Ciculatory problems


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Ciculatory problems

  1. 1. edema
  2. 2. There is oedema (swelling) of the face
  3. 3. • Pulmonary Edema • The frothy liquid oozing from the cut surface of the lung is caused by air moving through water in the respiratory tract.
  4. 4. • This photograph of a bronchus from a lung with pulmonary edema shows overall congestion (red), plus frothy sputum indicative of pulmonary edema. Usually, the frothy fluid is pink or blood-tinged, because of rupture of the capillaries in the alveolar septae from congestion
  5. 5. edema
  6. 6. congestion
  7. 7. Congestion • Sections of fresh pulmonary parenchyma. • Note deep red color with preservation of underlying architecture. • Normal should be pinktan.
  8. 8. chronic passive congestion of the liver
  9. 9. Nutmeg seed
  10. 10. Nutmeg liver
  11. 11. chronic passive venous congestion or brown induration
  12. 12. chronic passive venous congestion or brown induration
  13. 13. hemorrhages
  14. 14. hemorrahges • It is the escape of all constituents of the blood from any portion of the vascular system.
  15. 15. hemorrhages
  16. 16. thrombus
  17. 17. Thrombosis • It is the formation of a blood clot attached to the internal wall of blood vessels, heart or lymphatics in living animals.
  18. 18. Effect of thrombosis: • A- Beneficial effects: Thrombosis assisst in the control of haemorrhage in cases like bleeding gastric ulcers, tuberculous lesions in the lung, and umblical vessel. Thrombosis of blood and lymph vessels also help in preventing bacteria from invading other portions of the body. • B- Harmful effects: These effects depend upon which vessel is thrombosed.
  19. 19. • 1- Thrombosis of a major vessels in areas where collateral circulation is inadequate result in ischaemia and infarction • 2- Portions can break away and transported by the blood flow as emboli and become lodged in smaller arteries and capillaries causing infarction. • 3- Injury to the wall of a thrombosed vessel in the vicinity of a thrombus may reduce its strength so that the increased blood pressure at the site of obstruction leads to aneurysm.
  20. 20. Differentiation between Thrombus and Postmortem clot Thrombus • Dry in consistency • Has a granular and rough surface. • White or buff in colour • Stratified in structure • Attached to the vessel wall • Vascular endothelium below thrombus is damaged Postmortem clot • Moist in consistency • Has a smooth and glistening surface. • Yellow or red in colour • Uniform in structure • Not attached to the vessel wall • Vascular endothelium is undamaged and glisten
  21. 21. Differentiation between Thrombus and Postmortem clot Thrombus • Composed primarily of thrombocytes • Formed in living animals • May be partially organized • Caused by endothelial injury Postmortem clot • Composed primarily of thrombocytes fibrin • Formed after death • Not organized • Initiated by thromoplastin
  22. 22. Postmortem clot
  23. 23. Gross appearance • Red thrombi; fibrin network entraped RBCs and leucocytes • White or pale thrombi;RBCs are few,opaque ,structure less and rubbery,chief components are platelets,fibrin and leucocytes,slowly formed • Laminated thrombi;alternating red and white layers,seen in aneurysm
  24. 24. Microscopic appearance • Platelets are the chick andief constituents • Thich and heavy fibrils of fibrin,leucocytes and RBCs • Ireggular lamination • Area of attachment • Several small channels in canalized
  25. 25. Cross-sectional view of coronary artery reveals dark red thrombi (circles)
  26. 26. thrombus • A coronary thrombosis is seen microscopically occluding the remaining small lumen of this coronary artery. Such an acute coronary thrombosis is often the antecedent to acute myocardial infarction
  27. 27. Section of the laminated thrombus in the calf vein
  28. 28. Higher power view of the laminated thrombus in the calf vein
  29. 29. infarction
  30. 30. infarction • It is the ischaemia and necrosis of a local area due to obstruction in the arterial supply of the area - Necrosis is coagulative in type, but the affected tissue pass through the whole series of degeneration.
  31. 31. Gross appearance Anemic infarcts • Bloodless pale area • Surrounded by a zone of hyperemia Red infarcts • Engorged with blood • Swollen and firm area
  32. 32. infarction • The interventricular septum of the heart has been sectioned to reveal an extensive acute myocardial infarction. The dead muscle is tanyellowwith a surrounding hyperemic border
  33. 33. Infarction • This cross section through the heart reveals a large myocardial infarction involving the anterior left ventricular wall and septum. The infarct is beginning to heal, but still has a necrotic center. The ejection fraction from the left ventricle would be significantly reduced
  34. 34. Hemorrhagic infarcts
  35. 35. Red infarct
  36. 36. Microscopic appearance • Coagulative necrosis • Poorly stained nuclei