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Project manual


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Project manual

  1. 1. MANUAL FOR RESEARCHPROJECTMS Program inBusiness Administration and Management Sciences Institute of Business & Management University of Engineering and Technology Lahore 1
  2. 2. MANUAL FOR PROJECT PROPOSAL AND PROJECT REPORT OF Institute of Business & ManagementUniversity of Engineering and Technology LahoreUniversity of Engineering and Technology Lahore 2
  3. 3. FOREWORDThe Project Handbook has been prepared with a view to providing our MSstudents with some basic and necessary information on writing a researchproposal and final project report. This will assist the students in thinkingthrough many aspects of crafting implementing and defending the researchproject. It is our attempt to share some of many ideas that have surfaced in thepast that definitely make the task of completion of research so much easier. Wehave tried to give some suggestions on the following: selection of a topic,developing a project statement, writing Literature Review, Research Design,Data Analysis, Conclusion and Findings, Bibliography and such other necessarycomponents.Guidelines of a research report have been provided on the format and style ofthe project and specimens have been annexed for guidance. We hope that allgiven information will help you in choosing the project title, and conductingresearch work.With this in mind enjoy the manual. We hope it will help you to finish yourresearch in good shape. 3
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONThis master level Research Project Manual is designed for all MS students. Thestudents will be required to conduct a research study in the academic field of thechosen area after completion of the course work for the partial fulfilment of theirdegree program.The research project carries a weight of (06) credits and is an integral part of MSDegree Programme. This manual has been developed to provide broadguidelines to the students and help them in preparing their project synopsis andfinal report.The university hopes that after following these guidelines the students of thisprestigious programme will be in a position to write an excellent research reportand create a value addition for them.Wish you good luckResearch Team 4
  5. 5. Research Proposal and Final ReportInstitute of business and management’s mission is to deliver the MS degree insuch a way that can equip the students with latest managerial skill so that theymay be able to contribute effectively at their work places.All research reports normally use the same format. It does not matter whetheryou are doing a customer satisfaction research, employee’s opinion survey,research on impact of globalization research or a marketing research. All havethe same basic structure and format. Their contents may be different.The distinguishing feature of research is an original contribution to knowledge.Thus the final research report for the project course is a document whosepurpose is to prove that the student has made an original contribution toknowledge.The research report must highlight the following important aspects: • Student has identified a worthwhile question or problem, relating to the generic discipline of Management Sciences (Business or Public Administration as per his or her enrolment) • She/he has solved the problem or answered the question(s) raised during research • Their contribution to knowledge lies in their findings.At the outset, students of MS after their 2 nd semester of degree program arerequired to (i) To select the research topic in consultation with the Supervisorprovided to them with the mutual consent (ii) To develop and submit a researchproposal / synopsis to the department for approval / acceptance prior to startingtheir research report/study. 5
  6. 6. Stages of the Research Process Problem Discovery andDiscovery and Definition Definition Conclusion Research and Report Design and so on Data Sampling Processing and Analysis Data Gathering 6
  7. 7. The research process1. Observation2. Preliminary Data gathering (Preliminary Data gathering about situation i.e. broad problem area)3. Problem definition4. Literature Review & Theoretical framework (variables identified)5. Hypotheses6. Research design7. Data collection ,analysis and interpretation8. Deduction9. Report writing10. Report presentation11. Decision making 7
  8. 8. WHAT IS RESEARCHResearch is an ORGANIZED and SYSTEMATIC way of FINDING ANSWERS toQUESTIONS or solutions of problems.1) Systematic: because there is a definite set of procedures and steps which the students/researchers will follow. There are certain things in the research process which are always done in order to get the most accurate results.2) Organized: in that there is a structure or method in going about doing research. It is a planned procedure, not a spontaneous one. It is focused and limited to a specific scope.3) Questions: are central to research. If there is no question, then the answer is of no use. Research is focused on relevant, useful, and important questions. Without a question, research has no focus, drive, or purpose.4) Finding Answers: is the end of all research. Whether it is the result after a testing hypothesis or answer to a simple question, research is successful when we find solutions answers. Sometimes the answer is no, but it is still an answer. 8
  9. 9. IMPROTANT STEPSIdentifying a Project/Research TopicResearch begins with defining a topic in which a student may be interested andwilling to put effort. Research topic should relate to the subject whom thestudents have studied in their programme (Management Sciences, Business orPublic Administration). The three significant characteristics of a researchtopic/problem are that is should be significant, researchable and new or add anew angle to established facts. Some important elements of selecting a topic areas under: • First you select a problem/topic in a general area that is related to the area of your expertise and interest. Second step is to narrow down the general problem area to make it specific, and researchable. • Formulate a research topic in order to achieve your objective. • Access to the data must be ensured about the topic prior to its finalization. • The topic should be open to methods of research. • The selected topic should be in a field in which there is real need for the research. • Must keep in mind why the research is important and to whom. • Students need to describe the research context clearly.While thinking about research topic: • Discuss ideas with colleagues • Browse the literature, especially journals • Discuss ideas with your supervisor – he/she is an expert within the discipline and can help you decide on an appropriate topicSetting the topic in contextWhen placing your topic in context it is often useful to think about the following: • What is the scope of the topic? 9
  10. 10. • What is the purpose of the research? • Who are the intended audience? • What is the time period? • What is the geographical coverage? • What are the relevant/related disciplines?Some More Tips for Problem Formulation"Well begun is half done" --Aristotle, quoting an old proverbRESEARCH PAPER TOPIC IDEASTry to pick a topic that you are interested in. You are going to have a lot ofresearch and experimentation ahead of you so it helps to produce good science ifyou have enthusiasm in what you are doing. Find a broad topic and do a littlepreliminary work, perhaps making a shortlist of possible areas of interest. 1. Be realistic. If you have difficulty with transport then there is no point picking a project in some far-flung, inaccessible area. You may have to go back to resample or clarify your data. For a field study that requires lots of walking or climbing you need to be reasonably fit. If you are not very good at approaching strangers then avoid a subject that requires you to ask people to fill in questionnaires. Play to your strengths and avoid your weaknesses. 2. With the above in mind, check out the facilities your department offers. For example, some departments offer help with statistics or using computer programs. 3. Take into account the amount of time and resources you have. It is better to pick a focused topic and be thorough than to try and perform some complex research that you struggle to finish. Your topic must be broad enough to ensure that you have enough data but narrow enough to maximize your time and resources. 10
  11. 11. 4. Try and be a little different; if a large number of students research the same topics then there could be a lot of people fighting over one copy of a book or journal.5. Will you need help? For some areas of research you may need to ask the help of friends to take samples. An example is psychology where you need to tempt people to answer your questions or perform your tests. What measures will you need to entice people? Asking favors, bribery or threats? Try to ensure that you have thought about this before you start.6. Remember that people are there to help you. If you not sure of where to start, often the most difficult part, do not be afraid to ask questions from those more knowledgeable in the subject. It is common to feel a little nervous and overwhelmed before starting on a long project but that will pass. Remember that the reputation of your supervisor and department is judged by how well you perform in your research paper so they will try their best to guide you. 11
  12. 12. Types of Business researchApplied researchThis research is conducted to solve a current problem faced by the organizationin the work setting, demanding a timely solution.Basic research (fundamental, pure)Following are the characteristics of basic research: a. It is to generate a body of knowledge by trying to comprehend how certain problems that occur in organizations can be solved. b. The findings of such research contribute to the building of knowledge in the various functional areas of business.Selection of StudyThe students are advised to choose some current issue faced by the organizationin which they are going to conduct their research. Here are some examples ofApplied and basic research issues, the preference should be given to the appliedresearch.Applied Research topics 1. Causes of low productivity of employees of Fazal Steel mills Islamabad 2. The possible measures to make the budgetary control system of NHA effective 3. Human Resource practices to ensure Job Satisfaction in Askari Bank limited with Special emphasis on performance appraisal. 4. The Impact of Compensation, Training & Development on the organisational Commitment of Employees of PTCL 12
  13. 13. Basic Research Topics 1. Effective measures to stop bankruptcy. 2. Implications of the theories of Scientific School of Management in 21 st century. 3. TQM / Is It Effective In Reaching Quality Goals? 4. Management of the Interview and Hiring Function 5. Employee Stock Ownership PlansHow to Develop Project Proposal / SynopsisThe aim of the project proposal must be to ensure that: • There is a need for the research and it’s significant and important. • Student is contributing something original in the research report. • The topic is feasible in terms of the availability of data. • The topic must match with the academic field i.e. Management Sciences. • Research can be completed within the expected time period.The project proposal helps you focus your research aim, clarify its importanceand the need, describe the methods, identify problems and plan alternatives.Preparing a project proposal is an important part of your research. Followingkey elements must be included in the project proposal: 13
  14. 14. Chapter 1 Introduction1. Introduction of study along with its origin, history, Background, and rationale of the study2. Broad problem area: - Area in which researcher has find some specific problem to carry out his research3. Statement of the Problem4. Objectives of the Study5. Significance of the Study6. Delimitation7. Research Hypothesis or Research QuestionChapter 2 Literature reviewDistribute this chapter according to heading and sub-headingChapter 3 Research Methodology1. Research Design2. Population of the Study3. Sampling Techniques4. Sample Size5. Research Tools6. Data CollectionChapter 4 Data Analysis and Interpretation (Tools and Techniques)Chapter 5 Conclusion1. Findings2. Conclusion3. RecommendationsBibliography / References 14
  15. 15. OUTLINE / STRUCTURE/ CONTENTS OF CHAPTERSCHAPTER 11) IntroductionThis section begins with a few short introductory paragraphs (couple of pages).In introduction the context of the research is made clear and choice of the topic isdefended. The relationship between the research problem and the researchobjectives must be explained. Introduction section sets the stage for the projectreport and puts the topic in perspective. It contains general statements about theneed for this study. It is a brief description of what the project report is all about.It briefly summarizes the topic and some of the reasons why it is worthwhile todo research on this specific topic. Introduction is a bird eye view of the answersto the main questions that will be answered in your research report. The basicgoal of the introduction is to catch the attention of the reader. Key point is thatwhen you are writing the introduction; put yourself in your readers’ position.2) Background Information of the TopicBrief background information of your topic is necessary. It could be possible thatthe reader may not have any experience with some of the material you haveprovided in your research report. So you need to give it to him or her.3) Statement of the ProblemThe statement of the problem is the focal point of the research. A problem doesnot necessarily mean that something is seriously wrong with current situationthat needs to be rectified immediately. A “problem” could simply indicate aninterest in an issue where finding the right answers might help to improve anexisting situation. Thus, it is fruitful to define a problem in a situation where agap exists between the actual and the desired ideal states. The statement ofproblem should be brief, concise, and very specific statement not more than 5 –6sentences in a paragraph.4) Objectives of the Study 15
  16. 16. Objectives are statements of specific actions needed to accomplish the purpose.Enough objectives should be included to achieve the purpose, but objectives notrequired to achieve the purpose should be omitted. This purpose statement orparagraph explains what the study intends to find. The purpose of the studymight be to: • Overcome the difficulty • Understand the causes or effects • Provide a new interpretation • Understand what makes – successful or unsuccessful5) Significance of the StudyThis section creates a perspective for looking at the problem. It points out howstudy relates to the larger issue and uses a persuasive rationale to justify thereason for the study. It makes the purpose worthwhile. The significance of thestudy may be: • Why is your study important? • To whom is it important? • What benefits will occur if your study is done?6) Limitations (Delimit your research scope)The investigator states the restrictions and limitations which he imposes on hisstudy. It is a statement of the limit or scope of investigation. The statement willprovide information concerning who, what, where and how many. It willdetermine the boundaries of the research in hand.This delimitation will mention the geographical limits of the study i.e. whetherthe study will be covering a single town, a district, a region, a state or a country.It will specify the time limits of the study i.e. whether the study will be spreadover a few days, a few months, a year or a number of years. It will have tospecify the type of institution to be covered. Recognition of the limitation of thestudy helps to focus attention on pertinent objectives and helps to minimize thedanger of oversimplification.The scope, limitations of the research must clearly be mentioned in the proposalas well as in the Research report so that the other researcher might design theirresearch in the same work setting might prevent their research from duplication 16
  17. 17. of results. The depth of understanding regarding the groups must be clear;additionally the limitations of your data gathering tool which you have usedmust also be discussed in this section of your report. Describe the boundaries ofthe study that you determine. Delimitations define the parameters of theinvestigation. In academic research the delimitations will frequently deal withsuch items as population/sample, treatment(s), setting, and instrumentation.A sample of this section is given below for you guidance: 17
  18. 18. Limitations 1. Delimitations define the parameters of the investigation. In business research the delimitations will frequently deal with such items as population/sample, treatment(s), setting, and instrumentation. For example, the study may focus on employee in only one category or measure aptitude using only a group intelligence test. External validity deals with the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to different subjects, settings, experimenters, and so on; the study has external validity. However, there are many threats to external validity which cause the results of a study to be specific to some limited group of people and/or set of conditions. These threats are (a) Those dealing with generalizations to populations (What population of subjects can be expected to behave in the same way as did the sample subjects?), and (b) Those dealing with the "environment" of the work (Under what conditions, i.e., settings, treatments, experimenters, dependent variables, and so on, can the same results be expected?). 2. The limitations set forth reservations, qualifications, or weaknesses inherent in the design. Generally, these will reflect anticipated inadequacies in regard to internal validity of results. A study has internal validity if the confounding variables have been converted to either controlled or randomized variables and if the research is designed in such a way that it is possible to estimate the size of the random variation so that the "experimental" variation may be compared to it for significance. The goal is to recognize inherent threats to internal validity in the work setting. 3. No data collection tool can give perfect and quality data for research because of its inherent limitations and due to the poor response of some respondents therefore this is also a threat for external validity of results. 4. Because the limitations of a study cannot be fully specified until the research is completed, therefore the apparent delimitations and/or limitations are given regarding the population/sample, treatments, setting, and instrumentation. 18
  19. 19. 7) Research HypothesisAccording to Leedey and Ormond (2001) “A hypothesis is a logical supposition,a reasonable guess, an educated conjecture. It provides a tentative explanationfor a phenomenon under investigation. However, hypotheses are not unique toresearch. Hypotheses are constantly generated in the human mind as we work tounderstand day-to-day phenomena. By formulating a series of reasonableguesses of cause and effect we are able to understand and explore the events inour surrounding environment.”The hypothesis is formulated after observation and the review of preliminarydata prior to the execution of the study. The hypothesis logically follows thereview and it is based on the implications of previous research as it precedes thestudy procedure because the entire study is determined by the hypothesis(including: subject, instruments, design, procedure, analysis and conclusions).The hypothesis should be logical and testable. Hypotheses are essential forexperimental studies, for co-relational studies and for studiesdetermining/measuring the impact of one or more variables on other variables.HOW TO WRITE A HYPOTHESISOne of the crucial parts of designing and writing up any research paper is how towrite a hypothesis.In fact, it is not as difficult as it looks, and if you have followed the steps of thescientific process and found an area of research and potential research problem,then you may already have a few ideas. It is just about making sure that you areasking the right questions and generating your hypothesis statements correctly.A research hypothesis is a testable statement of opinion. It is created from theresearch question by replacing the words "Is there" with the words "There is",and also replacing the question mark with a period. The hypotheses for the threesample research questions would be as follows: 19
  20. 20. A sample of Research Questions, Hypothesis and Null Hypothesis is asfollow:Questions Is there a significant relationship between the corporate level of managers and their attitudes towards the revised advertising budget? Is there a significant relationship between perceived need for the new product and the price that customers would be willing to pay for it? Is there a significant difference between Hindus and minority Muslims residents with respect to what they feel are the most important problems facing the community?Hypothesis There is a significant relationship between the corporate level of managers and their attitudes towards the revised advertising budget. There is a significant relationship between perceived need for the new product and the price that customers would be willing to pay for it. There is a significant difference between Hindus and minority Muslims residents with respect to what they feel are the most important problems facing the community. It is not possible to test a hypothesis directly. Instead, you must turn the hypothesis into a null hypothesis. The null hypothesis is created from the hypothesis by adding the words "no" or "not" to the statement. For example, the null hypotheses for the three examples would be:Null Hypotheses There is no significant relationship between the corporate level of managers and their attitudes towards the revised advertising budget. There is no significant relationship between perceived need for the new product and the price that customers would be willing to pay for it. There is no significant difference between Hindus and minority Muslims residents with respect to what they feel are the most important problems facing the community. 20
  21. 21. 8) Research QuestionThe research question must be stated in such a way that these are testable andanswerable. Usually a descriptive research may try to find answers to questionsrather than test hypothesis.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEWA literature review is an evaluative report of information found in the literaturerelated to your selected area of study. The review should describe, summarise,evaluate and clarify this literature. It should give a theoretical base for theresearch and help you (the researcher) determine the nature of your research.The purpose of a literature review is for you to take a critical look at the literature(facts and views) that already exists in the area you are researching. A literaturereview is an account of what has been published on a topic by accreditedscholars and researchers. The purpose of literature review is to convey to thereaders what knowledge and ideas have already been established on the topic,and what their strengths and weaknesses are. As a piece of writing, the literaturereview must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g., your research objective, theproblem or issue you are discussing or your argumentative thesis). It is not just adescriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries.A literature review can be just a simple summary of the sources, but it usuallyhas an organized pattern and combines both summary and synthesis. Asummary is a recap of important information of the area, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information. It might give a newinterpretation to old material or combine new and old interpretations, or it mighttrace the intellectual progression in the field, including major debates.Depending on the situation, the literature review may evaluate the sources andadvise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant, aspects. 21
  22. 22. A literature review is a summary of previous research on a topic. Literaturereviews can be either a part of a large report of a research project, a thesis or abibliographic essay that is published separately in a scholarly journal. Somequestions to think about as you develop your literature review: • What is known about the subject? • Are there any gaps in the knowledge of the subject? • Have areas of further study been identified by other researchers that you may want to consider? • What methods or problems were identified by others studying in the field and how might they impact your research? • What is the most productive methodology for your research based on the literature you have reviewed? • What is the current status of research in this area? • What sources of information or data were identified that might be useful to you?Besides enlarging your knowledge about the topic, writing a literature reviewlets you gain and demonstrate skills in two areas:1. Information seeking: the ability to scan the literature efficiently, using manual or computerized methods, to identify a set of useful articles and books2. Critical appraisal: the ability to apply principles of analysis to identify unbiased and valid studies.A crucial element of all research degrees is the review of relevant literature.There are good reasons for spending time and effort on a review of the literaturebefore embarking on a research project. These reasons include: • To identify gaps in the literature • To avoid reinventing the wheel (this will save time and will stop you from making the same mistakes as others) • To carry on from where others have already reached (reviewing the field allows you to build on the platform of existing knowledge and ideas) 22
  23. 23. • To increase breadth of knowledge of your subject area • To provide the intellectual context for your own work, enabling you to position your project relative to other work • To demonstrate that you can access previous work in an area • To identify information and ideas that may be relevant to your projectA good Literature ReviewA literature review must do the following: a. It should organized around and related directly to the project/thesis or research question you are developing b. Synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known c. Identify areas of controversy in the literature d. Formulate questions that need further research/projectThe literature review develops a relationship between academics and yourresearch. Your task must be to show how the academic literature sheds light onyour topic. The purpose of the literature review is to refine the statement of theresearch problem or question, not to offer a tutorial on the topic. Do not repeatlarge passages from a text.Final NoteA literature review is a piece of discursive prose, not a list describing orsummarizing one piece of literature after another. It’s usually a bad sign to seeevery paragraph beginning with the name of a researcher. Instead, organize theliterature review into sections that present themes or identify trends, includingrelevant theory. You are not trying to list all the material published, but tosynthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept of yourproject/thesis or research question.A sample of a portion of literature Review is given in the box below: 23
  24. 24. Research Problem“Impact of Advertisement on Fashion Industry”Relevant LiteratureA consumer preference for brands with a global image, even when quality andvalue are not objectively superior, has been proposed as a reason for companies toconsider global brands (Taylor and Raymond, 2000). Therefore, Fashion Companyneeds to identify the response of consumers worldwide to its global advertising forsuch specific consumer segment. For instance, the fashion industry for women isparticularly relevant in terms of examining the feasibility of cross-nationalsegmentation. Research indicates that females tend to be more fashion conscious,be more knowledgeable about fashion brands (Blyth, 2006), and read more fashionmagazines than male consumers (Putrevu, 2004). This implies that marketers needto pay special attention to women when expanding and advertising fashion brandsto international markets. The fashion industry is characterized by a considerableamount of standardized advertising. In fact, global advertising in fashionmagazines that help to create the image of a designer brand name for fashiongoods, such as apparel, accessories, and perfume, and has been used by manyleading firms (Blyth, 2006). Increasingly, some fashion marketers have discoveredthat their advertising is directly linked to retail sales and strong retail performance(Callan, 2006). 24
  25. 25. Theoretical FrameworkTheoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project isbased. It is logically developed, described and elaborated network of associationsamong the variables relevant to the problem situation.The purpose of the theoretical framework is to demonstrate the researcher’sknowledge and expertise in the chosen field of research, concentrating on theresearch problem. Although the study may be based on other researcher’s workand publications, the relevant ‘message’ has to be the author’s owninterpretation.The theoretical framework should contain the relevant information on the chosenfield of research, based on a study of the theoretical basis of the topic. The moreyou are able to introduce new and novel viewpoints and critically evaluate theirrelevance, the greater the merit of the work. New ideas and interpretationsensure that the author’s own voice can be heard.One way to construct the theoretical section is to work your way up fromexisting studies to your own research problem. Then, at the end of the chapter,you should put forward more comprehensive reasoning for your own choices,thus gaining more credibility and strength for your interpretation from thetheoretical discourse of others. If the thesis introduces new research methods, oruses less-known existing methods, these are introduced separately, eitherdirectly after the theoretical framework or under a new sub-heading. A sampletheoretical frame work for reference is given below: 25
  26. 26. Research problem: Employees Job SatisfactionIndependent Variables Reward System Training & Intervening Variable Dependent Variable Development Employees Management Job Satisfaction Union Style Working Environment Manageme Job Security nt Policies Performance Appraisal Moderating Variable 26
  27. 27. CHAPTER 31) Research MethodologyThis chapter describes the basic research plan. It indicates the practical way inwhich the whole research study/project has been organized. You have todescribe clearly what method will be used during your study for exampledocumentary research, face to face interviews, and questionnaire. The nature ofthe study whether it is exploratory, descriptive and types of the research i.e.survey, comparative or a case study must be stated.The research methodology must be appropriate to the research question. Youneed to explain why your chosen method is suitable for your research. At theproposal stage well selected and clearly justified methodology should beprovided.2) Research DesignResearch design provides the glue that holds the research project together. Adesign is used to structure the research, to show how all of the major parts of theresearch project - the samples or groups, measures, treatments or programs, andmethods of assignment - work together to address the central research questions.The term “Research Design” is often used to refer to the pragmatic aspects of theway the research was conducted. The researcher needs to explain these mattersto the readers. How you plan to carry out the study should be thoroughlydescribed. Who will be involved, especially the sample and population andsampling techniques should be clearly stated.3) PopulationIt is incumbent on the research to clearly define the target population. Populationrefers to the entire group of people, events, or things of interest that theresearcher wishes to investigate. Most research in education and social sciencesinvolves the collection of data from human beings. The total numbers ofindividuals to whom the results of the research are intended to apply constitute 27
  28. 28. the research population. It is important to describe clearly and to explain thenature of the population.4) Sampling TechniqueSampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from thepopulation. There are two major types of sampling design: Probability and Non-Probability. Probability sampling includes random sampling, stratifiedsampling, multi-stage sampling while non-probability sampling includesconvenient and judgemental sampling. The researcher must give the exacttechnique which is used for selection of sample.5) Sampling SizeA sample is a sub-set of population; it comprises some numbers selected from it.There are no strict rules to follow, and the researcher must rely on logic andjudgement. A small, but carefully chosen sample can be used to represent thepopulation. The sample reflects the characteristics of the population from whichit is drawn. It is not possible to collect the data from all individuals ofpopulation for the researcher that is why he/she selects a sample size from thepopulation which might consist of 100, 150 or 200 etc numbers/elements fromthe population.5) CONCERNS IN STATISTICAL SAMPLINGRepresentativenessThis is the primary concern in statistical sampling. The sample obtained from thepopulation must be representative of the same population. This can beaccomplished by using randomized statistical sampling techniques or probabilitysampling like cluster sampling and stratified sampling. The reason behindrepresentativeness being the primary concern in statistical sampling is that itallows the researcher to draw conclusions for the entire population. If the sampleis not representative of the population, conclusions cannot be drawn since theresults that the researcher obtained from the sample will be different from theresults if the entire population is to be tested. 28
  29. 29. PracticabilityPracticability of statistical sampling techniques allows the researchers to estimatethe possible number of subjects that can be included in the sample, the type ofsampling technique, the duration of the study, the number of materials, ethicalconcerns, availability of the subjects/samples, the need for the study and theamount of workforce that the study demands. All these factors contribute to thedecisions of the researcher regarding to the study design.Sampling RisksThere are two types of sampling risks, first is the risk of incorrect acceptance ofthe research hypothesis and the second is the risk for incorrect rejection. Theserisks pertain to the possibility that when a test is conducted to a sample, theresults and conclusions may be different from the results and conclusions whenthe test is conducted to the entire population.The risk of incorrect acceptance pertains to the risk that the sample can yield aconclusion that supports a theory about the population when it is actually notexistent in the population. On the other hand, the risk of incorrect rejectionpertains to the risk that the sample can yield a conclusion that rejects a theoryabout the population when in fact, the theory holds true in the population.Comparing the two types of risks, researchers fear the risk of incorrect rejectionmore than the risk of incorrect acceptance. Consider this example; anexperimental drug was tested for its debilitating side effects. With the risk ofincorrect acceptance, the researcher will conclude that the drug indeed hasnegative side effects but the truth is that it doesn’t. The entire population willthen abstain from taking the drug. But with the risk of incorrect rejection, theresearcher will conclude that the drug has no negative side effects. The entirepopulation will then take the drug knowing that it has no side effects but all ofthem will then suffer the consequences of the mistake of the researcher. 29
  30. 30. 6) Research Tools/InstrumentsOnce you have selected a topic, you must clearly define the research tools. Ithelps if you actually state your topic idea. Research tools are basicallyinstruments used for collecting the required information from the sampledpopulation. These instruments include questionnaire, interview, observation,check list and sometimes documents. Students are required to clearly mentionthe scales used for the development of questionnaire in research report proposal.7) Data CollectionData collection is a term used to describe a process of preparing and collectingbusiness. A formal data collection process is necessary as it ensures that datagathered is both defined and accurate and that subsequent decisions based onarguments embodied in the findings are valid.DATA COLLECTION TOOLS & TECHNIQUESAdministering written questionnairesA written questionnaire (also referred to as self-administered questionnaire) is a data collection tool in which written questions are presented that are to be answered by the respondents in written form.A written questionnaire can be administered in different ways, such as by: • Sending questionnaires by mail with clear instructions on how to answer the questions and asking for mailed responses; • Gathering all or part of the respondents in one place at one time, giving oral or written instructions, and letting the respondents fill out the questionnaires; or • Hand-delivering questionnaires to respondents and collecting them later.The questions can be either open-ended or closed (with pre-categorisedanswers). 30
  31. 31. Types of questionnaire:There are several types of questionnaire and each is designed to explore differentaspects or elicit different responses. Some of the more common include: 1. Dichotomous Multiple choice 2. Importance 3. Bipolar 4. Likert 5. Rating scale 1 - 5 6. Buying propensityThese can be used in any combination as long as the questionnaire is not too longand it is focussed. In the fictitious examples below the data is merely illustrative.DichotomousThis is a fairly typical basic type of question, not too intrusive and merely asksyou to answer yes or no. As such it cannot assess the degree of feelings inbetween the poles:Do you have a salary bank Account with National Bank? YeYes s NoMultiple choicesThis is a question offering three or more answers - and allows a greater breadthof response. How did you first hear about Bank’s web site services? 1. Television 2. Radio 1 3. Newspaper 4. Magazine 5. 4 Internet 6. Other: Please Specify _______________ 31
  32. 32. 6 Importance In this type of question the respondent is asked to rate the importance of an issue to them on a scale of 1 to 5 Having another branch of National Bank in my Town 1 2 33 4 5 Extremely Very Somewhat Not very Not at all Important Important Important Important Important Bipolar The question asks for a response to be marked between two opposite ends of the scale: How would you describe the local branch of National Bank: Conveniently _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Inconveniently Friendly Unfriendly Service Oriented Unhelpful Efficient Inefficient Likert This question examines how strongly the respondent agrees with a statement and can help assess the feelings of customers towards issues.Development Financial Institutions generally give better services than banks?Strongly Agree Neither agree Disagree Disagre StronglyAgreed nor disagree e Disagree 1 2 3 4 5 4 32
  33. 33. Rating scale This question type rates the replies in terms of a scale from e.g. poor to first class. As with all these types of questions it is sometimes necessary to have an even number of boxes. To avoid the middle of the road response, commonly taken by those trying to avoid making a stand.How would you rate the services of your local branch of national bank?First Class Good Fair Poor Very Poor Good 1 22 3 4 5 Buying propensity This type of question is trying to elicit a customers future intentions by asking whether they might buy a product and can help assess the needs and likely take up of a new product if developed. Care needs to be taken with these questions as they may reflect wants rather than needs! If National Bank of Pakistan offers credit card facility, would you be more likely to avail it? Definitely Probably Be unsure Probably Not Definitely Not Probably 1 2 3 4 5 2 All of the above are quantitative type questions. What they ask is for a response within pre-defined parameters that allows input into spreadsheets and hard analysis. Although this facilitates the input into data analysis sheets and subsequent number crunching - the respondent is not allowed to say what they think. They can only answer the question by marking the pre-designated boxes. 33
  34. 34. Qualitative questions can allow more freedom for answers but are much harderto analyze as each respondent will use his/her own words. Often the questionwill be couched along the lines of: Describe in your own words your opinion of National Bank’s local branch. ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________This has the advantage that the respondent can say what s/he likes, which canyield very interesting information that might not have been thought of at designphase; but on the other side, that s/he can also respond in an unlimited andoften unconstructive manner, making analysis much harder. Whichever questiontypes are used they must always be designed with the express intention of: 1. inconveniencing the customer/respondents as little as possible; 2. being aimed at an homogeneous segment; and 3. Having been designed to elicit specific information that supports your marketing initiative.CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATIONData analysis can be descriptive, graphic and statistical. Often a combination ofall three forms is used. The analysis portion of the research report should bedescribed in detail. Each question requires its own analysis. Each questionshould be answered using above mentioned methods of analysis. Differenttechniques are used to analyze the data depending on the objectives of researchand research problem. The researcher must describe the technique or softwarewhich he/she has used for data analysis. 34
  35. 35. Results of your research must be presented clearly and concisely. Tables andfigures should be correctly presented. Results must be discussed in terms of yourresearch topic and objectives. There should be a relationship between results,problem statement, literature review and your research objective.CHAPTER 5: FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSAt the beginning of this chapter the purpose, objectives, questions, or hypothesesmust be presented in this form of a summary of the research study limitationsthat might have hindered or restricted the researcher. The conclusions are yourinterpretations of the meanings of the findings based on the data and theirrelationships to the literature, the problem, and the solution of the problem.Avoid to present recommendations based on your own beliefs and biases thatare not supported by your data. Recommendations must be based on the dataanalysis and must be compatible with the objectives of the study. There are twotypes of recommendations; first are the recommendations related to the study,second are the recommendations for other researchers.References:Students make a great mistake in referencing. The uniformity of referencing stylein a single draft of research report is always ignored by the students. It istherefore strongly recommended all over the world to use APA referencing stylefor all the references use in your text and in bibliography. A detailed guide hasbeen given in Appendix of this research manual for students’ guidance.PLAGIARISMIn case of project report is found to be a plagiarized (it happens if you copysomebody else’s work instead of doing your own) version of another projectreport, research work/text, etc. Published or unpublished, student’s candidatureshall be cancelled and s/he shall be debarred forever from admission to any ofthe University. In case of the plagiarism is proved after the award of the degree,the degree shall be cancel/withdrawn. HEC Plagiarism policy is given below; 35
  36. 36. HIGHER EDUCATION COMMISION PLAGIARISM POLICYPreambleHigher Education Commission in its efforts to improve the quality, credibilityand recognition of research work in Pakistan has devised this policy ofplagiarism. The policy consists of two components. The first component dealswith the unethical and illegal replication of the efforts of other researchers. Onthe other hand, it also proposes measures to guard against malicious and boguscomplaints to prevent victimization and prosecution of original researchers.Definition and ExplanationPlagiarism is defined as “taking and using the thoughts, writings and inventions of anotherperson as one’s own” (Concise Oxford Dictionary). Web based encyclopedia (Wikipedia)explains that within academia, plagiarism by students, professors or researchers isconsidered academic dishonesty or academic fraud and offenders are subject toacademic censure. For professors and researchers, who are supposed to be role modelsfor their students, plagiarism is a very serious offence and is punishable by sanctionsranging from suspension to termination along with the loss of credibility and integrity.Different Forms of PlagiarismVerbatim or near verbatim copying or purposely paraphrasing portions of anotherauthor’s papers or unpublished report without citing the exact reference. • Copying elements from other’s papers such as equations and illustrations. • Copying sentences without citing the source. • Verbatim copying from reports by citing but not clearly differentiating what text has been copied or not citing the source correctly. • To unacknowledged use of computer programmes, mathematical models/algorithms, computer software, macros, web pages, databases, mathematical derivations and calculations, designs models and the like. • Self plagiarism by verbatim or near verbatim re-use of significant portions of one’s own work without citing the original source. 36
  37. 37. Aim of the policyTo raise awareness about plagiarism amongst students, teachers and researchersand suggest means to avoid it. It also aims to discourage it by regulating andauthorizing punitive actions against those found guilty of the act.ApplicabilityThe policy is applicable to students, teachers, researchers and staff of allinstitutions and organizations in Pakistan who are involved in writing orpublishing their work. Any person listing his CV on the website or any currentpublication or applying for any benefit on the basis of published or presentedwork that is plagiarized will be liable to be punished as per prescribed rules.Responsibility of Institutions and OrganisationsAll institutions and organizations are responsible to apprise their students,researchers and staff of the definition, implications and resulting punishments ifthey are found guilty of plagiarism. Any University or Degree AwardingInstitution which does not adopt and implement this policy will have its degreederecognized by HEC.ReportingAlleged complaints about plagiarism can be made to HEC Quality AssuranceDivision or respective University/Organizations by emailing, post, fax or othermeans. Following information needs to be provided:• Complete reference of the plagiarized and allegedly plagiarized paper.• Name, designation, address, email address and telephone number of thecomplainant.Investigation and ImplementationThe complaints received through HEC or directly by a University will be dealtwith according to the procedure given below. The head of the University willhave discretion of not taking any action on anonymous complaints.The Vice Chancellor/Rector/Head of Organization will have an obligation to: 37
  38. 38. a) Constitute a Plagiarism Standing Committee consisting of 3 senior facultymembers, a subject specialist, a senior student (only if a student is beinginvestigated) and a nominee of the HEC. b) Provide the committee HEC’s guideline for functioning, clear terms of reference and every opportunity to use all foreseeable means to investigate the claim. c) The members of the committee are to sign confidentiality statement about the whole process of investigation. d) Provide opportunity to the author/authors under investigation and the complainant to justify their positions.The “Plagiarism Standing Committee” after finishing their investigationsaccording to the HEC’s provided terms will submit its report with clear cutfindings and recommendations. The Vice Chancellor will have the discretion toimplement the recommendations after approval through the statutory process.Plagiarism Penalties for Teachers, Researchers and StaffDepending upon the seriousness of the offence the committee will advise thecompetent authority to take one or a combination of the following disciplinaryactions against the offender:Major PenaltyIn severe cases where most of the paper or key results have been exactly copiedwithout giving the reference to the original work then a major penalty of;a) Dismissal from service need to be prescribed along withb) The offender may be black listed and may not be eligible for employment inany academic/research organization andc) The notification of black listed may be publicized in print media or differentwebsites at the discretion of Vice Chancellor.Moderate PenaltyIn case where some paragraphs including some key results have been copied, amoderate penalty of a) demotion to next lower grade, b) black listing of theguilty may be published at the discretion of the Vice Chancellor.Minor PenaltyIf only few paragraphs have been copied from an external source without givingreference to that work, a minor penalty of a) warning, b) freezing of all researchgrants for a specified period, c) promotions/annual increments may be stopped,d) HEC or the University may debar the offender from sponsorship of researchfunding, travel grant, supervision of Ph.D. students, scholarships, fellowship orany other funded program for a period deemed appropriate by the “PlagiarismStanding Committee”. 38
  39. 39. Plagiarism Penalties for studentsIn case a student is found guilty of the offence, the “Plagiarism StandingCommittee” depending upon the seriousness of the proven offence will advisethe Vice Chancellor to take anyone or a combination of following disciplinaryaction(s): i. In the case of thesis the responsibility of thesis will be of the student and not of the supervisor or members of the Supervisory Committee. ii. The offender may be expelled/rusticated from the University. iii. The offender relegated to a lower class, given a failure grade, fined deemed appropriate or warned in writing if it is a minor offence committed first time. iv. The degree of the student may be withdrawn if at any time it is proven that he or she presented plagiarized work in his/her Masters, M. Phil or PhD dissertation. v. Any Co-Author listing a paper in his/her resume and applied for a benefit will be equally responsible for any plagiarism committed.Size of the Final Project ReportThe research reports vary considerably for example a research report based onqualitative data may require longer data presentation and analysis rather thanresearch report based on quantitative data. The length of the research projectreport shall not be less than 18,000 – 20, 000 words.Arrangement/ Contents of Final Project ReportThe final project report should be submitted in spiral and the sequence /arrangement of the report is as follow:Title Page (Appendix – A)Attestation of authorship (Appendix – C)Declaration (Student) (Appendix – D)AbstractAcknowledgmentsDedicationTable of ContentsList of Tables1) Chapter 1 (Introduction) 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Background of Study 39
  40. 40. 1.3 Statement of the Problem 1.4 Objectives 1.5 Significance of the Study 1.6 Research Hypothesis or Research Question 1.7 Delimitation2) Chapter 2 (Review of Literature) (Appendix – B) 2.1 Sections based on natural topics or themes 2.2 Similar research studies 2.3 Literature giving the rationale 2.4 Short summary3) Chapter 3 (Research Methodology) 3.1 Research Design 3.2 Population 3.3 Sampling Technique/Procedures 3.4 Sampling Size 3.5 Research Instrument /Tools 3.6 Data Collection4) Chapter 4 (Data Analysis and Interpretation) 4.1 Demographic data and return percentages 4.2 Tables summarizing data 4.3 Figures, graphs, and charts pictorially depicting data 4.4 Narrative describing most important findings5) Chapter 5 (Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations) 5.1 Summary of findings 5.2 Conclusions 5.3 RecommendationsBibliography (Appendix E & F)Supplementary MaterialAppendices 40
  41. 41. TITLE PAGETitle page must have the research topic, name of the researcher, roll number,registration number, submitted to, month and year on which s/he submitted thedraft of synopsis and final project report, and address (student) must be written.See Appendix A.ABSTRACTThe abstract is the most crucial part of the report because anybody searching foryour research on a database or in a journal will usually read only the abstract.Therefore, it must summarize your research, results and conclusions in less than200 words.Sometimes it is good to think of it as a sample of your research rather than areview; it should inform the researcher that your article contains the informationthey need. There are a few ideas on how to write your abstract but the bestadvice is that you look at some journals relevant to your research and try toformat your abstract in a similar way. See appendix G.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTIt should be brief and must not exceed one page.TABLE OF CONTENTSThis section and is merely a breakdown of sections and subsections by pagenumber. For a short and straightforward paper it may not be necessary toinclude a contents page. But this is mandatory for a research report.Provide list of all the chapters and subchapters of your research report. Use ofapplication software (MS Word) can make this very easy for you and the readerof the research report. Please give roman numbers to preliminary pages andchapter 1 would be the page no.1. 41
  42. 42. See appendix H.LIST OF TABLESThe list of tables’ along with page numbers should exactly the same captions asthey appear in the text, so, that the reader of the report can find easily.LIST OF FIGURESThis list should also use exactly the same captions as they appear in the text, alsomention page numbers.LIST OF SYMBOLS, ABBREVIATIONS OR NOMENCLATURE (OPTIONAL)One and half spacing should be adopted for typing the matter under thisheading. Standard symbols, abbreviations etc should be used.CHAPTERSEach chapter should be given an appropriate title, and the chapter number andchapter name should be in CAPS, Bold with 16 Font. Tables and figures in achapter should be placed accordingly.APPENDICESMost reports have at least one appendix section to allow you to include data,figures and calculations without breaking the flow of the main body of thereport. Most researchers reading your report will not be too interested in theexact details, only the results. The appendix, however, allows somebodyinterested in your results to check your research more thoroughly. Appendicesshould be numbered e.g. Appendix A, B, and C etc. List of appendices may beprovided after list of figures. 42
  43. 43. DRAFTS AND CHECKINGSometimes, when you think that you have finished your report, it is a good ideato ask another person to read through it for you and pick out the obviousmistakes. They can give you input on your research paper format and it is alsovery easy to miss your own mistakes so an independent review is useful. Afterthis process you can finalize your first draft of the report.GRAMMAR AND SPELLINGEven though you are writing scientific reports, it is essential to the researchpaper format that your grammar and spelling are correct and readable. If yourreport is poorly written, people will tend to assume that your research is alsopoor and you are giving the assessor an easy excuse to give you a lower grade.Spell-checkers are good for an initial check on your language use but they are notpowerful enough to pick up every mistake. If you are not confident enoughabout your language skills to write a good report, "bribe" or pay somebody moreskilled to edit it for you, when youve finished your paper. Most studentsstudying English or other languages are only too happy to have the chance toearn a little money on the side.GRAPHSGraphs are one of the easiest ways to display your results and findings in an easyto understand format. Any graphs should take up a full page and be numberedas diagrams 1, 2 etc. They should be referred to by these descriptions in the bodyof the text. Graphs are not essential to the research paper format, but help youpresent your main points. Where relevant, graphs should include any error barsso that anybody reading your report can quickly see the degrees of significanceof your results. If you dont know what an error bar is, dont worry about this.Graphs are best kept as simple as possible and, in the computer age, should bedrawn with one of the many software programs available.You should not lose credit for using traditional pen and paper, but mostuniversities and schools will teach you how to utilize computer spreadsheetapplications and the saving in time and effort is worthwhile. 43
  44. 44. FORMAT OF THE PROJECT REPORTFormat and Style You will be required to abide by the following format and style as specified by the Department. ♣ Font Times New Roman ♣ Chapter Headings 16Bold CAPS ♣ Headings 14 Bold CAPS ♣ Sub-headings 14 Bold Normal (Do not italicize or underline the headings and sub-headings) ♣ Text 12 ♣ Paper quality offset paper 90 grams ♣ Paper size A4 – 213mm x 275mm ♣ Spacing Double ♣ Paragraphing Indented or justified and double space between paragraphs ♣ Binding - Evaluation Copy Spiral binding - Final Copy Hardbound covered with cloth - Colour of binding Dark Black or Navy Blue - Spine To contain student’s name, title of the Project, level and year ♣ Citation Manual APA (Appendix – E) Harvard (Appendix – F) ♣ Margins Left 1½” 3.8 cm Right 1” 2.5 cm Top 1¼” 3.2 cm Bottom 1” 2.5 cm 44
  45. 45. Appendix - A TITLE Font: Times New Roman Size: TOPIC 24 bold CAPS STUDENT’S NAME 18 bold CAPS Name of the Dept. 16 bold Name of the University 18 bold Spine 2”Name Title of the Project report TITLE OF THE PROJECT STUDENT’S NAME 1½” 1” Institute of Business and Management UET, Lahore 5 cm Year blank space 1” The Inner title would be the same, plus: i) Statement of Submission: Submission in partial fulfilment of the requirement for the degree of MS at the Institute of Business and Management UET, Lahore ii) Supervisor’s Name (iii) Month, Year 45
  46. 46. Appendix - BFont: Times New RomanSize: Chapter Headings 16 bold CAPS Headings 14 bold CAPS Sub-headings 14 bold Text 12Alignment Justified or IndentedSpacing DoubleParaphrasing Either indent or don’t but consistent(Do not italicize or underline the headings of sub-headings.) 2” CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 OVERVIEW It is understood that information needs arise when an individual finds himself in a problem situation, when he or she no longer can manage with the knowledge that he or she possess, (Talja 1992, P. 72). There are a lot of studies on mass media or mass communication throughout the world done but a few research studies conducted on ‘news-seeking patterns throughout the world, and especially in Pakistan. The present study is significant not only for the newspapers’ industries and readers, but it is also important for educational point of view. 1” Appendix - C Institute of Business and Management, 46
  47. 47. University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore ATTESTATION OF AUTHORSHIPI, Roll No. Registration No. A student of IB&MProgram in UET, solemnly declare that my Project Report entitled Is my own work and that, to the best of myknowledge and belief, it contains no material previously published or written byanother person. This report is not submitted already and shall not be submittedin future for obtaining a degree from same or another University or Institution. Ifit is found to be copied/plagiarized at later stage of any student enrolled in thesame or any other university, I shall be liable to face legal action before UnfairMean committee (UMC), as per IB&M,UET/HEC Rules and Regulations, and Iunderstand that if I am found guilty, my degree will be cancelled. Signature Name: Programme: Appendix – D 47
  48. 48. CERTIFICATE (from supervisor)The project report entitled “ ”, atIB&M,UET MS conducted by ____________________________ Roll No._______________, Registration No. _________________ Session _________ hasbeen completed under my guidance and I am satisfied with the quality ofstudent’s research work. Supervisor _________________________ Name Date: _________________ 48
  49. 49. Appendix – E ABSTRACTThe researcher in this thesis intended to study the effects of advertisements on Consumer’sbehaviour and tried to identify the components in the advertisements that affect theconsumer behaviour.Advertisements are messages that inform us about different things. We daily watchnumerous advertisements of consumer goods, places, services, hotels, books, food, clothesetc. They provide the path to a company so that it can bring it offering into limelight.Advertisement is everywhere in our daily life. When we pick newspaper we can see it there,if we tune into a radio we can hear advertisement there, if we switch on the TV we can watchthe advertisement there as well. If we are on a drive we can notice huge billboards along theroad side. Ads are not just to glitter and glamour; they in fact carry intended messages, whichdirectly or indirectly work as persuasive communication.In first chapter titled Introduction of Report shows the basic information about the projectsuch a background of the study, purpose of study, statement of the problem, researchquestion and delimitations.The second chapter titled the Literature Review describes theories, historical background,categories, functioning and types of advertising, also a brief introduction and history ofProctor and Gamble (The Organization).The third chapter includes research methodology, research design, sampling and datacollection.The fourth chapter includes the data analysis and its interpretation.The fifth chapter is composed of the findings, conclusions and recommendations.At the end of the report bibliography and appendices are included. 49
  50. 50. A sample Table of Contents is given as under: Appendix – F TABLE OF CONTENTSTitle i.Abstract iiDedication iiiAcknowledgement ivCertificate vDeclaration viCHAPTTER 1 11.1 INTRODUCTION 21.2 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 21.3 HISTORICAL BACK GROUND OF STUDY 21.4 CATEGORIES OF ADVERTISING 2 1.4.1 Immediate Action 4 1.4.2 Awareness 8 1.4.3 Image 9CHAPTER-2 102.1 LITERATURE REVIEW 112.2 ADVERTISEMENT 17 2.2.1 Paid Form 20 2.2.2 Non-Personal Presentation 24 2.2.3 Ideas, Goods, and Services 39 2.2.4 An Identified Sponsor 51CHAPTER – 3 521.1 POPULATION 531.2 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE 561.3 SAMPLE SIZE 581.4 PROBLEM FACED 601.5 USES OF COMPUTER APPLICATION 75CHAPTER – 4 76DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETTATION 774.1 Demographic Information of Respondents 78 4.1.1 Gender of the Respondents 79 4.1.2 Cross-tabulation of Gender with Age of Respondents 87 4.1.3 Cross-tabulation of Gender with Qualification of 93 RespondentsCHAPTER – 5 945.1 FINDINGS 955.2 CONCLUSION 995.3 RECOMMENDATIONS 102Bibliography 105Appendices 107 Appendix A 108 Appendix B 109 50
  51. 51. APA Citation End Note X1 Books In-Text Example Reference List Example (which reference type?)Single author The theory was first propounded in 1993 Comfort, A. (1997). A good age. London: Mitchell Beazley. Book (Comfort, 1997, p. 58) OR Comfort (1997, p. 58) claimed that…2 authors Madden and Hogan (1997, p.17)…. Madden, R., & Hogan, T. (1997). The definition of Book OR disability in Australia: Moving towards national “… to achieve consistency” (Madden consistency. Canberra: Australian Institute of Health & Hogan, 1997, p. 45). and Welfare.3, 4 or 5 authors Guerin, Labor, Morgan, Reesman, and Guerin, W. L., Labor, E., Morgan, L., Reesman, J. C., & Book Willingham (2005, p. 6) found … Willingham, J. R. (2005). A handbook of critical Cite all authors the first time approaches to literature. New York: Oxford the reference occurs. University Press. Guerin et al. (2005, p. 6) found … In subsequent citations, include only the surname of the first author followed by et al. (not italicized and with a fullstop after “al”) and the year.6 or more authors (Rodgers et al., 1996, p. 35) Rodgers, P., Smith, K., Williams, D., Conway, L., Book Robinson, W., Franks, F., et al. (2002). The way forward for Australian libraries. Perth: Wombat Press.No author (Employment the Professional Way, Employment the professional way: A guide to understanding Book 2000) the Australian job search process for OR professionally qualified migrants. (2000). Carlton, the book Employment the Professional Victoria: Australian Multicultural Foundation. Way (2000)Multiple works by University research (Brown, 1982, 1988) Brown, P. (1982). Corals in the Capricorn group. Booksame author has indicated that… Rockhampton: Central Queensland University. Brown, P. (1988). The effects of anchor on corals. Rockhampton: Central Queensland University. Order chronologically in the reference list.Multiple works In recent reports (Napier, 1993a, 1993b) Napier, A. (1993a). Fatal storm. Sydney: Allen & Unwin. Bookpublished in the …same year by the Napier, A. (1993b). Survival at sea. Sydney: Allen & Unwin.same author Use a/b etc. to differentiate between works in same year. Order alphabetically by title in the reference list.Editor (Kastenbaum, 1993, p. 51) Kastenbaum, R. (Ed.). (1993). Encyclopedia of Edited Book adult development. Phoenix: Oryx Press.Different Editions (Renton, 2004, p. 51) Renton, N. (2004). Compendium of good writing (3rd ed.). Book Milton: John Wiley & Sons. An edition number is placed after the title of the work - this is not necessary for a first edition.Encyclopedia or The new Grove dictionary of music and Sadie, S. (Ed.). (1980). The new Grove dictionary of Edited BookDictionary musicians (1980, p.85) defined it as… th music and musicians (6 ed., Vols. 1-20). London: Macmillan.Article or chapter As discussed by Blaxter (1976)… Blaxter, M. (1976). Social class and health inequalities. In C. Book Sectionin a book Carter & J. Peel (Eds.), Equalities and inequalities in health (pp. 120-135). London: Academic Press. 51
  52. 52. Article or chapter (“Solving the Y2K Problem,” 1997) Solving the Y2K problem. (1997). In D. Bowd (Ed.), Book Sectionin a book – Technology today and tomorrow (p. 27). New York:no author Van Nostrand Reinhold.Brochure (Research and Training Centre, 1993, p. Research and Training Centre on Independent Living. (1993). Book 2) Guidelines for reporting and writing about th (put Author in people with disabilities (4 ed.) [Brochure]. Publisher) Melbourne: Author. You will need to The word ‘Author’ is used as the publisher when manually type the author and publisher are the same. [Brochure] after the title. E-book (Pettinger, 2002, p. 45) Pettinger, R. (2002). Global organizations. Oxford: Electronic Book Capstone Publishing. Retrieved September 28, 2004, (put September 28, 2004 in the from Date Accessed field, NetLibrary NetLibrary database. in Name of Database.) Thesis (Jones, 1998, p. 89) Jones, F. (1998). The mechanism of Bayer residue Thesis flocculation. PhD Thesis. Curtin University of Technology. Retrieved December 21, (put PhD Thesis in Thesis 2005, from Curtin University of Technology Type, December 21, 2005 in Digital Theses. Access Date, Curtin University of Technology Digital Theses in URL.) Conference (Cutler, Frolich, & Hanrahan, Cutler, L. D., Frolich, B., & Hanrahan, P. (1997, Conference Proceeding Proceeding 1997) January 16). Two-handed direct manipulation OR on the responsive workbench. Paper presented (put 1997, January 16 in As discussed by Cutler, Frolich at the 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Year of Conference, Two- and Graphics, Stanford, CA. Retrieved June 12, handed direct manipulation Hanrahan (1997) 2000, from ProQuest 5000 database. on the responsive workbench in Title, 1997 Symposium on Interactive 3D Graphics in Conference Name, Stanford, CA in Conference Location, June 12, 2000 in Access Date, ProQuest 5000 in Name of Database.) Image in a book The poster “The 3 dark years” Sexton, M. (2005). The great crash: The short life Book (Sexton, and sudden death of the Whitlam 2005, p. 184) government. Melbourne: Scribe Publications. End Note X1 (which reference Print Journals In-Text Example Reference List Example type?) Article As mentioned by Wharton Wharton, N. (1996). Health and safety in Journal Article (1996)… outdoor activity centres. Journal of OR Adventure Education and Outdoor “… when abseiling” (Wharton, Leadership, 12(4), 8-9. 1996, p. Article – no author 8). a growing It’s Anorexia nervosa. (1969). British Medical Journal, Journal Article problem in the U.K. 1, 529-530. (“Anorexia Nervosa,” 1969)…Newspaper article (Towers, 2000) Towers, K. (2000, January 18). Doctor not at fault: Coroner. Newspaper Article The Australian, p. 3.Newspaper article – (“Rate Rise,” 2005) Rate rise scares new home buyers away. (2005, April 29). Newspaper Articleno author Sydney Morning Herald, p. 35. 52