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  1. 1. Telecommuting
  2. 2. Summary Slide <ul><li>What is Telecommuting </li></ul><ul><li>Current Status </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Telecommuting </li></ul><ul><li>Impact to Individuals (possitive) </li></ul><ul><li>Impact to Individuals (negative) </li></ul><ul><li>Impact to Business </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on Working Parents </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on the Disabled </li></ul><ul><li>Impact to Society and Environment </li></ul><ul><li>Impact on International Business </li></ul><ul><li>The Safety of Telecommuting </li></ul><ul><li>The Telecommuter Profile </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuting Technologies </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Telecommuting <ul><li>“ Telecommuting is the use of computers and telephones to enable an employee to work off-site and outside the traditional workplace. This could include working partially, like one to three days a week from home, or working entirely at home corresponding when necessary with the employer” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Making use of information and communication technologies to practice some form of remote working” </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuting is moving the work to the workers instead of the workers moving to work </li></ul><ul><li>Flex-work </li></ul><ul><li>Term was coined by Jack Nilles in 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuting centers </li></ul>
  4. 4. Current Status <ul><li>In 1995 9 million Americans telecommuted and in 2002 29.7 million </li></ul><ul><li>28.9% of American businesses practice telecommuting </li></ul><ul><li>15-20% growth annually </li></ul>
  5. 5. Types of Telecommuting <ul><li>Cisco Systems classifies telecommuters in three types: </li></ul><ul><li>Day extender </li></ul><ul><li>Part-time teleworker </li></ul><ul><li>Full-time teleworker </li></ul>
  6. 6. Impact to Individuals (possitive) <ul><li>More time at home with family (30 minutes - 2 hours/day) </li></ul><ul><li>Money Savings ($150/month on clothing) </li></ul><ul><li>Decreased sick time </li></ul><ul><li>Increases pool of possible employers (not confined to small geographic area) </li></ul><ul><li>Improved morale </li></ul><ul><li>Improves relationship with supervisor by 43% </li></ul><ul><li>Improves quality of life 10 hours/week to spent with family, personal growth activities, sleep, happier </li></ul><ul><li>Lowers stress </li></ul><ul><li>Care for people at home (kids, elderly) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Impact to Individuals (negative) <ul><li>Lack of social contact </li></ul><ul><li>Do not participate in group projects </li></ul><ul><li>Work hours become longer </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties balancing work and personal life </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulties drawing a line between work and home </li></ul><ul><li>Distractions </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of assistance </li></ul>
  8. 8. Impact to Business <ul><li>Could utilize abilities of the disabled </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of capital expenditures </li></ul><ul><li>Harder working employees </li></ul><ul><li>Increased productivity by 20 – 25% </li></ul><ul><li>Lower turnover rates </li></ul><ul><li>Cost Savings (AT&T saved $10,000/year from each telecommuter and Merrill Lynch $10,000 through lower absenteeism alone) </li></ul><ul><li>Safety issues from telework </li></ul><ul><li>Possibility of loosing control over employees </li></ul><ul><li>“ Gratitude effect” </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hoteling” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Impact on Working Parents <ul><li>Impact on the Individual discussed above and, </li></ul><ul><li>Allows parents to participate in school activities </li></ul><ul><li>Care for the elderly </li></ul><ul><li>Nursing mothers (feeding, pumping breast milk) </li></ul><ul><li>74% of telecommuting workforce are couples </li></ul>
  10. 10. Impact on the Disabled <ul><li>52% of the 54 million disabled Americans suffer from mobility disabilities </li></ul><ul><li>In 2001, $ 4.3 billion was spent out to Social Security recipients (10 million young and disabled Americans receive Social Security disability) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Department of Labor introduced $2.4 million in grants for telework programs administered by the Office of Disability Policy </li></ul><ul><li>New technologies help (infrared headsets, voice recognition etc) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Impact to Society and Environment <ul><li>Savings of 1.2 million gallons of fuel per week for every 10% of workers telecommuting (11% of energy in Japan is wasted through delays) </li></ul><ul><li>Yearly Telecommuting Cost Savings in the US is estimated at $23 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Less congested roads (road rage) </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer accidents </li></ul><ul><li>More free parking lots </li></ul><ul><li>Less cost in building and maintaining highways </li></ul><ul><li>People move away from the city creating areas of de-forested land </li></ul><ul><li>May increase “cabin-fever” trips </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in high-tech waste in landfills </li></ul>
  12. 12. Impact on International Business <ul><li>Lower cost: cost in face-to-face meetings is 7 times more expensive than conference calls </li></ul><ul><li>Less time traveling (average time flying is 10 hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Items described in previous slides also apply here </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Safety of Telecommuting <ul><li>Reducing risk of traffic related injury </li></ul><ul><li>Children stay at home with parents </li></ul><ul><li>Terrorist acts </li></ul><ul><li>Employer is responsible for telecommuter’s safety </li></ul><ul><li>Home safety inspections (fire, electrical, equipment, home office space, air quality, accident sources) </li></ul><ul><li>Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) guidelines </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Telecommuter Profile <ul><li>Telecommuters earn on the average whitle colar worker </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuters work in small companies (65% in companies of less than 100 employees) </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuters are concentrated in service industries like health care (13%), education (9%), architecture/engineering (8.8%), communications (8.8%) </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuters are accountants, bookkeepers, programmers (best fit jobs for telecommuting) </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuters understand technology (or so we hope) </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommuters are self motivated, results oriented, self disciplined and have good time management skills </li></ul>
  15. 15. Telecommuting Technologies <ul><li>Telecommuting usually involves all the elements of a Computer Based Information System, including hardware, software, telecommunications, data, procedures and people: </li></ul><ul><li>Hardware: Computer, Printer </li></ul><ul><li>Software: Job specific </li></ul><ul><li>Telecommunications:Phone lines, Modems, Fax machines, Videoconferencing equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Data: Access to databases </li></ul><ul><li>Procedures: Related to telecommuting </li></ul><ul><li>People: That make telecommuting happen (not only telecommuters) </li></ul>