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Neoplasia lecture


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Neoplasia lecture

  1. 1. Oncology • The term oncology literally means a branch of science that deals with tumours and cancers. The word “onco” means bulk, mass, or tumor while “-logy” means study. • Neoplasm (from ancient Greek neo-, "new" + plasma, "formation", "creation") or tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue as a result of abnormal growth or division of cells.
  2. 2. Classification of Neoplasms Tissue Origin Benign Malignant 395-4 Examples Epithelial Glandular Adenoma Squamous and Transitional Polyp, papilloma Connective tissue Tissue type + suffix (-oma) Hematopoietic & lymphoreticular Neural tissue Thyroid follicular adenoma Adenocarcinoma of lung Squamous cell carcinoma Squamous papiloma of skin Transitional cell carcinoma Squam. cell carcinoma skin Osteoma, Sarcoma Osteosarcoma, Hemangioma, Hemangiosarcoma Adenocarcinoma Lymphoma Leukemia Neuroma Neurofibroma Mixed tissues of Teratoma Large cell lymphoma Hodgkin’s disease Mylocytic leukemia Sarcoma Blastoma Glioblastoma multiforme Neurofibrosarcoma Teratocarcinoma Teratoma of ovary
  3. 3. Histogenetic classification of benign tumors Normal tissue Resultant Benign tumor Glandular epithelium Adenoma Surface epithelium Papilloma Fibroblasts Fibroma Cartilage Chondroma Striated Muscle Rhabdomyoma Smooth Muscle Leiomyoma Blood Vessels Hemangioma Fat Lipoma Bone Osteoma Liver Hepatoma 642-1
  4. 4. Histogenetic classification of malignant tumors Normal tissue Epithelium Connective tissue Bone Marrow Resultant Malignant tumor Carcinoma Sarcoma Leukemia More Specifically: Glandular epithelium Squamous epithelium Fibroblasts Cartilage Striated Muscle Smooth Muscle Endothelium Fat Bone Liver Adenocarcinoma Squamous carcinoma Fibrosarcoma Chondrosarcoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Leiomyosarcoma Angiosarcoma Liposarcoma Osteosarcoma 642-2(1) Hepatocellular carcinoma
  5. 5. Sarcoma/carcinoma • A sarcoma is a cancer that arises from transformed cells of mesenchymal origin. Thus, malignant tumors made of cancerous bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, vascular, or hematopoietic tissues are, by definition, considered sarcomas. • Malignant tumor originating from epithelial cells, which are termed carcinoma. Common malignancies, such as breast, colon, and lung cancer, are almost always carcinoma.
  6. 6. Charateristics of neoplastic cells  Abnormal size and irregular shape of cells.  Nuclei Nuclei increase in size  Nucleolus (a) often prominent (b) sometimes multiple (c) Atypical staining  Numerous mitotic figures  May be multiple----------tumour giant cells  Varying amount of cytoplasm (a) generally cytoplasm decrease in amount (b) fibrillar appearance with few secretory granules (c) basophilic in nature  Cytoplasm to nucleus ratio is lost  disturbed polarity of cells
  7. 7. Microscopic structure of tomour  Parenchyma; cells make up of the tumour  Cells of abnormal structure  deviation from normal is least in benign, somewhat resemble normal tissue and marked in malignant  arrangement of tumour cells 1. Epithelial tumours (a) sheets or fronds in superficial epithelium (b) clumps,columns or acini within a tumour mass (c) Each cell fastened directly to the next. 2. Connective tissue tumours (a) Tumour cells lie singly,may arrange in whorls or bundles (b) Each cell is separated from the next by the intercellular substances 3. Hemopoitic tumours (a) tumour cells form (b) neoplastic cells closely packed but remain discrete.
  8. 8. Microscopic structure of tomour  Stroma;Support and nourishes the tumour cells  Amount is variable  least in histoid tumours(A type of connective tumor that is composed of a single type of differentiated tissue)  Reasonable in organoid tumours(A tumor that is glandular in origin and that contains epithelium, connective tissue, and other tissue structures that give it a complex structure similar to an organ)  May be compact or edematous  Blood vessels vary in appearance  Tumour cells do not require innervation
  9. 9. Benign tumor Capsule
  10. 10. Smooth muscles
  11. 11. Here is an osteosarcoma of bone. The large, bulky mass arises in the cortex of the bone and extends outward
  12. 12. This is an example of metastases to the liver, tan-white masses are multiple and irregularly sized.
  13. 13. Mitotic figures
  14. 14. What is the significance of mitotic figures in a neoplasm? • In general, their appearance suggests a higher rate of cellular proliferation. Mitoses certainly are present in normal tissues (surface epithelia are constantly regenerating, and hematopoiesis produces billions of new blood cells each day). However, the presence of mitoses, and particularly abnormal mitoses, in a mass lesion supports a diagnosis of neoplasia, and likely a malignant neoplasm.
  15. 15. • Hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Characterized by large anaplastic carcinoma cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, large hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli. The normal trabecular structure of the liver is distorted.