Nutrients for livestock


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Nutrients for livestock

  1. 1. Six Classes of Nutrients 1. Water The Most Critical Nutrient! o Functions in transport, chemical reactions, temperature maintenance, lubrication, etc. Water deprivation ---> dehydration ---> electrolyte imbalance ---> death Requirements vary from one species to another. For example, the desert rat requires very little, while the dairy cow may require 25-29 gallons/day. Management problems leading to lack of water o bad taste (high sulfur content) o don’t know how to use or cannot find waterer o stray voltage at water source 2. Carbohydrates (CHO) Functions o o o energy source building block for other nutrients dietary excess stored as fat Two main components of carbohydrates o Crude fiber (cellulose mainly) o Nitrogen-free extract (soluable sugars, starches) Differences between monogastric, hindgut fermenter and ruminant o Ruminants and hindgut fermenters have microorganisms in the rumen or hindgut that can break down crude fiber (cellulose) into useable products; monogastrics cannot utilize most crude fiber. o All livestock are capable of breaking down the soluable sugars and starches. Management Problems o poor quality feedstuffs o improper ration balancing 3. Fats (lipids) Functions Energy (stored at higher conc./g than CHO) Source of heat, insulation, body protection (cushioning) Essential fatty acids (immune function, CLA-anticancer link?) Sources o Oils (soybean oil, corn oil, fish oil) o By product fats (lard or tallow from livestock rendering)  provides cheap energy source  reduces dust in feed manufacturing and animal feeding  increases feed palatability
  2. 2. 4. Proteins Most expensive ingredient in ration, need decreases as animal matures Source of Essential Amino Acids (number, type and level of amino acids required varies with animal species) o Functions -- basic structural unit, needed in metabolism, hormone, antibody and DNA production When fed in exess, converted to energy, fat Monogastric vs. ruminant o True protein is composed of amino acids o Crude protein contains both true protein and other nitrogenous products (nonprotein nitrogen) o Non-protein nitrogen can be converted by rumen bacteria to true protein (cheaper source of protein for the ruminant animal) 5. Minerals Two classes o Major minerals -- Ca, P, Na, Cl, Mg, K, S o Minor (Trace minerals) -- Co, Cu, F, I, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn  The need for supplementation of minor minerals such as Se and F varies with the region Functions -- skeleton, protein synthesis, oxygen transport, fluid and acid-base balance in body, enzyme reactions Mineral/mineral and vitamin/mineral interactions o Ca - Vitamin D o P - Vitamin D o Co - Vitamin B12 o Se - Vitamin E Both deficiencies and excesses can lead to disease 6. Vitamins Two classes o o Water soluble -- B & C Fat soluble -- A, D, E, K Functions -- most vitamins have multiple functions in body involving metabolism, enzyme reactions, etc. Requirements increase with age Both deficiencies and excesses lead to disease [home] [previous] [lec notes] [next]