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Hybrid topology

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Hybrid topology

  1. 1. Hybrid topology A hybrid topology is a type of network topology that uses two or more other network topologies, including bus topology, mesh topology, ring topology, star topology, and tree topology. Ring topology Alternatively referred to as a ring network, a ring topologyis a computer network configuration where the devices are connected to each other in a circular shape. Each packet is sent around the ring until it reaches its final destination. Ring topologies are used in both local area network (LAN) and wide area network (WAN) setups. The picture to the right is a visual example of a network using the ring topology to connect several computers together.
  2. 2. Additional information In the past, the ring topology was most commonly used in schools, offices, and smaller buildings where networks were smaller. However, today, the ring topology is seldom used, having been switched to another type of network topology for improved performance, stability, or support. Advantages of ring topology  All data flows in one direction, reducing the chance of packet collisions.  A network server is not needed to control network connectivity between each workstation.  Data can transfer between workstations at high speeds.  Additional workstations can be added without impacting performance of the network. Disadvantages of ring topology  All data being transferred over the network must pass through each workstation on the network, which can make it slower than a star topology.  The entire network will be impacted if one workstation shuts down.  The hardware needed to connect each workstation to the network is more expensive than Ethernet cards and hubs/switches Star Topology Alternatively referred to as a star network, star topology is one of the most common network setups. In this configuration, everynode connects to a central network device, like a hub, switch, or computer. The central network device acts as a server and the peripheral devices act as clients. The picture to the right shows how this network setup gets its name, as it is shaped like a star.
  3. 3. Advantages of star topology  Centralized management of the network, through the use of the central computer, hub, or switch.  Easy to add another computer to the network.  If one computer on the network fails, the rest of the network continues to function normally. Disadvantages of star topology  Can have a higher cost to implement, especially when using a switch or router as the central network device.  The central network device determines the performance and number of nodes the network can handle.  If the central computer, hub, or switch fails, the entire network goes down and all computers are disconnected from the network.  Tree topology  Alternatively referred to as a star bus topology, tree topology is one of the most common network setups that is similar to a bus topology and a star topology. A tree topology connects one star network to other star networks. Below is a visual example of a tree topology, with a simple computer set up on a network using the star topology, connected to another network using the star topology.   In the picture above, if the main cable or trunk between each of the two star topology networks was to fail, those networks would be unable to communicate with each other. However, computers on the same star topology would still be able to communicate with each other.
  4. 4.  Mesh topology  A network setup where each computer and network device is interconnected with one another, allowing for most transmissions to be distributed, even if one of the connections go down. This topology is not commonly used for most computer networks as it is difficult and expensive to have redundant connection to every computer. However, this topology is commonly used for wireless networks. Below is a visual example of a simple computer setup on a network using a mesh topology.   A mesh topology can be a full mesh topology or a partially connected mesh topology.  In a full mesh topology, every computer in the network has a connection to each of the other computers in that network. The number of connections in this network can be calculated using the following formula (n is the number of computers in the network): n(n- 1)/2  In a partially connected mesh topology, at least two of the computers in the network have connections to multiple other computers in that network. This is a cheaper way to build a network that has some redundancy in the event one of the primary computers or connections in the network were to be down.  Network
  5. 5.  1. A network is a collection of computers, servers, mainframes, network devices, peripherals, or other devices connected to one another allowing for data to be shared and used. A great example of a network is the Internet, connecting millions of people all over the world together. Below is an example image of what a home network with multiple computers and other network devices all connected to each other and the Internet.   Other examples of network devices  Any device capable of connecting to a network is considered a network device. Below are some of the more common network devices you are likely to find on a home network. 
  6. 6. Point to point network topology The simplest topology is a permanent link between two endpoints. Switched point-to-point topologies are the basic model of conventional telephony. The value of a permanent point-to-point network is unimpeded communications between the two endpoints. Easiest to understand, of the variations of point-to-point topology, is a point-to-point communications channel that appears, to the user, to be permanently associated with the two endpoints. A children's tin can telephone is one example of a physical dedicated channel. Using circuit-switching or packet-switching technologies, a point-to-point circuit can be set up dynamically, and dropped when no longer needed. This is the basic mode of conventional telephony  The simplest topology is a permanent link between two endpoints. Switched point-to-point topologies are the basic model of conventional telephony. The value of a permanent point-to-point network is unimpeded communications between the two endpoints. Easiest to understand, of the variations of point-to-point topology, is a point-to-point communications channel that appears, to the user, to be permanently associated with the two endpoints. A children's tin can telephone is one example of a physical dedicated channel. Using circuit-switching or packet-switching technologies, a point-to-point circuit can be set up dynamically, and dropped when no longer needed. This is the basic mode of conventional telephony.
  7. 7.  Daisy chain topology Except for star-based networks, the easiest way to add more computers into a network is by daisy-chaining, or connecting each computer in series to the next. If a message is intended for a computer partway down the line, each system bounces it along in sequence until it reaches the destination. A daisy-chained network can take two basic forms: linear and ring. ■ A linear topology puts a two-way link between one computer and the next. However, this was expensive in the early days of computing, since each computer (except for the ones at each end) required two receivers and two transmitters. ■ By connecting the computers at each end, a ring topology can be formed. An advantage of the ring is that the number of transmitters and receivers can be cut in half, since a message will eventually loop all of the way around. When a node sends a message, the message is processed by each computer in the ring. If a computer is not the destination node, it will pass the message to the next node, until the message arrives at its destination. If the message is not accepted by any node on the network, it will travel around the entire ring and return to the sender. This potentially results in a doubling of travel time for data.

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