknown source as being from a known, trusted source. Spoofing can apply to emails, phone calls, and websites Email Spamming Spam email is unsolicited and unwanted junk email sent out in bulk to an indiscriminate recipient list. Typically, spam is sent for commercial purposes, Counterfeit Products, Unreliable Customer Service
  • 49. 49 Sustainability in business Sustainability in business refers to a company's strategy to reduce negative environmental impact resulting from their operations in a particular market. An organization's sustainability practices are typically analyzed against environmental, social, and governance . E-commerce Sustainability is a concept like minimizing waste, reducing your carbon footprint, and practicing fair trade are often associated with the concept of sustainability. Online e-Commerce businesses choose sustainable materials (organic, recycled, natural) to make, package, and ship their products, support local suppliers and vendors to reduce carbon emissions, and run their actual offices and stores efficiently Benefits of sustainability in e business Voice commerce Voice commerce is the process or action where consumers use voice commands to search and purchase products online. This helps to reduce the end-users' dependence on hardware like keyboards and screens. Among the best-known voice assistants are Alexa (Amazon), Google Assistant (Google), Siri (Apple), and Cortana (Microsoft)
  • 50. 50 Benefits of voice commerce are as follows 1- It is convenient Customers can shop while they are multitasking, cooking, or even driving. Hands-free voice commerce has made internet shopping simpler than ever. The easier the experience is, the more likely consumers will come back to 2- It is fast Voice searches can be conducted in less than a minute. It is currently the quickest method for online shopping, That obviously applies to e-commerce websites and apps that provide consumers the option to make voice-based purchases. 3- It provides a personalized experience Personalization is a crucial component of the customer experience, Voice shopping enables e-commerce customers to have a personalized shopping experience that completely meets their needs. 4- It is always available The voice commerce technology enables users to shop easily and swiftly without engaging in a boring browsing procedure, allowing for a 24/7 purchasing process. 5- It is frictionless The voice commerce benefits are applicable at every stage of the consumer journey, from looking through products and making purchases to interacting with customer support representatives. Using voice commerce can definitely boost your brand image, positioning, and engagement. Moreover, it can place your brand way ahead of your competitors if you start using it now.
  • 51. 51 Challenges associated with voice commerce  It requires technology adoption  It causes a lack of trust with your customers  Has limited network integration  It risks possible vendor instability  Resistance to change  Actual voice recognitions Role of Virtual and Augmented reality in e-commerce Virtual Reality (VR) Virtual Reality (VR) is a computer-generated environment with scenes and objects that appear to be real, making the user feel they are immersed in their surroundings. This environment is perceived through a device known as a Virtual Reality headset Virtual reality is most commonly used in entertainment applications such as video games, 3D cinema, amusement park rides including dark rides and social virtual worlds.
  • 52. 52 Augmented reality Augmented reality is an interactive experience that enhances the real world with computer-generated perceptual information. Using software, apps, and hardware such as AR glasses, augmented reality overlays digital content onto real-life environments and objects. Cryptocurrency The cryptocurrency is a digital currency, which is an alternative form of payment created using encryption algorithms. The use of encryption technologies means that cryptocurrencies function both as a currency and as a virtual accounting system. To use cryptocurrencies, you need a cryptocurrency wallet Cryptocurrency is a digital currency (i.e. lines of computer code) not issued by a bank or government, allowing users to spend money anonymously. Bitcoin is one of the most prominent cryptocurrencies, which can be traded on crypto exchanges like Coinbase. Bitcoins are stored in a digital wallet, available online through cryptocurrency exchanges or offline in a flash drive-like device. You use this wallet in crypto transactions by transferring funds from your digital wallet to the vendor. These cypto-currencies are four types  Bitcoin: The most well-known modern cryptocurrency  Ethereum: An energy-efficient alternative to Bitcoin and the second-most valuable cryptocurrency
  • 53. 53  XRP (Ripple): Boasts lower transaction fees and often used for international fund transfers  Bitcoin Cash: Offers an unlimited supply unlike Bitcoin, which makes it a better choice for transactions Benefits of cryptocurrencies for e-commerce One of the main benefits of using cryptocurrencies for e-commerce transactions is that they can reduce transaction costs and increase efficiency. Unlike traditional payment systems, cryptocurrencies do not require intermediaries, such as banks, payment processors, or third-party platforms, to facilitate transactions. This can lower the fees and commissions that online businesses have to pay, as well as the processing time and the risk of fraud. Additionally, cryptocurrencies can enable cross-border transactions without currency conversion or exchange rate fluctuations, expanding the global reach and customer base of online businesses. Following are the some of the advantages and disadvantages of using crypto in e –commerce.
  • 54. 54 Various benefits of using AI and Automation in e-commerce Ethical implications of using AI and Automation in E-Commerce The use of AI and Automation in business is becoming increasingly common as it brings innovation, efficiency, and growth. However, there are few important ethical considerations are must and needs to be addressed while using these features in e-commerce  Ensuring Transparency The lack of transparency in AI algorithms can lead to mistrust and skepticism. Businesses must prioritize the development of AI systems that can provide clear explanations for their decisions and actions.  The Human-AI Collaboration Responsible AI implementation involves fostering a harmonious collaboration between humans and machines. Rather than replacing human workers,
  • 55. 55  Regulatory Frameworks and Industry Standards: Regulatory frameworks and industry standards are crucial. Governments and regulatory bodies must collaborate with technology experts and business leaders to establish guidelines that address privacy, fairness, transparency, and accountability in AI and automation deployment.  Continuous Monitoring and Evaluation Ethical considerations should be an ongoing process rather than a one-time checklist. Businesses must establish mechanisms for continuous monitoring and evaluation of their AI and automation systems. This proactive approach ensures that AI remains aligned with ethical principles and adapts to evolving societal values.  Promoting Ethical AI Ecosystems Collaboration among businesses, academia, policymakers, and civil society is essential in promoting ethical ecosystems. Sharing knowledge, research findings, and best practices can foster collective learning and accelerate responsible  Data Privacy and Security The widespread adoption of AI in business requires the collection and utilization of large amounts of data. Safeguarding data privacy and security is paramount to ensure ethical AI practices. Businesses must adhere to robust data protection measures, including secure data storage, encryption, and strict access controls.  Impact on Employment and Workforce The integration of AI technologies in business processes has raised concerns about job displacement and the future of work. While AI has the potential to automate certain tasks, it also presents opportunities for job augmentation and the creation of new roles. Businesses must proactively address these concerns by reskilling and upskilling their workforce to adapt to AI-driven environments.  Responsible AI in Decision-Making AI algorithms are increasingly used in decision-making processes, ranging from credit scoring and hiring to predictive analytics in criminal justice. It is crucial to ensure that these algorithms are free from biases and discriminatory outcomes. Businesses should implement rigorous testing and validation processes to identify and rectify biases during the development and deployment of AI systems.